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[Vol. I., p- 260. Frontispiece. 













THE present work was commenced many years ago as 
one of a series on the subject of the history of the 
Pottery of all nations. It comprises the principal 
features in the history of the art, from the most ancient 
period till the decadence of the Roman Empire. In the 
Oriental division it embraces the pottery of Egypt and 
Assyria the two great centres of primaeval civilisation. 
In classical antiquity it treats on the pottery of Greece 
and Rome ; it ends by a concise account of that of the 
Celtic and Teutonic nations. A work has been long 
required which should embody the general history of 
the fictile art of the ancients, combine the information 
scattered through many memoirs and treatises, and give 
one continuous account of the rise and progress of this 
branch of archaeology. The technical portion of the 
subject has been already elaborately treated by M. 
Brongniart, and others, and the relation of this art to 
literature has been the repeated object of the investi- 
gations of fhe learned for the last two centuries. 


The great advance recently made in the science of 
archaeology, by the more accurate record of discoveries, 
the great excavations made upon ancient sites, the new 
light thrown upon the subject by deeper and more 
minute examination of ancient authors and inscriptions, 
added to the immense quantity of fictile remains now 
existing in the Museums of Europe, and the collections of 
individuals, has given to this branch of the study of 
antiquity a more important place than it formerly occu- 
pied. To render the work available to those who wish 
to pursue the investigation further, the author has added 
references to all statements of the principal facts, and 
appendices and lists of the most important inscriptions on 
vases and other terra-cotta objects. He cannot close his 
labours without thanking many friends, and acknowledg- 
ing the assistance and information he has received from 
several amongst whom he must name, Miss Cornwallis, 
Mr. Layard, Mr. Newton, Mr. Norris, Mr. Dyer, Mr. A. W. 
Franks, Mr. K E. Hamilton, and Mr. Vaux. To the late 
Mr. Bandinel he was also more particularly indebted, as 
it was at his suggestion and advice that he undertook so 
grave a task. He can only deplore that he was not 
spared to aid him by his counsel, and see the completion 
of one portion of his great project. 

LONDON, Oct. 19, 1857. 






Antiquity of the art Unbaked bricks ; material, size, fabric ; stamps and 
inscriptions Figures and other objects in sun-dried clay Baked clay ; 
red un glazed terra-cotta; bricks; sarcophagi; sepulchral cones; in- 
scriptions ; sepulchral figures ; sepulchral vases Vases for liquids, &c., 
pots, bottles, amphorae Mode of manufacture ; lamps ; architectural 
ornaments ; polished pottery ; red variety 


Glazed Ware Analysis Glaze Colouring matter Use of glazed ware in 
architecture and inlaying Vases of various kinds from the Sarabut 
El Khadem Greco-Egyptian vases Inscribed tiles Toys and 
draughtsmen Amulets, beads, bugles, pectoral plates, scarabsei, &c. 
Small figures of the gods porcelain finger- rings Sepulchral figures 
Glazed stone vases, rings and other ornaments of this material . 


Assyrian pottery Sun-dried clay Kiln-baked bricks Inscriptions Terra- 
cotta writings Unglazed pottery Terra-cotta figures Glazed ware 
Bricks Vases Enamelled bricks. Babylonian pottery Sun-dried 



bricks Kiln-baked bricks Unglazed ware Babylonian writings Bas- 
reliefs and figures in terra-cotta Glazed ware Coffins Jewish pot- 
tery Phoenician pottery 105 




Etymology Division of the subject Sun-dried clay Terra-cotta Bricks 
and tiles Friezes Statues and figures Colouring Subjects 
Reliefs Prices Cattle Cones Dolls Lamps 157 


Greek vases Casks Various kinds of vases Amphorae Stamps Names 
of magistrates Emblems Cnidian amphorso Stamps Thasian 
amphorae Panticapaean amphorae discovered at Olbia Bosphoran 
Heraclean Teuthranian Sinopean Corinthian Miscellaneous 
Sepulchral vases 187 


Glazed vases Number of extant vases Places of discovery Tombs 
Literary history Present condition Frauds of dealers Earliest men- 
tion of Greek vases Ancient repairs Age Criteria Classification of 
D'Hancarville of the Due de Luynes Paste Clays Sites The 
potter's wheel Modelling Moulding Moulded rhyta, phialse 
Painting Tools Colours Glaze Furnaces ...... 208 


Glazed vases continued Rise of the art in Greece Painting of vases- 
Earliest style, brown figures Second period, maroon figures De- 
velopment-Earliest black figures Doric style Old style, later black 
figures Cream-coloured ground and black figures Red figures 
Strong style Fine style Florid style Polychrome vases Decadence 
Mode of treatment Progress of painting ...... 251 




Glazed vases continued Subjects Carved wooden and metal vases Dif- 
ficulty of the inquiry Sources Various hypotheses Millingen's 
division of subjects Panofka's division Compositions embracing 
entire myths Fra^ois vase Method Gigantomachia Subjects with 
Zeus Hera Athene Poseidon Demeter and Kora Delphic deities, 
Apollo Artemis Hephaistos Ares Aphrodite Hermes Hestia 
Dionysos Sileni, Nymphs and Satyrs Pan Bacchanals on Lucanian 
vases Marsyas Erotes Charites Muses Hygieia Ericthonius 
Cabeiri Atlas Prometheus Hades Moirai Erinnyes Hypnos 
Thanatos The Keres Hecate Gorgons Helios Heos Nereus 
Triton Glaucos Pontios Scylla Naiads Personifications . . 308 


Glazed vases Subjects continued Heroic legends the Heracleid Attic 
legends the Theseid the Cadmeid Legend of CEdipus Thebaid 
Various Theban legends Myth of Athamas Legends of Northern 
Greece Argonautic expedition Calydonian boar Cephalleniac tra- 
ditions Bellerophon Perseid Pelopeid Dioscuri Centauromachia 
Minotaur Hyperborean legends Phrygian legends Orpheus and 
Eurydice Troica Ante-Homerica Homerica Post-Homerica 
Unidentified subjects the Nostoi Odyssey Telegonia Oresteia 
Semi-mythic period Historical subjects Religious rites Civil life 
The Palaestra Pentathlon Dramatic subjects Banquets War 
Immoral scenes Temples Animals Relation of the subjects to 
Hellenic literature Homeric poems JEthiopica Cyclic poems 
Cypria Hesiod's poems Poems of Stesichorus Epigrams and fables 
Threnai Emblems, attributes, costume, &c. Expression Scenery 
or adjuncts 350 











1 Brick stamped with the prseno- 


men of Thotmes III. 

2 Brick from the Pyramid 

Illahoon . 

3 Brick stamp bearing the praeno- 

men of Amenophis III. 

4 Brick -making. Tomb at Thebes 

5 Brick arch. Thebes . 

6 Sepulchral cones 

7 Cone, showing the inscription . 

8 Embalmer's model coffin 

9 Vase in shape of Tuautmutf . 

10 Ibis-mummy pot 

11 Group of plain terra-cotta vases 

1 2 Group of vases of unglazed terra- 


13 Bottle of unglazed ware, orna- 

mented with grotesque head 
of Typhon . 

14 Pithos, on a stand 

15 Vase for holding oil, in unglazed 

terra-cotta .... 

16 Pottery. From a tomb at Beni- 

17 Painted vase of unglazed ware 

18 Painted jug .... 

19 Painted vase . . . . 

20 Double cruse of glazed ware . 

21 Bowl of red polished ware 

22 Jar-shaped vase 

23 Bottle of red polished terra- 

cotta, in form of a lady play- 
ing on a guitar . 

24 Gourd-shaped vase 

25 Vase of red terra-cotta, in shape 

of a chffitodon or latus 

26 Wine jug of polished red ware . 

27 Fine glazed red ware 











. Page 168 
. 249 
. 270 
. 279 


28 Balsam vase of red ware 

29 Bottle in its stand of polished 

red ware . . . .61 

30 Fragment of a Grseco-Egyptian 

cup 62 

31 Tile for inlaying, inverted, to 

show manner of insertion . 69 

32 Inlaying tile of dark porcelain 

from the Pyramid of Saqqara 69 

33 Beard of blue porcelain . . 71 

34 Porcelain finger for inlaying . 71 

35 Coffin of Horus ; eyes and beard 

inlaid with porcelain . . 71 

36 Stibium case . . . . 73 

37 Painter's pallet of blue por- 

celain . . . .74 

38 Stand of four little vases . . 74 

39 Aryballos . . . .75 

40 Bowl of blue porcelain, orna- 

mented with flowers . .77 

41 Bowl ornamented with fish and 

plants . . . .77 

42 Bowl inlaid with titles of Ram- 

eses II. . . . .77 

43 Draughtsman, of blue porcelain 79 

44 Draughtsman, having the head 

of a cat . . . .79 

45 Striped ball of blue porcelain . 79 

46 Toy in shape of a date of the 

doum-palm . . .79 

47 Toy or ornament in blue por- 

celain in shape of an egg . 79 

48 Beads in shape of fruit and 

flowers 83 

49 Pectoral plate from a mummy . 84 

50 Kabhsenuf, from a bead work . 86 

51 Tauti (Thoth) ... 87 

52 Tahur (Thoueris) . . . 87 



53 Tauti (Thoth) ... 87 

54 Porcelain finger-ring . . . 90 

55 Ring of red porcelain, with the 

name of Ankhutamen, of the 
18th dynasty ... 90 

56 Sepulchral figure . . . 93 

57 Porcelain sepulchral figure in 

shape of a mummy . , 93 

58 Sepulchral figure with slab be- 

hind 93 

59 Sepulchral figure of the 19th 

dynasty . . .94 

60 Sepulchral figure of the 20th 

dynasty . . . .94 

61 Vase of glazed schist bearing 

name and title of Thothmes I. 98 

62 Scarabaeus of glazed steaschist 

set in a signet ring . .99 

63 Hexagonal prism, inscribed 

with the records of a king's 
reign. From Kouyunjik . 113 

64 Terra-cotta tablet sealed by a 

cylinder .... 114 

65 Inscription of edge of No. 67 . 115 

66 Terra-cotta tablet impressed 

with seals .... 115 

67 Terra-cotta tablet with seals . 115 

68 Seal from Kouyunjik . .117 

69 Seal from Kouyunjik . . . 117 

70 Inscribed seal from Kouynnjik 117 

71 Seal of Sabaco and Sennacherib 118 

72 Egyptian seal enlarged . .118 

73 Egyptian seal . . . . 118 

74 Back of seal, with marks of 

cords and fingers . .118 

75 Small heart-shaped vase . .119 

76 Bowl covered with a coating 

and polished . . .119 

77 Group of Assyrian vases . .121 

78 Lamp from Nimrud . . 122 

79 Bowl with Chaldee inscription . 123 

80 Bowl with Hebrew inscription . 123 

81 Bowl with Syriac inscription . 123 

82 Stamp on a vase, apparently 

Sassanian .... 123 

83 Terra-cotta figures of Assyrian 

Yenus . . . .324 

84 Terra-cotta dog. From Kou- 

yunjik . .... 125 

85 Blue corbel . . . .127 
85aVase discovered in tombs of the 

central mound at Nimrud . 129 
856 Brick stamped with the name of 

Nebuchadnessar . . .134 

85cBirs Nimrud, restored . . 135 

86 The Mujellibe or Kasr . .136 

87 Terra-cotta horn . . .141 

88 Bas-relief of man and dog . 147 

89 Glazed ArybaUos . . . 148 

90 Supposed Sassanian coflSn . 150 

91 Cover of cofiin . . . 150 


92 Supposed Sassanian cofiin . 151 

93 Terra-cotta model of a cofibi . 151 

94 Interior of inscribed bowl . 1 53 

95 Cruse of polished ware . .155 

96 Cornice with lion's head . . 162 

97 Spout in shape of the forepart 

of a lion .... 163 

98 Terra-cotta figure of Pallas- 

Athene . . . .172 

99 Coloured figure of Aphrodite . 175 

100 Cones. From Corcyra . .181 

101 Terra-cotta doll, from Athens . 183 

102 Pithos of Diogenes . . .188 

103 Stamped handle of amphorae . 191 

104 Rhodian stamp. Head of 

Apollo Helios . . . 192 

105 Rhodian stamp. Rose . .192 

106 Cnidian lozenge-shaped label . 196 

107 Cnidian square label . .196 

108 Circular stamp with bull's head 200 

110 Painted kernos . . . . 206 

111 Tomb at Veii, containing vases . 211 

112 Tomb of Southern Italy, with 

vases . . . .211 

113 Tomb of Southern Italy, with 

skeleton and vases . .214 

114 Potter moulding the handle of 

a cup .... 233 

115 Situla, with stamped ornaments 234 

116 Moulded phiale omphalotos 

chariots of gods . . . 237 

117 Askos, moulded lion'sheadspout 238 

118 Early moulded vase, in shape of 

Aphrodite .... 240 

119 Fragment, prepared for paint- 

ing the background . . 244 

120 Diota of the earliest style . .252 

121 Cylix of the earliest style . 253 

122 CEnochoe of the earliest style . 255 

123 Two-handled vase with lions . 257 

124 CEnochoe, showing animals and 

flowers .... 260 

125 Group of vases of archaic style, 

exhibiting the principal 
shapes .... 261 

126 Aryballos, lions and flower . 262 

127 Cover of vase, with boar-hunt . 263 

128 Animals, from the wall paint- 

ings at Veii . . . 265 

129 Men and animals, from the wall 

paintings at Veii . . 266 

130 Scene of water-drawing from a 

hydria .... 273 

131 .2neas bearing off Anchises . 274 

132 Imbrex of the old style . . 275 

133 Cylix, with Gorgon and eyes . 280 

134 Interior of a Cvlix, Peleus and 

Thetis . . . .281 

135 Departure of Achilles . . 284 

136 Last night of Troy . . .287 

137 Last night of Troy . . . 289 


The numbers of the Cuts are those of the List of Illustrations. 

Page ix., line 8, for "Ericthonius," read " Erichthonius. " 

,, xi., liae 10, for "Thotmes," read " Thothmes." 

,, 18, note 1, for "Leeman." read "Leemans," 
,, 21, note 1, prefix "1." 

,, 23, line 12, and page 35, line 21, for " Thotmes," read " Thothmes. 

,, 56, note 3, prefix "3." And page 59, note 2, prefix "2." 

,, 61, line 15, for " Mangnesia," read "Magnesia." 
,, 64, for "Jeremiah," read "Ezekiel." 

,, 136, No. 86, for " Exhibiting, " read "Exhibiting." 

,, 167, line 2, for "Erectheum," read "Erechthenm," 

,, 212, line 17, for "varies," read "vary." 

,, 282, line 1, for " style," read "style. 1 " 

,, 283, line 2, for "crimson," read "crimson. 1 " 

,, 308, line 8, for "Ericthonius," read "Erichthonius." . 

,, 316, note 2, line 10, for " Archaeolgische," read " Archaologische." 

,, 356, last line, for "Erectheus," read " Erechtheus." 

,, 357, line 16, for "Ericthonius," read "Erichthonius." 

,, 358, line 7, for "Ericthonius," read "Erichthonius." 

,, 360, line 2, for "Erectheum," read " Erechtheum." 

,, ,, line 3, for "Ericthonius," read "Erichthonius." 

,, ,, line 4, for "CALLIRHOE," read " CALLIRRHOB." 

371, note 5, line 7, before " F," add " V." 

,, 373, line 5, for "Mononachia," read "Monomachia." 

,, 376, line 11, for "Oileus," read "Oileus." 

,, 383, line 2, for "Ericthonius," read "Erichthonius." 

,, 391, line 12, for "Syren," read "Siren." 


To trace the history of the art of working in clay, 
from its rise amongst the oldest nations of antiquity till 
the period of the decline of the Roman empire, is 
the object of the present work. The subject resolves 
itself into two great divisions, which have engaged the 
attention of two distinct classes of inquirers ; namely, the 
technical or scientific part, comprising all the details of 
material, manipulation, and processes ; and, secondly, the 
historical portion, which embraces not only the history of 
the art itself, and the application of ancient literature to 
its elucidation, but also an account of the light thrown by 
monuments in clay on the history of mankind. The 
inquiry, therefore, is neither deficient in dignity, nor 
limited to trifling investigations, nor rewarded with insig- 
nificant results. A knowledge of the origin and progress 
of any branch of art must always be of immense importance 
to its future development and improvement ; and this is 
particularly true of the art of working in clay, both from 
its universal diffusion, and from the indestructible nature 
of its products. 

It is impossible to determine when the manufacture was 

VOL. I. 


invented. Clay is a material so generally diffused, and its 
plastic nature so easily discovered, that the art of working 
it does not exceed the intelligence of the rudest savage. 
The baking of it, so as to give it an indestructible 
tenacity, must have been a great stride in the art, 
and was probably discovered by accident rather than by 
design. In few countries is the condition of the atmo- 
sphere such that objects of sun-dried clay can survive a 
single winter ; and, however applicable to the purposes of 
architecture, such a material was unavailable for vessels 
destined to hold liquids. Egypt, Assyria, and Babylonia, 
the triple cradle of the human race, have alone transmitted 
to posterity the sun-dried products which represent the 
first efforts of the art. 

From the necessity for symmetrical buildings arose the 
invention of the brick, which must have superseded the 
rude plastering of the hut with clay, to protect it against 
the sun or storm. In the history of the Semitic nations, 
of the Babylonians, and of the Phrenicians, the brick is 
classed amongst the earlier inventions of the art, and has 
descended, with various modifications, from the building 
of the Tower of Babel to the present day. It is essential 
that bricks should be symmetrical, and their form is 
generally rectangular. From their geometrical shape, 
they have preserved the canon of ancient measure ; while 
the various inscriptions with which they have been stamped 
have elevated them to the dignity of historical monuments. 
Thus the bricks of Egypt not only afford testimony to the 
truth of Scripture by their composition of straw and clay, 
but also, by the hieroglyphs impressed upon them, transmit 
the names of a series of kings, and testify the existence of 


edifices, all knowledge of which, except for these relics, 
would have utterly perished. Those of Assyria and 
Babylon, in addition to" the same information, have, by 
their cuneiform inscriptions, which mention the locality of 
the edifices for which they were made, afforded the means 
of tracing the sites of ancient Mesopotamia and Assyria 
with an accuracy unattainable by any other means. When 
the brick was ornamented, as in Assyria, with glazed 
representations, this apparently insignificant, but impe- 
rishable object, has confirmed the descriptions of the walls 
of Babylon, which critical scepticism had denounced as 
fabulous. The Roman bricks have also borne their tes- 
timony to history. A large number of them present a series 
of the names of consuls of imperial Rome ; while others 
show that the proud nobility of the eternal city partly 
derived their revenues from the kilns of their Campanian 
and Sabine farms. 

From the next step in the progress of the manufacture, 
namely, that of modelling in clay the forms of the physical 
world, arose the plastic art ; to which the symbolical pan- 
theism of the old world gave an extension almost universal. 
Delicate as is the touch of the finger, which the clay seems 
to obey, and even by its servility to comprehend the in- 
tention of the potter's mind, yet certain touches which 
required a finer point than the nail, caused the use of 
pieces of horn, wood, and metal, and thus gave rise to the 
invention of tools. But modelling in clay was soon com- 
pletely superseded by sculpture in stone and metal, and at 
length only answered two subordinate ends ; that of 
enabling the sculptor to elaborate his first conceptions in 
a material which could be modified at will ; and that of 

B 2 


producing in a small form, and in a rapid and cheap 
manner, for popular use, copies of the master-pieces of 
ancient art. The invention of the mould carried this last 
application to perfection, and the terra-cottas of anti- 
quity were as numerous and as cheap as the plaster casts 
now sold by itinerants. 

The materials used for writing on have varied in dif- 
ferent ages and nations. Among the Egyptians slices of 
limestone, leather, linen, and papyrus, especially the last, 
were universally employed. The Greeks used bronze and 
stone for public monuments, wax for memorandums, and 
papyrus for the ordinary transactions of life. The kings of 
Pergamus adopted parchment, and the other nations of 
the ancient world chiefly depended on a supply of the 
paper of Egypt. But the Assyrians and Babylonians 
employed for their public archives, their astronomical 
computations, their religious dedications, their historical 
annals, and even for title-deeds and bills of exchange, 
tablets, cylinders, and hexagonal prisms of terra-cotta. 
Two of these cylinders, still extant, contain the history of 
the campaign of Sennacherib against the kingdom of 
Judah ; and two others, exhumed from the Birs Nimrud, 
give a detailed account of the dedication of the great 
temple by Nebuchadnezzar to the seven planets. To 
this indestructible material, and to the happy idea of 
employing it in this manner, the present age is indebted for 
a detailed history of the Assyrian monarchy ; whilst the 
decades of Livy, the plays of Meuander and the lays of 
Anacreon, confided to a more perishable material, have 
either wholly or partly disappeared amidst the wreck of 


The application of clay to the making of vases probably 
soon caused the invention of the potter's-wheel, before 
which period only vessels fashioned by the hand, and of 
rude unsymmetrical shape, could have been made. But 
the application of a circular lathe, laid horizontally and 
revolving on a central pivot, on which the clay was 
placed, and to which it adhered, was in its day a truly 
wonderful advance in the art. As the wheel spun round, 
all combinations of oval, spherical, and cylindrical forms 
could be produced, and the vases became not only sym- 
metrical in their proportions, but true in their capacity. 
The invention of the wheel has been ascribed to all the 
great nations of antiquity. It is represented in full 
activity in the Egyptian sculptures ; it is mentioned in 
the Scriptures, and was certainly in use at an early period 
in Assyria. The Greeks and Romans have attributed it 
to a Scythian philosopher, and to the States of Athens, 
Corinth, and Sicyon, the three great rivals in the ceramic 
art. The very oldest vases of Greece, some of which are 
supposed to have been made in the heroic ages, bear 
marks of having been turned upon the wheel. Indeed, it is 
not possible to find any Greek vases except those made by 
the wheel or by moulds ; which latter process was applied 
only at a late period to their production. 

Although none of the very ancient kilns have sur- 
vived the destructive influence of time, yet among 
all the great nations baked earthenware is of the 
highest antiquity. In Egypt, in the tombs of the first 
dynasties, vases and other remains of baked earthenware 
are abundantly found ; and in Assyria and Babylon, 
the oldest bricks and tablets have passed through 


the furnace. One of the poems of the Homeric age, 
addressed to the Samian potters, details in heroic bombast 
the baking of earthenware. The oldest remains of Hel- 
lenic pottery, whether in Asia Minor, as at Sipylus, or in 
the Peloponnese, as at Mycenae, owe their preservation to 
their having been subjected to the action of fire. To this 
process, as to the consummation of the art, the other 
processes of preparing, levigating, kneading, drying, and 
moulding the clay, must have been necessary preliminaries. 
The desire of rendering terra-cotta less porous, and of 
producing vases capable of retaining liquids, gave rise to 
the covering of it with a vitreous enamel or glaze. The 
invention of glass has been hitherto generally attributed 
to the Phoenicians : but opaque glasses or enamels, as 
old as the XVIIIth dynasty, and enamelled objects as 
early as the IVth, have been found in Egypt. The 
employment of copper to produce a brilliant blue coloured 
enamel was very early both in Babylonia and Assyria ; 
but the use of tin for a white enamel, as recently dis- 
covered in the enamelled bricks and vases of Babylonia 
and Assyria, anticipated by many centuries the redis- 
covery of that process in Europe in the 15th century, 
and shows the early application of metallic oxides. This 
invention apparently remained for many centuries a secret 
among the Eastern nations only, enamelled terra-cotta and 
glass forming articles of commercial export from Egypt 
and Pho3iiicia to every part of the Mediterranean. 
Among the Egyptians and Assyrians enamelling was used 
more frequently than glazing, and their works are con- 
sequently a kind of fayence consisting of a loose frit or 
body, to which an enamel adheres after only a slight 


fusion. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the art of 
enamelling terra-cotta disappeared amongst the Arab and 
Moorish races, who had retained a traditionary knowledge 
of the process. The application of a transparent vitreous 
coating, or glaze, over the entire surface, like the varnish 
of a picture, is also referable to a high antiquity, and was 
universally adopted either to enhance the beauty of single 
colours, or to promote the combination of many. Innu- 
merable fragments and remains of glazed vases, fabricated 
by the Greeks and Romans, not only prove the early use 
of glazing, but also exhibit in the present day many ot 
the noblest efforts of the potter's art. 

In the application of form in art, the Greeks have 
excelled all nations, either past or present. The beauty 
and simplicity of the shapes of their vases have caused 
them to be taken as models for various kinds of earthen- 
ware ; but as every civilised people has received from 
other sources forms sanctioned by time, and as many of 
the Greek forms cannot be adapted to the requirements 
of modern use, they have not been servilely imitated. 
Yet, to every eye familiar with works of art of the higher 
order, the cleverest imitations of nature, and the most 
elegant conceits of floral ornaments, whether exhibited in 
the efforts of Oriental or European potters, appear coarse 
and vulgar when contrasted with the chaste simplicity of 
the Greek forms. 

By the application of painting to vases, the Greeks 
made them something more than mere articles of com- 
mercial value or daily use. They have become a reflection 
of the paintings of the Greek schools, and an inexhaustible 
source for illustrating the mythology, manners, customs, 


and literature of Greece. Unfortunately, very few are 
ornamented with historical subjects ; yet history receives 
occasional illustration from them ; and the representa- 
tions of the burning of Croesus, the orgies of Anacreon, 
the wealth of Arcesilaus, and the meeting of Alcseus and 
Sappho, lead us to hope that future discoveries may offer 
additional examples. 

The Rhapsodists, the Cyclic poets, the great Tragedians, 
and the writers of Comedy, can be amply illustrated from 
these remains, which represent many scenes derived from 
their immortal productions ; and the obscurer traditions, 
preserved by the scholiasts and other compilers, receive 
unexpected elucidation from them. Even the Roman 
lamps and red ware, stamped with subjects in relief, 
present many remarkable representations of works of art, 
and many illustrations of customs and manners, and his- 
torical events ; such as the golden candlesticks of the 
Jews borne in the triumph of Titus, the celebration of the 
sa3cular games, and the amusements of the Circus and 



Antiquity of the art Unbaked bricks ; material, size, fabric ; stamps and inscrip- 
tions Figures and other objects in sun-dried clay Baked clay; red 
unglazed terra-cotta; bricks; sarcophagi; sepulchral cones; inscriptions; 
sepulchral figures ; sepulchral vases Vases for liquids, &c., pots, bottles, 
amphorae Mode of manufacture ; lamps ; architectural ornaments ; 
polished pottery ; red variety. 

THE inquiry must commence with Egypt, since the 
earliest specimens of the art belong to that country, and 
are of a period when Central Asia offered no material 
proofs of civilisation. There is a gulph of several cen- 
turies between the Pyramids and the palaces of Nimroud, 
while all that can be traced of Babylon belongs to an age 
still more recent. 

In Egypt the art of pottery is attributed, like the other 
arts and sciences, to the invention of the gods ; an 
unequivocal proof that it was in use before the historical 
period. Thus Thoth, or Hermes, taught man speech and 
writing ; Neith, the use of the loom ; Athor, music and 


dancing ; Amibis, the craft of the embalmer ; Isis, hus- 
bandry ; Osiris, the method of making wine ; whilst Num, 
the directing spirit of the universe, and oldest of created 
beings, first exercised the potter's art, and moulded the 
human race on his wheel. He had previously made the 
heavens and the earth, the air, the hills and streams, 
whence sprung the terrestrial gods ; and hung the sun 
and moon betwixt " the green sea and the azure vault," 
which Phtha, the artisan-god, had formed upon his lathe 
in the shape of an egg. Man was the last of his pro- 
ductions, whom he modelled out of the dark Nilotic clay, 
and into whose nostrils he breathed the breath of life. 

There is evidence that the existence of earthen vessels 
in Egypt was at least coeval with the formation of a 
written language. Several hieroglyphs represent various 
kinds of vessels of red earthenware ; and these signs date 
from the remote period of the third and fourth dynasties, 
whose epoch may be placed between B.C. 3000 2000. 
In sepulchres of the fourth and subsequent dynasties 
earthenware vessels are represented as employed for the 
ordinary purposes of domestic life ; as jugs for water and 
other liquids ; jars for wine and milk ; deep pans or 
bowls to serve up dressed viands ; and conical vessels on 
stands, round which is twined the favourite or national 
flower, the lotus. A series of monuments enables us to 
trace the development of the art from this period to that 
of the Roman empire ; whilst the manner in which it was 
exercised is practically illustrated by abundant specimens 
of many kinds of pottery. Vast mounds, or montes 
testacei, which lie around the ruined cities and temples, 
mark at once their former magnificence and grandeur, 


and the extraordinary abundance of the produce of 
this, art. Unfortunately neither these remains, nor the 
vases found in the tombs, have been examined and 
classed with that scientific accuracy which the subject 
deserves. The hieroglyphics are our principal guide, 
which give, within certain limits, the date of every 
inscribed specimen. These become the data for deter- 
mining the age of vases, the paste of which is of 
similar composition, and the type and ornaments of the 
same kind. 


The art of making bricks, which appears to have pre- 
ceded that of vases, is so intimately connected with it, 
that it is necessary to give some account of the principal 
varieties of bricks. In general they are rectangular 
plinths, curved forms being very rarely found in Egypt. 
The greater portion of them is made of unbaked clay, 
mixed with various substances to bind it together. In a 
climate like that of Egypt, where rain falls only four or five 
times, at most, during the year, such bricks sufficed to 
resist the weather, and retained their shape for centuries. 
Extensive ruins of edifices constructed of them are found 
in all parts of the country. The pyramids of Dashour, 
Illahoon, Howara, Aboo Roash, Drab Aboo Nagger, 1 the 
walls of Sais the fortresses at Samneh, Centra Pselcis, 
Hieraconpolis, Abydos, an(J El Haybeh those at the 
edifice called the Memnonium of Thebes several private 
tombs, and the great wall which enclosed Egypt on the 

1 Vyse, Journal, i. 8, 91 ; iii. 56. 


eastern side, extending a distance of 1500 stadia from 
Pelusium to Heliopolis, are constructed of them ; as well 
as the wall built by Sesostris across Egypt (now called the 
Gisr-el-Agoos), and a chapel at Ekmin l or Chemmis. The 
Fayoom and the Delta, which abounded with rich alluvial 
soil, and which are remote from the principal quarries, 
must have presented, at the most ancient period of the 
national history, the appearance of a vast brick-field. 
The mud brought down by the river was particularly 
adapted for bricks and pottery : when analysed, it has 
been found that about one-half is argillaceous earth, one- 
fourth carbonate of lime, while the residue consists of 
oxide of iron,, carbonate of magnesia, and water. Close 
to the river's banks it is much mixed with sand, which it 
loses in proportion as it is carried by the water farther 
from them, so that at a certain distance it consists of pure 
argil, or clay, which, at the present day, forms excellent 
bricks, tobacco-pipes, terra-cotta, and stucco. 2 Some of 
the earliest bricks were undoubtedly those made for the 
various brick pyramids, although it is not possible at 
present to determine the relative antiquity of all these 
edifices. Several, however, are tombs of monarchs of the 
Twelfth dynasty ; and at the period of the Eighteenth, 
the sepulchres were tunnelled in the rocks. These bricks 
are all parallelopipeda, of Nile-mud or clay, of a dark 
loamy colour, held together by chopped straw, either of 
wheat or barley, or else by means of broken fragments of 

1 Sir G. Wilkinson, in the Proceed. torn. ii. 406,) gives the following re- 
Roy. Soc. Lit. vol. iv. p. 94. Manners suits : Alumina, 48 ; carb. lime, 18 ; 
and Customs, i. 105. carb. magn. 4 ; silica, 4; ox. of iron, 6 

2 Malte Brun, iv. 26. The analysis carbon, 9; water 11 = 100. 
(Descr. de l'%ypte, folio, Paris, 1812, 



pottery. They were made by the usual process, and 
stamped out with a square box. All the bricks in the 
same pyramid are of the same size. 

No. 1. Brick stamped with the prse- 
iiomea of Thothmes III. 

No. 2. Brick from the Pyramid ol 

Unburnt bricks were found in the joints near the 
foundation of the third pyramid of Gizeh, built by 
Mycerinus, of the Fourth Memphite dynasty, and others 
near the building, some of which were 20 inches long. 
Those in the pyramid at Aboo Roash had no straw. 
The bricks of the pyramid at Saqqara had only a little 
straw on the outside. The pyramid of Howara was built 
of bricks, measuring 17-J inches long, 8f inches wide, 5-J 
inches thick, and containing much straw. That at Illa- 
hoon was also made of bricks composed of straw and 
Nile-mud, 16|- inches long, Sf inches wide, and 5^- inches 
thick. The Northern pyramid of Dashour, which seems, 
from the fragment of the construction there found, to 
have been the sepulchre of a monarch of the Twelfth 


dynasty, was built of bricks, from 4j inches to 5j inches 
thick, 8 inches wide, and 16 inches long. Particular 
marks were found upon them according to their quality, 
whether formed of alluvial soil only, or of sand mixed 
with alluvial soil in two different proportions ; others 
were mixed with straw and made of a dark tenacious 
earth. This is, perhaps, the pyramid, the bricks of which 
were said in the legend to be formed of the mud deposited 
by the Nile in the Lake Mceris. Those of the Southern 
pyramid at Dashour measured 1 5^ inches long, by 7 f inches 
wide, and 5^ inches thick, or 13^ inches long by 6^ inches 
wide, and 4^ inches thick, and contained a great deal of 
straw. Most of them had been made of rubbish, containing 
broken red pottery and pieces of stone. The kinds were 
distinguished by various marks made with the finger on 
the brick before it was dry. In one instance this seems 
to have been effected by closing the fingers and dipping 
their points into the clay. 1 Bricks of this class were 
made from the time of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth 
dynasties till about the tenth century before the Christian 
era Their general proportions were, <r representing their 
thickness, 2,2? the width, and 3& the length. 

I am enabled, through the kindness of Mr. Perring, the 
opener of the pyramids of Gizeh, to give some additional 
particulars. In sending me the tracings of fourteen bricks, 
found near the Memnonium at Thebes, he observes, that 
there are at that spot a number of brick arches from twelve 
to fourteen feet span, built of crude bricks in concentric 
rings, and well and scientifically formed. Five of these 
bricks bear the prsenomen of Thothmes III., a monarch of 

1 See Vyse, Journ., L 1 93 ; iii. 9, 39, 70, 62, 81, 83. 



the Eighteenth 1 dynasty, who reigned about B.C. 1440 ; 
two are 5^ inches, and three 5 inches thick. It is 
probable that they were made about one cubit long, 
which measures 1713 English feet. Their dimensions 
may be thus stated 





No. 1. Thothmes III. (imperfect) . 

5 in. 

74 in. 



e-l - 

1 ft. 24 in. 




1 21 



6| - 

1 24 

5. . . 


64 - 


6. Thothmes IV 

41 _ 


n - 

1 3| ' 

7. (imperfect) 


n - 


8. Ruma, high-priest of Amen . . 


6* - 


Q "RampQpq TT nmnprfpf>t\ 


fi s 

7. JXdUlCOUo J.J.. yl 1 1J|)UI ICC ly 

10. (2nd prsenomen) . . 

5* - 





13. Rameses II. or III. (name) . . 


71 - 

1 4 

14. A Nilometer .... 

5i - 

64 6 



Pyramid of Howara .... 

54 - 

84 - 


Pyramid of Illahoon 

54 - 



N. Pyramid of Saqqara .... 

44 - 



S. Pyramid of Saqqara . . . . 

5k - 

74 - 


In the time of the Eighteenth dynasty bricks were 
impressed with a stamp on which certain hieroglyphics 
were cut in intaglio, so as to present them in relief on the 
surface of the brick. One of these stamps, of an oval shape, 
bearing the name and title of Amenophis III; ; 2 another, 
like a cartouche surmounted by feathers, but with 

1 Lepsius, Einleitung, s. 29, found 
bricks here of Rameses II. Revue 
Arche"ologique, 8vo. Paris, 1844, p. 684-5. 

2 Egyptian Room, No. 5993 ; Wilk., 
Man. and Gust., ii. 97. 



an illegible inscription, 1 and a square one, for bricks for 
the granaries of the temple of Phtha, 2 are in the national 
collection. The earlier, or oval, impressions are about 
4 inches long, by 2 inches wide ; but the 
square inscriptions are 6^ inches long 
by 2 J inches wide, The object of this 
stamping -was to mark the destination 
of the bricks. The stamps are not, 
as some have supposed, any proof of 
an ancient stamp act. Two of them, 
indeed, bear the name of a deceased 
high-priest of Amen Ra, the Theban 
Jupiter ; but this only shows that 
they were destined for his tomb, 
and does not imply that the stamp 
was used for fiscal purposes. Other 
bricks from the vicinity of Thebes are 
impressed with the prsenomens and names of the monarchs, 
Thothmes I., 3 II., 4 and III., 5 Amenophis II., 6 Thothmes IV., 7 
and Amenophis III., 8 of the Eighteenth dynasty ; of 
Rameses II., 9 of the Nineteenth ; of the high-priests of 
Amen Ra, named Ptahmeri, 10 Parennefer, and Ruma; 11 
and of Paher, a nomarch, governor of the country. 
This last functionary was the son of a high-priest of 

No. 3. Brick stamp bear- 
ing the pwenomen of 
Amenophis III. 

1 Egyptian Room, No. 5994. 

2 Ibid. No. 5995. 

3 Ibid. No. 6009. 

4 Ibid. No. 6010; Prisse, Hon. fig., 
PI. 23, No. 15, from the Necropolis of 

5 Ibid. No. 6011-13; Prisse, Mon. 
fig., PL 23, Nos. 10-13, from the Valley 
of the El Assasif ; Vyse, Journ., i. 89. 

6 Ibid. No. 6014. 

? Ibid. No. 6015; Prisse, loc. cit, 
No. 8. 

8 Ibid. Nos. 6016-17. 

9 Ibid. No. 6018-22 ; Prisse, loc. cit., 
No. 9 ; Vy^e, Journ., i. 89. 

10 Prisse, Mon. fig., PL 23, No. 9. 

11 Ibid. Mon. fig., PL 23, No. 1. 


Amen Ra, named Nebenneteru, surnamed Tenruka. 1 
Phtha Meri is called the blessed of Phtha-Socliaris-Osiris, 
the tutelary god of Memphis. Other bricks bear the 
name of Khonsu, or Chons, scribe of the royal treasury. 2 
Those which bear the names of kings appear to have been 
destined for the public works ; while the others, with the 
names of simple functionaries, were apparently used for 
private houses or tombs. Some bricks of a very interest- 
ing 3 kind were also found at Medinat El Giahel, between 
Luxor and Abadieh, on the right bank of the Nile, a few 
miles below Girgeh, among the remains of the old Egyptian 
city of Tanis or Zoan. They were of the usual dimensions, 
and made of sand and stone, mixed with straw and clay. 
From them is gathered the fact, that the last ruler of the 
Twenty-first or Tanite dynasty, whose name was Hesem- 
kheb, or " Isis, in the lower country," was chief governor 
of the city of Tan, or Tanis, and son of the monarch 
Pasnem, the priest of Amen Ra ; for at this period the 
government was assumed by a sacerdotal family. This 
prince took the praenomen or first royal title of Ramen- 
kheper, or the " Sun-establisher of Creation/' the same as 
that of Thothmes III., which helps to remove some diffi- 
culties about the antiquity of certain remains. It is thus 
that the archaeologist avails himself of the fragments of 
the past to reconstruct its history ; and objects, apparently 
insignificant, have often solved some of the most important 
enigmas in the history of the human race. No brick 
appears to have been impressed before the Eighteenth 

1 Egyptian Collection, British Mus., bricks see Lepsius Denkm., iil BL, 4, 
No. 6023-24 ; Prisse, Mon. Eg., PI. 23, 25 bia., 26, 39, 62, 69, 78. 

No. 3 ; Vyse, Journ., i. 89. 3 Rosellini, Mon. Civ., t. ii. tav. anu., 

2 Perring, MS. Journal; for other p. 174, No. 4; Prisse, Mon. %, PI. 23. 

VOL. I. C 


dynasty. There are two inscribed with religious inscrip- 
tions in the museum of Ley den. 1 

These bricks were called in the hieroglyphics, tebi, a 
word which the Coptic Lexicons still preserve as toobi, or 
toobe, and which is in Egyptian Arabic tubi. 2 They were 
laid in regular layers, and, occasionally, were formed into 
arches. A most interesting representation of the art of 
brick-making, of which the annexed cut is a copy, is 
depicted in the tomb of Rekshara, an officer of the court of 
Thothmes III. of the Eighteenth dynasty, about 1400 B.C. 3 

Asiatic captives are employed in the work under the 
superintendence of taskmasters ; and the scene forcibly 
recalls to mind the condition of the Hebrews 3 in the house 
of bondage. The process appears to have been nearly 
the same as at the present day ; for, with the exception 
of the mill to grind the clay, little progress has been made 
in this primitive art, the use of machinery being found 
unprofitable. The picture may be explained as follows : 
Labourers are mixing with their hoes mud, clay, or allu- 
vial soil to a proper consistency (7, 9, 12,13), the water being 
brought from a tank constructed for the purpose, and pro- 
tected from too rapid evaporation by the lotuses within it, 
and the trees planted around it. Other labourers are 
carrying the water thence in large jars to supply the 
brick-makers (u, 15). When sufficiently kneaded, the clay is 

transferred to pans (10, 7), and thrown down in a heap before 


1 Leeman. Mon. Eg. Pt. il PI. Ixxxix. s Mon. Civ., ii. 251. Wilkinson, Man- 

147, 148. Hers and Customs, ii. 99 ; Rosellini, 

3 Nestor L'Hdte, Lettres ficrites Mon. Civ., tav. xlix., for the other scenes 

d'llgypte, 8vo, Paris, 1840, p. 30; Prisse, in this tomb see Wilkinson, Ibid. ; 

Pevue Arche'ologique, 1844, p. 721; Hoskins, Ethiopia, Tomb at Thebes. 
Mon. Eg., PL 23, Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 11. 



the brick-maker (7 j), who stamps them out of a mould 
(s, 14), and then lays them in single rows to dry in the sun. 

When ready for drying or for the furnace, they were carried, 

c 2 


like modern pails, suspended on poles. Six of them appear 
to have been a man's load (4, g). The occupation was not, 
apparently, much to the taste of the employed, for the 
stick seems to have been liberally used (3,6). The in- 

No. 5. Brick Arch. Tliebes. 

scriptions on the picture record that they are bricks made 
by royal captives, or slaves, to build the temple of Amen 
Ra at Thebes. 


Crude clay was, however, better adapted to the purposes 
of the modeller than those of the potter. Few objects, 
indeed, of this material have been preserved, even in a 
climate so serene as that of Egypt ; and those which have 
come down to us are either votive- offerings, or else deco- 
rations of the interior of tombs. In the collection in the 
British Museum are a few heads of rams, 1 figures of 
vultures, 2 of the uraeus serpent, 3 and a scarabaeus with a 

1 Egypt. Room, Nos. 1668-91; Lee- Hon. Eg., xxiv. 350. 
mans, Mon. fig., PL xxiii. 305. 3 Ibid. Nos. 2002-3; Leemans, Mon. 

" Ibid., Nos. 1900-1920; Leemans, fig., xxv. 500. 


human head, and the name of Amenhept, or Amenophis, 
inscribed on the base in linear hieroglyphics. 1 This speci- 
men is probably as old as the Eighteenth dynasty. All 
these objects are unpainted ; but the ursei have an inscrip- 
tion on the breast, traced in outline in white paint, and 
containing the name of Rennu, the goddess of the harvest, 
whom the serpent represented. There is also in the same 
collection a small cylindrical bottle 2 of unbaked clay, 
coloured blue and red, supposed to be one of the models 
which the undertakers, or the relatives of the deceased, 
deposited in the tomb, in place of a more precious 
vase which they retained. This has been turned on the 
potter's wheel. Similar objects are often found, made of 
terra-cotta, or of solid pieces of wood. They are gaudily 
painted in imitation of opaque glass, which seems to have 
been an article of luxury. 3 For the poorer classes small 
sepulchral figures, called shabti or shab-shab, were made of 
unbaked clay, representing the deceased wrapped up in 
bandages like a mummy, with a pick-axe in one hand, a 
hoe in the other, and a basket of seed slung . over the 
right shoulder. 4 The minor details of these figures are 
traced out with a red or black outline, and the whole 
ground washed over in distemper with green paint, in 
imitation of Egyptian porcelain, or with white to represent 
calcareous stone. A fuller description of them will be 
given in the sequel. 

Egyp. Room, No. 4376 a. 3 Rosellmi, Mon. Civ., ii. p. 316. 

2 Ibid. No. 4882. 4 Egypt. Room, Nos. 9457-63-73-80.' 



The coarse, dull, unpolished earthenware must be con- 
sidered as the next step in the development of the art. 
The material of this pottery has not been analysed ; but 
it appears to be made of the ordinary Nilotic clay, depo- 
sited at the margin of the inundations, which is unctuous, 
plastic, and easily worked on the wheel or lathe. Its colour 
is red, running externally into purple when well baked ; 
whilst the specimens less perfectly submitted to the action 
of fire are of a reddish yellow colour. The purple hue is 
said to be owing to a natural or artificial protoxide of 
iron, easily removed by a damp linen rag when the piece 
is slightly baked. The vases made of this clay are very 
absorbent, but do not allow water to escape, even after it 
has stood in them eight-and-forty hours. They are, how- 
ever, then covered with a saline efflorescence. The vases 
of this kind appear to be similar to the Egyptian hydro- 
cerami, of which the analysis is, 1 

Silica 32-18 

Alumina 15*50 

Ox. of iron and manganese . . 2-00 

Carb. of lime . . . .... 23'64 

Water 1-05 

Carb. acid 5'63 

Traces of carbon. 



The first specimens of baked pottery which we 
nave to consider are the Egyptian bricks. These are 

1 Brongniart, Traite", i. p. 502. 


externally of a rose red colour, but break with a deep 
black fracture at about -J- of an inch from the surface. 
These bricks are smaller than those made of sun-dried 
clay, and were chiefly used in places where the construc- 
tions came in contact with water. Rosellini found a wall 
of them fifteen feet thick at Luxor, which was older than 
the edifices of the Eighteenth dynasty. 1 In the British 
Museum 2 are two bricks of this class. The first, which 
is arched in a peculiar manner, has on the inner edge a 
line of hieroglyphics, but it is illegible. 3 The other has 
on the narrow side or edge the name of Tetmes or 
Thotmes, a steward or housekeeper, for whose tomb it 
was made. 4 It is not known from what part of Egypt 
these bricks came. The last is probably contemporary 
with the kings of the Eighteenth dynasty. At Medinat 
El Giahel, or Tanis, baked bricks were found inscribed 
with the name of a deceased person called Thothmes. 
Many of the burnt bricks found in Egypt appear to be 
Roman, 5 


There are also in the same collection some portions of 
coffins or sarcophagi of the same material. 6 The workmen 
of the Tourah quarries were buried in terra-cotta sarco- 
.phagi. 7 The lower part of one of these sarcophagi, 
depicted in the work of Sir Gr. Wilkinson, exhibits the sin- 
gular manner in which the upper and lower parts were 

1 Mon. Civ., vol. ii. p. 250. 8vo, Paris, 1844, p. 725. 

2 Egypt. Sal., No. 483. 5 Vyse, Journ., i. 59, 202. 

3 Egypt. Room, No. 2461. 6 Egypt. Room, No. 6955. 

4 Perring, MS. Journal ; Prisse, Mon. ' Vyse, Journ., iii. 91. 
g., PI. 28; Revue Archeologique, 


fastened together.] Another specimen, constituting the 
upper part of the cover, and which has an elaborate water- 
colour painting, representing the deceased attired in the 
collar or tippet -(usck) often worn round the neck, was 
removed by Belzoni from the sepulchres of Sobah in the 
oasis ;of Ammon. A similar one, which came from the 
same locality, is described and figured by M. Brongniart, in 
his Catalogue of the Museum at Sevres. 1 These objects 
are comparatively recent, as the settlement there was not 
earlier than the Persian dominion in Egypt. Two other 
sarcophagi of this material, in the national collection, 
exhibit such wretched modelling that they may be 
referred to the fourth century of our era. The .use of 
terra-cotta sarcophagi was rare among the Egyptians, the 
rich availing themselves of hard stones, such as granite, 
breccia, basalt, and alabaster, as well as of sycamore, cedar, 
and sandal wood. 


Certain objects, deposited with the dead, w<ere always 
made of this red-brick earthenware. These were the 
sepulchral cones, which, as their name implies, were 
rude cones turned on the potter's wheel, and stamped on 
their bases with a hieroglyphical inscription in bas-relief, 
impressed from a mould. 2 Their inscribed end is often- 
painted red. A brick has been found thus impressed. 

These cones have been found placed over the doors of 
the tombs, or scattered on the floor amidst the debris. 
Although it is evident that they were part of the 

1 Mus. Cer., P]. i. fig. 2. 2 Wilkinson, Manners and Customs, v. p. 398. 



Xo. 6. Sepulchral Cones. 

sepulchral furniture, their use proved a riddle to Egyptian 
archaeologists. Their dimensions are from six inches to 
a foot in length, and 
about three inches in dia- 
meter at the base. Some 
have conjectured them to 
be seals for sealing the 
tombs, or tickets for the 
coffins ; others that they 
served as cards of invita- 
tion to the mourners, or 
passports of admission to 
the sepulchres. From 
recent discoveries made 
at "Warka in Babylonia, it will be seen that these 
cones were in reality bricks, which were introduced into 
walls, in such a manner as to form patterns of orna- 
mental brickwork, their inscribed bases being placed 

outwards. The inscriptions 
are always of funereal im- 
port, and the words, "the 
devoted to," or " blessed by 
Osiris," often precede the 
name of the dead.. Some of 
the oldest cones, made for functionaries of state deceased 
during the Twelfth dynasty, have their inscriptions running 
round the base, like the legend of a coin. Others have a line 
of hieroglyphs stamped in an elliptical or square depression, 
like the brickmarks. 1 From the Eighteenth to the Twenty- 

No. 7. Cone showing the inscription. 

Egypt. Room, Nos. 9641-43. 


sixth dynasty, the inscriptions are disposed in horizontal or 
vertical lines. 1 None are known of a later age than the 
Twenty-sixth dynasty, which flourished just previously to 
the invasion of Egypt by the Persians. Representations of 
scenes are rarely found on them, and such as do occur are of 
sepulchral import : the deceased is seen seated by his wife, 2 
or standing in adoration, 3 or praying to the solar orb as it 
sails in its bark or baris through the ether, 4 or worship- 
ping right loyally the monarch of whose court he was an 
officer. 5 The impressions were made with a wooden stamp 
when the clay was moist ; several cones, as many as four- 
teen, having been found stamped with the same mould. 
Occasionally they have double impressions. The inscrip- 
tions offer many interesting particulars, on account of the 
numerous functionaries mentioned, and their relative 
degrees of precedency. In common with the other monu- 
ments of the country, they help to show the interior 
organisation of this vast Empire. 

As an example of the inscriptions may be cited 
that on one of the cones of Merimes, which runs as 
follows : 

Amaklii cher Hes-ar suten sa en Kish Merimes matu ; 
that is, " Merimes, the prince of Ethiopia, devoted to Osiris, 
the justified." 6 W'e know from other sources, that this 
person was one of the king's scribes or secretaries, who was 
invested with the viceroyalty of that country during the 
reign of Rameses II. bf the sacerdotal functionaries, who 

1 Prisse, Mon. tig., PI. 23. Egyp. Disney, Pfc. ii. PI, xcv. p. 229. 
Room, Nos. 9661, 9670. * Ibid. 

2 Egyp. Room, No. 9644. Egypt. Room, Nos. 9648-52 ; 

3 Prisse, Mon. Eg., PL 28. Champollion, Mus. Char. X., p. 164. 
* Ibid., E. R., Nos. 9732-35. Mus. 


held the highest rank in the state, several cones have 
been preserved. These bear the names of Ramenkheper, 
nomarch or lord-lieutenant of a province, and high priest 
of Amen Ra, 1 of Amenusha, also nomarch and priest of 
the temple of Amen Ra, 2 of Petamen-nebkata, the second 
priest of Amen Ra, 3 of Amenhept or Amenophis, the 
fourth priest of the same god, on whose cones are placed 
the name of his wife, Neferhetep or Nepherophis, 4 of 
Mentuemha, a similar functionary, and his wife Shepen- 
mut, 5 who had the appellation of king's relation ; and of 
Mentuhemha, a priest of the same god. 6 There are also 
cones with the names of priests of Osiris, 7 one of which is 
inscribed with the name of Khem, 8 and others with that 
of Mentu, who was priest of the god Khem. 9 Some have 
inscriptions in honour of Sebekmes, 10 and Tenruka, 11 priests 
of the Heaven, or of priests of the god Enpe. 12 Besides 
priests of the gods, two high priests of Amenophis II. of 
the Eighteenth dynasty are mentioned on them. One of 
these, named Nishni, was also scribe, or clerk of the food 
of the temple of Amen, in Thebes. 13 The other, Neferhe- 
bef, associated with his own name that of his wife Tauai, 14 
who was also his sister. Of the scribes, ready writers^ 
clerks, accountants, copyists, and royal secretaries of state, 
there are several cones. Amongst those of the caste of 
sacred scribes, and those not exercising any particular 

1 Egyp. Room, Nos. 9654. 55. 7 Egyp. Room, No. 9.661. 

2 Ibid. No. 9659. 8 Ibid., No. 9660. 

3 Prisse, Mon. g., PI. 27. 9 Champollion, 1. c. 

* Egyp. Room, Nos. 9663-67; Prisse, 10 Egyp. Room, Nos. 9645-47. 
loc. cit. ; Champollion, Mus. Charles X., n Ibid., Nos. 9657, 9658. Prisse, Mon. 

p. 165. Eg., PL 27. 

6 Prisse, 1. c. ; Brongniart, Mus. Cer., 12 Champollion, 1. c. 
PL i. fig. 12, p. 22. " Prisse, 1. c. 

6 Champollion, Mus. Charles X.,p.l 66. u Egyp. Room, Nos. 9671-91. 


function are found the names of Paru l and Thothmes, 2 
Nefermen, scribe of the temple of Seti or the Typhonium, 3 
Bentehahar, sacred scribe of the books or registers ; 4 a 
sacred scribe of the god Enpe ; 5 Meri, chief scribe of the 
god Khem, who was also king's cousin and major-domo of 
the queen's palace ; 6 and Neferhept, chief scribe of Amen 
Ra. 7 These belonged to the ecclesiastical division. Hardly 
inferior to them were the royal scribes. One of these was 
charged with the care of the domains of lower Egypt. 8 
Amenophis, another, kept the king's account. 9 Ramesses, 
a third, was seal-bearer, privy counsellor, " the king's eyes 
and ears," and high treasurer of the ^Ethiopian monarch, 
Taharka, or Tehrak, who reigned B.C. 715-688. 10 Necht- 
sebak, 11 another of these functionaries, was scribe of the 
royal troops. Two others, Ramenkheper 12 and Ra, 13 were 
scribes of the granaries of upper and lower Egypt. 
Amenemha 14 was scribe of the account of the bread of 
upper and lower Egypt ; and Senrnut was scribe of the 
silver place, or a clerk in the treasury. 15 

The list may be closed with the titles of various func- 
tionaries, the chief of whom were the dukes, or nomarchs 
of the first rank, called in the hieroglyphics, repa-ha. 
Besides those of the same name already mentioned are 
two called Khem, one of whom was also a sphragistes, or 
sealer ; the other was governor of Abu, the Ivory island, 

1 Prisse, 1. c. 8 Champollion, Mas. Charles X. , 

2 Egyp. Room, Nos. 9718, 9719, 9658. p. 165. 

3 Prisse,!. c. No. 1. 9 Egyp. Room, No. 9707. 

4 Ibid., 1. c. ; Brongniart, Mus. Cer., 10 Prisse, 1. c. 

PI. i. 12 ; E. R., Nos. 9713-16. Egyp. Room, No. 9706. 

5 ChampolHon, Mus. Charles X., K Ibid., No. 9709 
p. 165. J3 Ibid., No. 9717. 

6 Egyp. Room, No. 9715. " Ibid., No. 9639. 
? Ibid., No. 9722. " Ibid-> No . 9r30 . 


as Elephantine was called in the inscriptions. 1 One cone 
shows that Hepu had charge of the alluvial 2 country, and on 
another is mentioned a king's follower in all lands. 3 Besides 
these are mentioned Abi 4 and Pahar, 5 chamberlains of the 
queens of the Twenty-sixth or Saite dynasty ; Amenemapt, 
a prefect of the palace; 6 Petamenapt, guardian of the king's 
hall. 7 Parennefer, the incense-bearer of Amen Ra, 8 and 
Ameneman, who had the charge of the balance, are, perhaps, 
of the class of priests. 9 Senmut, a captain of soldiers, closes 
the list. 10 Cones having the names of females only are rare. 
In the British Museum are several of a lady, but her name 
and occupation n are alike difficult to interpret. This long 
list might, without doubt, be augmented ; 12 and as the eye 
ranges over these tickets of the dead, we are forcibly 
reminded of the visiting cards of the living. The tenants 
of the sepulchres of the ancient No-Ammon or Diospolis, 
and still older Noph or Memphis, seem to have left them 
behind, as if to make a call on posterity. 


The shabti, or sepulchral figures, which were deposited 
with the dead, and formed part of the funeral relics, were 
also made of terra-cotta. 13 Like those of unbaked clay 
they are generally of a late period, probably of the age of 
the Roman dominion. In some instances they have been 

1 Egyp. Room, No. 9660. 8 Egyp. Room, No. 9711. 
* Prisse, 1. c. 9 Ibid., No. 9724. 

3 Egyp. Room, No. 9723. 10 Ibid., Nos. 9729-31. 

4 Ibid., Nos. 9735, 9736. J1 Ibid., Nos. 9692-9702. 

5 Ibid., No. 9710. 12 Leemans, Cat. Rais. du Mus6e de 

6 Ibid., No. 9728. Leide. 8vo., Leide. 1842, last page. 

7 Ibid., No. 9725. 13 Egyp. Room, Nos. 9437-9539. 


rudely modelled, and a line of hieroglyphics, expressing 
the name and titles of the deceased, scrawled upon 
them. 1 Others have been stamped in a mould, and 
the formula? with which they are covered impressed 
in hieroglyphs. 2 Another mode of preparing these figures 
was by making them of very crude clay, and painting 
it over by a process which has already been described. 3 
In some instances the entire ground was coloured white 
or yellow, and the hieroglyphics and other decorations 
inserted in red, blue, and yellow. Even after this 
process, some specimens were varnished with the same 
substance which covers the fresco paintings of the coffins. 
All the figures are of persons of inferior condition, and 
were executed at a period when the arts had irrevocably 
sunk. They were deposited in little chests made of wood, 

No. 8. Embalmer's Model Coffin. Egypt. Boom, No. 9729. 

and painted in tempera, on which was inscribed a dedication 
to Osiris, or a chapter of the ritual ; and they were then 
placed by the coffins in the sepulchres. Besides these 
figures, little sarcophagi are occasionally found in the tombs, 
painted in exact imitation of the larger coffins, and are 

1 Egyp. Room, Nos. 9438-70-82. 2 Ibid., No. 9503. 3 Ibid., Nos. 9462-68. 


supposed to be the models which Herodotus states were 
shown by the undertakers to the relatives of the deceased. 1 
Sometimes they contain a little terra-cotta or wooden 
mummied figure, and are then complete models of the 
coffin. They were also part of the funeral decorations, but 
the reason of their employment is not obvious. 


Another of the many uses of this pottery was for vases 
or jars to hold the entrails of the dead. In order to pre- 
serve the body effectually, it was necessary to remove the 
softer portions, such as the thoracic and abdominal viscera, 
and these were embalmed separately. In some instances 
they were returned into the stomach, with wax models of 
four deities, commonly called the four genii of the Ament 
or Hades. It was, however, usual in the embalment of 
the wealthier classes to soak them carefully in the re- 
quisite preparations, tie them up in neat cylindrical 
packets, and deposit them in vases having the shape 
of the four genii. The bodies of these deities, which 
were usually represented as mummied, formed the bodies 
of the vases, and were cylindrical below and rounded 
above. The mouths of the jars were sometimes counter- 
sunk to receive the lower part of the covers which fitted 
into them like a plug. The jar of the first genius, whose 
name was Am-set, " the devourer of filth," held the 
stomach and large intestines, 2 and was formed at the top 
like a human head. This genius typified, or presided over, 
the southern quarter of the compass. He was the son of 

1 Egyp. Room, No. 8513. Mummy, Archtcologia, vol. xxvii. 262 

2 Mr. Pettigrew, on the Jersey 273. 



Osiris or of Phtha Socharis Osiris, (the pygmean god of 
Memphis. The second vase of the series was in the shape 
of the genius Hapi, the " concealed." Its cover was shaped 
like the head of a cynocephalus, and it held the smaller 
viscera. This genius presided over the North, and was also 
the son of Osiris. The third vase was that of the genius 
Tuautmutf, " the adorer of his mother." It had a cover 
in shape of the head of a jackal, and held the lungs and 
heart. This genius presided over the East, and was 
brother of the preceding. The last was that of the genius 
Kebhsnuf, the " refresher of his brethren." It had a 

cover shaped like the head 
of a sparrow-hawk, and held 
the liver and gall-bladder. This 
genius presided over the West, 
and was also brother of the 
preceding. Three vases of a 
set, in the British Museum, 
have all human-shaped heads, 
and are provided with handles 
at the sides of the bodies. 
Specimens of a very unusual 
kind are also to be found in 
the same collection, 1 having the 
whole body formed without a 
cover, in the shape of a dome 
above, and surmounted by a 
rudely modelled figure of a 

jackal, couchant upon a gateway, formed of a detached 
piece. The entrails were introduced by the rectangular 

1 Egyp. Room, Nos. 9552-54-55 

Kb. 0. Vase in shape of Tuautmutt 

VASES. 33 

orifice in the upper part. In some other instances the 
covers appear to have been secured by cords passing 
through them to the body of the vase. When secured 
the vases were placed in a wooden box, which was laid 
on a sledge and carried to the sepulchre, where they 
were often taken out and placed two on each side of the 
coffin. It was only the poorer classes that used pottery 
for these purposes. The viscera of high officers of 
state were embalmed in jars of fine white limestone, and 
the still more valuable oriental alabasters or arragonite, 
obtained from the quarries of Tel El Amarna, or the 
ancient Alabastron. 


The potter, however, chiefly exercised his skill in the 
production of vases for domestic use, the largest of which 
were several feet high, the smallest scarcely an inch. 
These, which are coloured red in the hieroglyphical 
inscriptions, to show that they were made of terra-cotta, 
were called han, or " vase ; " l a word which also meant 
a measure of liquid capacity. Those of a jar shape 
held various kinds of liquids. Others, which contained 
the Nile water offered to the gods, were tall and slim, 
with a spout like that of a coffee-pot. 2 Bread, roast 
meats, and water-fowl, were placed in deep dishes. 3 
Oils and drugs were kept in tall conical jars, 4 carefully 
covered, and tied down. Ointments, salves, and extracts, 

1 Champ., Diet, p. 241, No. 256; 425, Nos. 510-513. 

Gram., p. 227. 3 Ibid. Nos. 576-86 ; Cf. No. 141. 

2 Bunsen's Egypt's Place, vol. i. p. 4 Ibid. p. 550, No. 138 ; Champ., 
532, Nos. 568-72; Champ., Diet., p. Diet., p. 413, No. 489. 

VOL. i. D 


in small pots. 1 Other cosmetics were held in a jug 
with a spout. 2 Wine, honey, and other liquids were 
deposited in open-mouthed jars, out of which they 
could readily be drawn. 3 Many vases of these forms 
are found made of bronze, alabaster, and stone, but 
they were also often of pottery, either dull or glazed. 
These forms are found in the hieroglyphs ; but the 
sepulchres have yielded a very large number of vases, the 
majority of which, there is no doubt, were employed for 
the uses of daily life. 

Of the coarse red brick pottery were also made the pots 
which held the embalmed and sacred 
ibis at Memphis. The bird was duly pre- 
pared, and then neatly wrapped up in 
linen bandages, in the shape of a large 
tongue or heart. In the plains of Saq- 
qara and Memphis the ibis-mummies 
are found placed in conical pots, of the 
shape of an inverted sugar-loaf. Their 
material is generally the coarse brick 
pottery ; sometimes, however, it is of 
glazed ware, and a few pots of stone 
have been found. Their walls are about 
the thickness of a tile. The body has 

No. 10. Ibis-mummy Pot 

been turned on the potter's wheel, and 
the exterior is ribbed with broad grooves, made with 
the potter's fingers. The cover is convex, like an 
inverted saucer, and is cemented to the body by a coating 
of lime or plaster. Thus protected, the ibis was deposited 

1 Bunsen's Egypt's Place, vol. i. Nos. 3 Ibid.; and Champ., Diet, p. 4 24, 504 
140143. Champ., Diet., p. 424, 501-603. 

VASES. 35 

in one of the mummy pits, in which the pots were placed 
vertically, the pointed end being thrust into the ground, 
with the mouth upwards. 1 The pits are subterraneous 
galleries, with niches 8 feet high and 10 feet wide, in 
which the pots were placed like jars in a cellar. 2 At 
Thebes this bird, when mummied, was deposited in its 
envelopes alone ; but at Hermopolis it was placed in 
oblong cases of wood or stone. 3 

The amphorae 4 or two-handled vases in the collections 
of the Museum are of the shape seen in the pictures of 
the tombs, and are of a pale sandy-coloured unpolished 
ware. The walls are thick, and their shape calls to mind 
those which are seen on the coins of Athens, and which 
are supposed to havp been used as packages for exported 
products, particularly oil. On one of them is written, in 
coarse large hieroglyphics, the word han or " tribute ; " 5 
and on another is a hieratic inscription only half legible, 
in which can be distinguished the expression, " the Palace 
of Sethos I.," 6 showing that these vessels contained some 
of the tribute deposited in the vaults of that edifice. In 
the grand triumphal procession to Thotmes III., 7 similar 
vases, containing incense, wine, and asphalt, are brought 
to the Great King by the Rutennu or Ludenu or Ludin, an 
Asiatic race, situated "north of the great sea." It 
appears from Herodotus, 8 that in his days wine was 
exported from Syria to Egypt in such vases, which were 

1 Pococke, Travels in the East, vol. * E. R., 4945-46. 
i. PL Ixx. p. 233. s E. R., 4947. 

2 Denou, vol. ii. p. 40. PI. xcix,, p. 6 E. R., 4946. 

xxxi. 7 Wilkinson, Mann, and Gust., vol. i. 

3 Pettigrew, History of Mummies, PL iv. ; Hoskins, Travels in Ethiopia, 
p. 209 ; Passalacqua, Catalogue Raison- 4to, Lond. 1835. 

nee, p. 347 ; one of these pots is figured, 8 Herod., iii. 6. 

Pettigrew, PI. xiii. fig. 5. 

D 2 


afterwards filled with water, and sent up to the stations 
in the Arabian desert. It is highly probable that the 
amphorae in the Museum were part of the tribute of some 
Asiatic people contemporary with the Nineteenth dynasty, 
and they consequently afford an insight into the art of 
other oriental nations at the same epoch. The mode in 
which these vases were brought to the table has been 
already mentioned. Several vases of this shape are known 
in the different collections. To some the potter has given 
an extra elongation in the lower part, in order that they 
might be fixed into the floors. 1 These amphorae measure 
about 3 feet in height, and 1 foot in diameter. There is 
an amphora of this class probably of a later date than 
those just alluded to, and made in Egypt, coming in fact 
from the vicinity of the ancient Antinoe. 2 The neck of it 
is cylindrical, and the body decidedly conical ; but the 
whole of the latter is covered with deep regular grooves, 
which run in parallel circles round the axis of the vase, 
and have been made either with the potter's fingers, or 
else with a broad tool laid at the side while the vase was 
revolving on the lathe. This may have been done for 
ornament ; but it is possible that the object of it was to 
allow of the vase being encased in linen or plaited palm- 
leaves, or even that the hand might hold it more securely. 
It probably contained a liquid. Some of the smaller 
amphorae, which are of the same shape, and are only nine 
inches high, appear to have held asphalt, barley, 3 and 
dates. These have often rounded bases, and the body 

1 Rosellim, M. C., Ivi. No. 122. 3 Rosellini, M. C., liv.-vL 5974 

2 Descr. de 1'Eg. A., vol. v. PL 84, 75-9120; E. R., 5101-4; 
No. 56 ; A., vol. v., PI. 75-33 ; Brong- 1'% R., 75, 14, 15, 20, 22, 30. 

mart, Traite ; Cf. E. R., No. 5270. 

VASES. 37 

more or less globular, while some are provided with a 
foot, 1 like the Greek amphorse. Such vases were con- 
venient for various domestic purposes, especially for car- 
rying a small quantity of liquid. Their mouths were wide 
or narrow, according to the nature of the substance to be 
held ; but unfortunately neither the hieroglyphics nor the 
inscriptions afford much information respecting the manner 
in which they were used. The offerings to the gods, of 
milk and wine, appear indeed to have been made in little 
amphora, many of which come from Saqqara. Some of 
these vases represent those of another class, in which the 
body is long, but also terminates in a point, while the 
handles are very small. It would also seem that they should 
be classed with other little vases having four small handles 2 

Xo. 11. Group of plain terra-cotta Vases. Egypt. Room, Nos. 5074, 506S, 5267, 5075 

round the neck or collar, which are about 1 inch in diameter, 

3 o > 

so as to admit of their being slung on a small cord of 
palm-fibres, and thus transported from place to place. 
Probably the larger vases contained water, 3 and the smaller 

1 Rosellim, M. C., Iv. 66-8, Ivi. 113; 3 E. R., 51115268-67; Rosellini, 
E. R., 5099. M. C., Iv. 85; Descr. de 1'fig., PI. 75 

2 Descr. de 1'Eg. A., vol. v., PI. 73, 34. 
fig. 12; found at Saqqara. 


ones 1 may also have held enough to take a draught out of 
the cask, or else to keep it ready suspended and cooled. 
These are also generally of unpolished ware, but are often 
stained by the liquids which they have held. With them 
must be classed three-handled vases, resembling the Greek 
hydrifB or water-jugs, and, like them, probably employed 
as pitchers. Of the former vases the body is in the shape 
of an egg, or else of a compressed globe, while the mouth 
is in general wide, but occasionally narrow. Some variety 
is observable in the position of the handle, which either 
touches the lip and shoulder, or is placed under the lip, or 

Xo. 12. Group of Vases of unglazed terra-cotta. Egypt. Room, Nos. 5071, 5023, 5067, 5073. 

entirely on the shoulder. It is generally placed in a 
vertical position on the vase, but in some instances 
obliquely or horizontally, 2 which appears to have been 
done only when the vase was intended to be carried 
about by the hand from table to table. 

Next to the vases with several handles, may be classed 

1 Rosellini, M. C., IT. 87, 88. 2 Roselliiii, M. C., Ivi. 106, 107. 



those with one. These are undoubtedly jugs, and their 
shape, although by no means so elegant as the Greek, 
marks them as the unequivocal prototypes of their Hel- 
lenic successors. The jugs made of this unpolished clay 
are from about a foot to a few inches in height ; their 
shapes are very different, but they exhibit the Egyptian 
type of the pointed base. The prevalent one is the jug 
with a tall neck and handle, probably used to hold milk 
or water ; l another variety has a small handle in front, 
and a small orifice 2 at the bottom, and was, perhaps, a 
water-vase. These jugs appear in the hieroglyphics as 
the determinative of the names of several liquids which 
were kept or mixed in vases of 
this shape. Other jugs 3 have an 
oval body, with a broad handle, 
arched over the lip, but are of 
small dimensions, and must have 
been used for drugs and spices. 
Their mouths are wide. There are 
several jugs with tall necks, oval 
bodies, and flat circular bases, 
which have rudely modelled in 
front the features of the god 4 Set 
or Bal. These are water-bottles, 
and, from their ornaments and 
shape, are of a late age pro- 
bably Roman. Some of these 
jugs resemble the Greek. An elegant vase engraved in 

No. 13. Bottle of unglazed ware, or- 
namented with grotesque head of 
Typhon. Egypt. Boom, No. 5C96. 

1 Rosellini, M. C., Ivi. 115. 

2 E. R., 5089. 

3 Rosellini, M. C., Ivi. 114. 

4 Rosellini, ibid. 96 ; Descr. de 

A., vol. v. PI. 75-7. Several va- 
rieties of this shape are engraved. 
Ibid. 12-1. 


Rosellini's work l is scarcely distinguishable from the 
elegant Greek shape called the osnochoe, or -wine-bottle ; 
and a small vase in the Museum, 2 of a pale red ware, 
exactly resembles a lecythus, or oil cruse, from a sepulchre 
of ancient Greece or Italy. One of the most distinct forms 
is that apparently of the oil cruse. 3 The body is of a com- 
pressed globular shape ; the neck remarkably small and 
short ; the orifice scarcely - of an inch in diameter. Vases 
of this kind are generally of a dark colour, as if they had 
been stained by the contents which they have held. They 
are the Egyptian arybaUi* Besides these jugs many of the 
tall vases with one handle were of the nature of cups, and 
were used as such by the poorer classes, or by the slaves 
of a family. They are distinguished from the jug by their 
wide mouths and small handles. Their bodies are cylin- 
drical, and in some the lip has a spout, which makes them 
resemble jugs or basins. One has been found containing 
corn. 5 But it is evidently impossible to determine the 
manifold uses to which they may have been applied ; for 
another, of nearly the same shape, found at the Pyramid of 
Abooser, contained white paint. The last class of vases with 
handles are little jugs with handles passing entirely over 
the body, thus giving them the appearance of little baskets. 
It is evident that these are situlce or buckets, such as those 
of larger size, and made apparently of metal, seen in the 
hands of the statues of Isis. These vases are, however, 
so small, being only about two inches high, that it is 

1 M. C., Ivi. 108; E. R, 5071-73.- < E. R., 5076-79; Descr. de 1'% A 

2 M. C., Ivi. 108; Deacr., 1. c. 137 vol. v. PL 8425. 

E. R., 5074. s Degcn de r s ^ voL T> 8416 

s E. R., 5074-75. E. R., 5090, 5079. 

VASES. 41 

impossible to conceive they were anything but children's 

The vases without handles are of very different propor- 
tions, as different, indeed, as the deep jar of several feet 
in length and the small cup. The larger of these, to 
which it will be necessary to allude first, are the casks. 
They are equivalent to the Greek pithoi. The Greek were 
too large to be made on the lathe, and were fashioned 
in a particular manner : but the Egyptian, which are of 
smaller diameter, show from the marks upon 
them that they were turned. Their form is also 
different, being elongated, convex above, bending 
inwards at the centre, and terminating in a point, 
which seems to have been thrust into the sand 
that covered the floors of the cellars. They are 

No. 14. Pithos, 

of a coarse, gritty, and not very compact texture ; ou a staud - 
black in the inner surface, but externally of a pale red 
colour. Their use was, like that of the amphora, to pre- 
serve large quantities of viands. Ducks, salt-fish, meat, 
wine, and all the requisites of a well-stored pantry, were 
preserved in them. They are among the largest products 
of the fictile art. It is probable that they were in use in 
all ages, and that little improvement ever took place in 
their manufacture. One, however, in the collections of the 
Museum, which is covered with a demotic inscription, 
cannot date earlier than the Ptolemies, and is possibly as 
late as the Roman dominion. Smaller vases of this class, 
also destined to preserve viands, and other substances, are 
distinguished by having their bodies more or less elliptical 
and egg-shaped. 1 As the necks become longer they 

1 Eos. M. C., lv. 90-3, t. ii. p. 335. 


gradually 1 approach the shape of bottles, 2 and of these 
there are several varieties, many being distinguished by 
the narrow aperture through which the liquid dropped or 
gurgled, and which procured for such vases, among the 
Romans, the name of gutturnia. 3 Those with a short neck, 
however, were jars, and some few of these were decorated, 
like the bottles, with heads rudely modelled in bas-relief. 
Even the gutturnia have occasionally a female head 
modelled in bas-relief. 4 Few of these vases exceed a foot 
in length, whilst many of them are not more 
than a few inches long. With these may 
be classed many small ones, of the nature 
of crucibles, which have little spouts to 
pour off the liquids they contained ; 5 small 
jars, in the shape of an inverted truncated 
cone, some with spouts, others with a com- 
pressed globular body, 6 in which have been 
found dates and other eatables ; cruses or 
bottles, with narrow necks and small orifices, 

similar to those with handles already de- 
No. 15. Vase for J 

Szedte'rrk-cotta" scribed ; r and the lecytlii or unguent vases, 

Egyptian Room, . , TIT i ^ T 

NO. 5033. with oval bodies more or less elongated, and 

small necks, like those found in. the Roman sepulchres of 
England and the Continent, and formerly called lachry- 
matories. 8 The last of this division are the wide open- 
mouthed pans or bowls, which were applied to a multitude 

1 Rosellini, M. C., liv. 89 ; 2 ft. 1 in. liv. 48; liii. 29; E. R., B. M., 5092-93. 
long; Descr., 1. c. PL 8650; PI. 75 * Ibid. liii. 8. 
36. s Ibid. liii. 15; liv. 57. 

- Cf. Rosellini, M. C., lii. 1619; 6 Ibid. Ivi. 125. 

Iv. 104121 ; Descr., 1. c. PI. 8418. 7 ibid. Iv. 62, 63 ; liv. 58. 

8 Cf. Rosellini, M. C., Iv. 90; Ivi. 121; 8 Ibid. liv. 55. 

VASES. 43 

of uses, especially to hold the fruit or viands served at 
table ; they seldom occur larger than about one foot in 
diameter, and generally have a broad, flat, and moulded lip. 
They are of a pale yellow or red unglazed pottery. 1 Similar 
vessels are represented in the tombs of a more conical 
shape, like the calatJd or basket-shaped vessels of the 
Greeks, and were used in the place of buckets. 2 The 
smaller vases of this class were plates or drinking cups. 3 

The use of pottery was very extensive among the 
Egyptians. Conical jars were employed to raise the 
water out of wells by a process like the modern shadoof* 
The water-carrier used wide-mouthed jars slung at each 
end of a pole by a palm-fibre cord. 5 The poulterer depo- 
sited his plucked and salted geese in tall open-mouthed 
amphorae, which were fixed upright by their pointed ends 
in the floor of his house, or in his cellar. 6 The butcher 
and the cook disposed of their viands in the same 
manner. 7 The weaver used terra-cotta vessels to hold 
his flax, and reeled it out of them. 8 Figs were gathered 
into bottles. 9 Wine was squeezed into a pan with low 
square handles, and deposited, as has been already 
remarked, in amphorae, which were sealed with clay, and 
placed on a low four-legged stand, or on stone rings. 
The wine was poured into these amphoraB by means of 
large bowls, provided with a spout in front, the necks 
being carefully sealed. 10 Some curious examples of the 

1 E. R., 4976; Cf. Rosellini, M. C., * Ibid. p. 5, 99137. 

liv. 60. 6 Ibid. p. 19 ; Rosellini, M. C., iv. 

2 Ibid., 4977-79. ? Ibid. p. 385. 

3 Cf. Descr. de 1'% A., vol. v. PI. 8 Ibid. p. 60. 
78, Nos. 26, 38, 39 ; PI. 8418 ; Cf. Ro- 9 Ibid. p. 146. 

sellini, M. C., liii. 25; E. R., 4981-98. 10 Ibid. PI. x. p. 155160; PL xx. 

4 Wilk. M. Cust., s. 1, vol. ii. p. 4. 


mode of fastening these amphorae are given by Sir Gardner 

A kind of tall cup or bowl of this substance was held 
by the worshipper to present his offering, or by the ser- 
vant to assist her mistress. 1 Various pots and pans the 
celebrated flesh-pots of Egypt were used by the cooks 
in the same manner as iron pots are employed at present. 2 
Cups of this material were used for drinking wine or to take 
it out of the amphora. 3 The water-bottle placed under 
the table, and round which was twined the lotus flower, as 
well as the table itself, were made of it. 4 The jars held the 
colours of the varnisher, and the plasters of the plasterer ; 5 
the grains of corn before they were pounded in the mortar, 
and the flour after it was returned from thence ; 6 the 
embalmer's bitumen ; 7 and water for the use of the 
scribes. 8 A kind of krater 9 was used as a receptacle for 
the wine or water drawn from the amphorse. Large jars 
were employed for watering cattle, for the labourer's hod, 10 
the smelter's bucket and crucible, the jar of the cow- 
doctor, and the pail of the milkman. 11 

Although M. Brongniart denies to the Egyptians a type 
of fabric distinct from that of other people, a practised 
eye will undoubtedly at once detect their vases by their 
simpler forms, by their want of high mechanical finish, by 
the prevalence of pointed bases, and by the extreme 

1 Wilk. M. Cust, s. 1, vol. ii. p. 107. 8 Ibid. p. 315, No. 387. 

2 Ibid. p. 388. ibid. p . 341, No. 394. 

3 Ibid. p. 391, 1 Rosellini, M. C., xlix. 

4 Ibid. 393-9. " Ibid. M. C., 1, 2 a. Wilk. M. and 

5 Ibid. iii. p. 174, No. 364, p. 311, No. C., ser. 2, vol. i. or iv. p. 130, 441, p. 139, 
385. No. 444; Rosellini, M. C., 1. 1 a, 2 r. 

6 Ibid. iii. p. 181, No. 367. xxvii. xxxi. 

7 Ibid. p. 183, No. 368. 


smallness of the neck and orifices. After the subjugation of 
Egypt by the Greeks and Romans, some of the Egyptian 
vases resemble, indeed, those of their foreign masters ; but 
during the national independence the workmanship is 
totally distinct, being distinguished by the purity of its 
outline, and by the tendency to imitate the forms of fruits 
and flowers. The Egyptian potters had not, it is true, that 
highly refined sense of the beautiful which the Greeks 
possessed, but they were by no means entirely destitute 
of it. The high civilisation of Egypt, however, and the 
abundance of gems and of the precious metals, directed 
the national taste to working in metal rather than in 
clay ; and with the exception of the Egyptian fayence 
or porcelain, the works in terra-cotta were for domestic 
use rather than for decorative purposes. 


Fortunately, some scenes depicted at Beni Hassan 
represent potters at their work, and thus enable us to 
see by what simple means the craft was carried on. 
Various members of this fraternity were undoubtedly at- 
tached to the palace of the monarch, and to the houses of 
the nobility. Among the Jews a body of potters was at- 
tached to the palace of the kings of Judah, and worked in 
its gardens. In Egypt they were probably thus employed 
as early as the Fourth dynasty. They appear to have used 
only the simplest processes. After the clay had been 
dug up, it was prepared by an operation called hi hat, or 
" kneading " with the feet. A workman rolled out the 


paste or unbaked clay, which is coloured in the paintings 

of a deep gray, to prepare it as a lump to be laid on the 


wheel. Making it "was called spa or sapi. Masses, of 
convenient size, were then taken up, and placed on the 
wheel. This consisted of a flat circular, or hexagonal, 
table, placed on a stand, and appears to have been turned 
with the left hand, whilst the vase was shaped with the 
right. The potter either sat on the ground or on a low 
stool to turn the spindle. The chuck was formed by the 
lower part of the mass ; indeed, it would seem as if the 
wheel marked 1, 2, 3, which revolved on a pin, was turned 
occasionally from the chuck. Cups and other vessels were 
hollowed out with the thumb or finger, and the vase 
fashioned externally with the hands. 

The mode of making the handles and other parts is not 
represented ; but they were made separately, and then 
stuck on, as well as the ornaments, which were made by 
another class of workmen. The larger dishes and pans 
were made with the hand. The furnace, which was a blast 
one, consisted of a tall cylindrical chimney, 6, 8, in which 
the fire was probably placed half-way up, and a current 
of cold air admitted by a grating beneath, so as to drive 
the flames through the top of the chimney, which has 
been conjectured to have been almost two metres, or 
6*56014 English feet high. When the vases were baked 
they were carried away in baskets, slung on a pole, and 
borne across a man's shoulder. 1 

In general such vases were adapted for culinary and 
other purposes ; but for those which were used for enter- 
tainments, or which stood in the domestic apartments 
where they could be seen, some kind of decoration seems 

1 Rosellini, M. C., 1. ; Brougniart, Trait6, PI. iii. ; Wilkinson, Man. and 
Cust., i. p. 164. 



to have been required. The simplest decorations were 
annular bands, of a black or purple colour running 
round the body or neck. 1 In some cases a wreath was 
painted round the neck ; 2 and certain jars and bottles 
have the representation of a collar pendent from the 
shoulder of the vase, painted in blue, black, and red. 3 
Others are coloured entirely with broad bands, of a faint 
purple and black colour. Occasionally the annular bands 
are united by hatched lines, 4 and sometimes, but very rarely, 

a few leaves are painted on the 
vases. 5 The most elaborate mode 
of colouring was to paint the whole 
vase with a ground, in distemper, 
sometimes blue, with festooned 
bands of narrow lines of white, 
red, and yellow colour and then 
to cover it entirely with a re- 
sinous varnish, to which time has 
imparted an orange colour. 6 Thus 
prepared they were humble imi- 
tations of the opaque glass vases 
the Egyptian murrhine and 
are considered to have been 
placed in the tombs instead of 
the real ones, which the relatives 

of the dead desired to retain. Others were coloured 
white and marbled with white and black lines, or else 

1 Rosellini, M. C., liii. 1926; liv. 
61; Iv. 67-87286-7, &c.; Ivi. 124. 
3 E. R., 4897, 4898. 

4 Rosellini, M. C., Ivi. 117. 

6 E. R., 4913, 4885. 

6 Rosellini, M. C., liv. 61. Cf. Lee- 

3 Roselliui, M. C., liii. 16, 17, 18 ; mans, Mon. %, hdi. 349 ; Ixv. 404 
Iv. 62; Lepsius, Denkm., ii. 153. 405. 



No. 18. Painted Jug. Egypt. Room 
No. 4936. 

of a warm red colour, marbled with crimson or brown 
lines. These are also covered 
with the same resinous var- 
nish. On some is painted 
a small tablet, containing 
an inscription with the 
names and titles of the de- 
ceased, 1 which is generally 
sepulchral in its tenor. Oc- 
casionally mere names of 
persons are found in these 
inscriptions ; but' sometimes 
the substances contained in 
the vases, or their desti- 
nation, are mentioned. The 
highest efforts of the artist 
seldom exceeded a stiffly-drawn lotus or papyrus flower, 
or a fanciful ornament. The cylindrical vases with 
rounded bases, used to drink 
water, were decorated with 
painted collars or wreaths. 2 
A more elaborately painted 
vase is given by Rosellini from 
the wall-painting of a tomb at 
Thebes. It is an amphora 
with a yellow ground, on 
which, in red and blue outline, 
are depicted calves disporting 
amidst shrubs and a bunch of pendent lotus flowers. 3 

1 E. R., 4875; Minutoli, Reise. Taf. 2 Rosellini, M. C., liii. 16-18. Lee- 

xxxi. fig. 8. Leemans, Mon. Eg., lix. mans, Mon. Eg., Ixiii. 367. 
250, 251. 3 Ibid. Ix. 

VOL. I. K 

No. 19. Painted Vase. Egypt. Boom 
No. 4910. 


It is a distant approach to the vases of the style called 
Phoenician found in Greece. The colours were laid on 
after the vase was finished, in water-colour or tempera, 
and the vases were not returned to the furnace, like the 
Grecian, in order to vitrify them. Several dishes or 
bowls are ornamented inside with single figures, or 
processions of deities, drawn in white or black outline. 1 
These scrawls are far inferior in drawing to the efforts 
even of archaic Greek art. It is evident that the potter's 
art held a very low position in Egypt, and that the 
occupation was pursued by servants or slaves. 

I have already mentioned that the colour of the paste 
varies from a fine red to a pale yellow, and that this 
diversity is said to depend on the baking, or on the 
quantity of iron present in the clay. The vases are 
exceedingly soft, easily scratched with the nail or cut with 
a knife. Their size varies from 3 or 4 feet to a few inches 
in height, and their shapes are too numerous to specify in 
detail. All these vases were taken out of the sepulchres 
in which they were placed as part of the furniture of the 
" eternal houses " of the dead. 2 

Of this finer terra-cotta the Egyptians made at a later 
period those votive figures called siyillaria by the Romans. 
They are the work of the modeller rather than of the 
potter, though some appear to have been pressed out of 
models. They are generally hollow, open at the base, and 
with a hole in the back, commonly of the thickness of a 
finger, to admit of their being hung upon a wall. They 
were whitewashed with a coat of fine lime, upon which 

1 Leemans, Mon. %, PI. li. liiL Ab. d'Allatif, RdL cle I'tigypte, lib. i. c. 

1 Cf. Rosellini, M. C.,- t. iii. p. 315; iv. p. 199; Passalaqqua, Cat. Rais. 

LAMPS. 51 

were painted gaudy colours in tempera. Thus prepared, 
they were fit either for the votive gifts of the pious, the 
decorations of the tombs, or the toys of the child. In this 
respect, then, they resemble the modern plaster of Paris 
figures, which embellish our gardens and houses, the shrines 
of the Virgin, and the nurseries of children. Those found in 
Egypt are nearly similar to those discovered in Greece or 
Italy, except that they are of a coarser style, and more 
frequently modelled in the form of Hellenised Egyptian 
deities. Of these, Isis and Horus, or Harpocrates, are 
the prevalent deities, though we occasionally find a Serapis. 1 
These figures are often characterised by a prurient inde- 
cency, which would seem to have had a satyrical, rather 
than a religious, motive. Besides these are figures which 
are, unequivocally, caprices of the artist, and exhibit a 
corrupt tone of public morals. Such examples are not 
exceptions, but rather the rule. The greater portion are 
of the period of the Roman domination ; and some are 
so inferior in design and execution, that they may be as 
late as the appearance of the Gnostic and Marcian 
heresies. They chiefly came from Alexandria, Coptos, and 


The lamps 2 are generally of a coarse brown clay, imper- 
fectly baked, 3 of the usual shoe shape of the Roman 
lamps, with a place for a single wick, and a hole in the 

1 Descr. de 1'figypte, A., vol. v. pi. 72, 2 E. R, 5183-5228. 

No. 11 ; pi. 86, Nos. 2, 6 ; Pococke, 3 Descr. de 1'figypte, A., vol. v., pi. 

Travels in the East. Fol. London, 1743, 73, 6. 76, 18, 19. 78, 15, 17. 86, 63. 89, 

I. pi. Ixiv. p. 214; Leemans, Mon. g., 28; Leemans, Mon. fig., pi. Ixxiii. 
pi. xxiv.-xxvii. 

E 2 


body of the lamp to pour in the oil. They seem to have 
been made by pressing the terra-cotta into a mould. 
Their black and burnt nozzles indicate their former use. 
They were mounted upon candelabra, placed in stands, 
suspended from the ceiling by chains, or else hung by a 
hook from the wall. None are earlier than the Roman 
Empire, and most of them were made after the introduc- 
tion of Christianity into Egypt. It is very usual to find 
the upper part modelled in the shape of a toad. Some 
have eagles, palm branches, and other ornaments, but none 
are decorated with the curious mythological and other 
subjects found on the Roman lamps. Those of the 
Christian period have l on their upper surface a border of 
crosses and other ornaments stamped in a low bas-relief; 
and round the upper edge are sometimes found inscriptions, 
such as, 0eo\oyia Qtov xapis, " Theology is the grace of 

God ; " (j)(tis fK <f)(i>TOs, " Light of light ; " H ayia \pvariva, 
" The holy Chrystina ; " TOT AFIOT KVPIAKOC, " Of the 
holy Cyriacus ; " in language more orthodox than gram- 
matical. Some of these Christian lamps are of a better 
ware than the earlier ones, being redder and brighter, and 
of a finer grain. But, as a general rule, even this branch 
of the art seems to have been in a very low condition 
in Egypt, and certainly inferior to its state in Rome and 
the provinces of Greece and Asia Minor. There are none 
of a style of art resembling that of the age of Herodotus, 
and which could have been used in the grand illumination 
or feast of lamps which he mentions. 

1 Private plate of Mr. Sams' Collection, Title-page ; E. R., 5207, 5208 ; 
Agincourt, Sculpt. Ant., xxii. fig. xiv. 



Among the ware in use during the period of the 
Roman domination, are objects in the shape of pine-cones, 
of a thick solid material and with a small neck and orifice, 
resembling vases. Their bodies are stamped with orna- 
ments of fleurettes and scales, which have been impressed 
with a small metal punch. Their colour is black, their 
substance hard, and their appearance resembles the stone 
ware. Their use is unknown, but they have been found 
at Palmyra, as well as in Egypt. It is improbable that 
they should have been used for vases, as their capacity 
is not sufficient to hold anything, except a little anti- 
mony to paint the eyes. It appears that they were 
architectural ornaments, and were suspended round 
shrines, under the cornice, by a plug inserted into the 
orifices. They probably represent clusters of dates. 
On a papyrus, in the British Museum, pendants of 
bunches of grapes are represented, disposed in the 
same manner, under the cornice, round the shrine of 
Osiris, who was doubtless considered as the inventor 
of the vintage, or revealer of the vine. 1 It is doubtful 
if these vases are anterior to the fall of the Roman 

1 E. R., 48688-73. Descr. de 1'tigypte, A., vol. v., pi. 76, 8, 16. 



A further improvement in the art consisted in polishing 
the vases. M. Brongniart regards polished vases as forming 
another class. It is difficult to determine whether this polish 
was produced by a vitreous glaze so thin as almost to defy 
analysis, or by a mechanical process. M. Brongniart con- 
siders that one of the entrail vases which he examined 
derived its polish from mechanical means, and that some 
vases of the fine red ware owed their lustre to a fine 
alkaline glaze. In another specimen of dark clay, , he 
discovered that the polish was owing to a varnish of an 
organic nature. Another mode of polishing consisted in 
covering the body of the vase with a coating of lime, 
which was then polished, and thus gave the vase a white 
or cream-coloured appearance. 

The material of which the polished vases are made, is 
finer than that of the vases previously described, and is 
sometimes as hard as sandstone. It is generally of a pale 
red colour ; but in some instances it is brown, black, or of 
a vermilion colour throughout. As a general rule, these 
vases are more finely shaped and more carefully baked 
than those of the first class. Being also probably rarer, 
their smaller size and superior durability and portability 
have caused them to be preserved by archaeologists and 

Different clays were applied to particular uses. The 
cruse, or ancient Egyptian lecythus, a vase adapted for 
holding a small quantity of liquid, probably oil to feed 



lamps, or medicaments of which only a small quantity 
was required, was of a hrown or black paste. These vases 
seem to have been in use in Palestine, one having been 
found amidst the ruins of 
Tyre ; and their clay and var- 
nish l enable us to comprehend 
the nature of the Semitic pot- 
teries. Some are of a light 
red coloured paste. 2 A pe- 
culiar variety of this vase are 
the double lecythi, the bodies 
of which are united by a 
band. 3 All these vases have 
globular bodies, tall narrow 
necks, and small mouths. 
Other vases, as well as jugs 
or bottles, with oval bodies 

and narrow necks, are made of a black clay, and one 
specimen, with a compressed globular body, has a lustre 
indistinguishable from the lustrous glazes of Nola and 
Vulci. 4 Among this polished ware, but of pale red 
clay, covered with a white cretaceous coat, are tall jugs or 
bottles with long necks, oval bodies and pointed bases, like 
the Aayrjiw, or lagsena. They are such bottles as the stork 
might have devoured his feast out of in the presence of 
the disappointed fox or jackal of the fable. 5 Another 
kind of jug, some specimens of which still contain a 

1 Brongniart et Riocreux, Mus. de 4 Ibid. 4812. This unique vase is 
Sevres, pi. xiv. 8, p. 60, 474. probably Greek. 

2 E. R., 4818, 4819. b Ibid. 4828, 4829. 

3 E. R. 4825. 


fragrant and balsamic; preparation, had a compressed 
body and wide open mouth, in order to allow an easy 
flow of the viscous fluid which they contained. 1 These 
vases sometimes have two handles, like amphorae or diotae. 2 
Smaller vessels of this shape are found united by a band 
to the circular double-handled aryballi, evidently for uses 
of the toilet ; one holding the ointment, the other the 
perfume for the fair Zuleikas of Egypt. It is evident 
that these are imitations of the more valuable alabaster 
and porcelain vases. All the terra-cottas are covered 
with a white chalk coating. The aryballi, or vases with 
a compressed globular body and two small handles, are 
supposed to have been toilet vases. 3 They are gene- 
rally made of a pale red clay, but are often covered 
with a cretaceous coating. Perhaps the idea of these 
vases was taken from the pendent fruit of the pome- 
granate, a favourite emblem. Their necks are short in 
proportion to their handles, and their handles reach 
from the shoulder to the lip, which is always turned 
with a ridge. The more elegant vases of this class 
were of the enamelled earthenware, but many were 
obliged to content themselves with polished terra-cotta. 4 At 
a late period of the Roman Empire they are of a flat com- 
pressed shape in unpolished terra-cotta, with the figure of a 
man holding a lion by the tail with both hands, modelled 
upon them, and have crosses 5 at the sides. One lecythus 
in the Museum has no handles, and is of a black paste. 6 
There are a few vases of this style, with two or more 

1 E. R., 4935-38: Ibid. 4848-54. 

J Ibid. 4904. s Ibid. 5230-34, 

Ibid. 4845-57. 6 Ibid. 4804 b, 



handles, resembling those of the- unglazed ware," but of 
small proportions, 1 and a tall egg-shaped vase with two 
small handles at the side, the giant of its class, seems to 
have been designed to hold a large quantity of some 
substance. The ampulla? vases are common. 2 Their 
colour is either white, with a cretaceous coat, or else red, 
like the Roman ware. 3 


The red ware was essentially a polished ware, if we 
may judge from the majority of specimens of that 

No. 21. Bowl of red polished ware. Egypt. Room, No. 22. Jar-shaped vase. Egypt. 
No. 5120. Room, No. 5154. 

description, which are very abundant. It generally con- 
sists of fine and small vases like other polished and 

E. R., 4843. 
Ibid. 4948-51. 

3 Ibid. 4839. 



glazed ware ; and was doubtlessly used for culinary pur- 
poses. It was probably the oldest of 
all Egyptian pottery. Its grain is red 
throughout, and the exterior surface is 
not heightened with coloured glaze, 
which gives it a deeper and warmer 
tone. The vases made of it were 
choicer specimens than those made of 
the first class of unglazed ware. M. 
Brongniart 1 has published one in the 
shape of Isis suckling Horus. In the 
collection of the British Museum is an 
exquisitely modelled vase of this red 
ware, representing a female standing 
and playing on a guitar, bent, 2 
which she holds under her arm. Her 
eyebrows and the accessories of 
her dress are touched up in black 
paint. This elegant specimen cannot 
be much later than the Eighteenth or 
Nineteenth dynasty. The orifice con- 
sists of a short cylindrical neck, and the interior contains 
a viscous fluid. Another vase in the same collection 

No. 23. Bottle of red po- 
lished terra-cotta, in form 
of a lady playing a guitar. 
Egypt. Room, No. i>114. 

No. 24. Gourd-shaped Vaae. Egypt Room, No. 5117. 

has been supposed by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson to have 

Brongniart, Traite, PI. xxu 2. 

2 B. M., E. R., 5114. 



been adapted for placing on the thumb of a painter, or 
of a scribe, 1 and to have been intended for holding a little 

No. 25. Vase of red terra-cotta, in shape of the fish Chastodon, or 
latus. Egypt. Boom, No. 5116. 

water with which to moisten his ink ; on it is inscribed, "for 
the existence of An," the end of a sepulchral 
formula. A third is in the shape of the fish 
cha3todon, and the fourth and last vase re- 
presents a lamb couchant, and is of the 
Roman period. Two stands or tables, 
trumpet-shaped, measuring about three feet 
high, and hollow throughout, are in the 
British Museum. 2 Similar stands are occa- 
sionally represented in the hands of func- 
tionaries, with offerings on them, which 
they hold out to divinities. There are 
also bowls of this ware of the usual shape, 3 
and some with the lips bent inwards, as 
if to prevent liquids from overflowing. 
Others, of a flatter shape, have on them 
processions of deities traced in outline, 4 
apparently to show that they were destined 
to sepulchral or religious uses. Besides 
these vases, there are cups, apparently for drinking, and 

No. 26. Wine jug 
of polished red 
ware. Egypt 
Room, No. 5173 

1 E. R., 5117. 

Ibid. 5118-19. 

3 Ibid. 5120. 

4 Ibid. 5130-41. 



others similar in shape to the elegant vases of arragonite, 
which still contain traces of the precious unguents -which 
they held. There are also jugs of a very elongated 
shape, with a narrow neck, resembling the lag^na, 1 which 
are generally of the red polished ware, and rarely of any 
other, and still contain a viscous vegetable fluid, which has 
not yet been analysed, perhaps the lees of wine. The 
bottles for water, which were placed under, and not upon 

No. 27. Pine glazed red ware. 
Egypt. Room, No. 5164. 

No. 28. Balsam vase of red ware. 
Egypt. Room, No. 5167. 

the table, were also of the same ware. Their body is 
oval, with a tall and wide neck, and they were placed 
upon hollow cylindrical stands. 2 Some other vases of 
smaller dimensions, but which must have been also placed 
upon similar stands, probably held other liquids for the 
table. 3 Those which are provided with side handles seem 
to have been made for carrying or suspending. As a 
general rule, they are all of a more valuable kind of 

1 Brongniart, Traitd, xxi. 4. 
1 E. R.. 5173-76. 

3 Ibid. 517S. 



ware, and of more careful execution and finish than the 
yellow and pale vases, which have neither polish nor 
glaze. This ware is, however, after all, 
far inferior to the red pottery of the 
Romans, presenting neither the compact- 
ness, the bright glaze, nor the clean 
fracture. It is soft and tender, easily 
scratched with a knife, but undoubtedly 
possessing the required property of 
cooling the liquids which were poured 
into it. 

The analysis of the red ware, according 
to M. Brongniart, is, Silica, 56 "13 ; 
Alumina, 18'54 ; Oxide of Iron and 
Mangnesia, 9 '60 ; Carbonate of Lime, 
5-24; Manganese, 1-07 ; Water, 5'56 ; 
Carbonic Acid, 4*46. It is not certain 

, ,11 T r> i i No. 29. Bottle in its stand 

whence the clay was procured 01 which of polished red ware. 

Egypt. Room, No. 5718. 

it was made, and it was so easy to 
transport it down the Nile, that no conclusion can be 
drawn from local finding. Some, indeed, of these vases 
were found in the cemeteries of Thebes. 


The vases made after the subjection of Egypt by Alex- 
ander form a separate class, distinguished by their colour, 
ornaments, and texture, but belonging to the class of polished 
or glazed vases. The texture of this ware is, in some 
specimens, very coarse, and mixed up with grains of white 


calcareous stone, or of grey argillaceous schist, while in 

other instances it is finer and 
more homogeneous. Its external 
colour is of a pale tone, either grey 
or rosy, or else of a brick red or 
of a deep grey. The inner clay is 
of a pale dull red colour, equally 
diffused, and in thick pieces, it 
is externally red, and black at 
the centre, the colours running 

NO. so. -Fragment of a Grseco- into each other and indicating 

Egyptian cup. Egypt. Boom, Xo. 

the action of the fire. The vases 

are painted with bands, spirals, animal forms, flowers, 
and architectural ornaments in red or black mineral 
colours, 1 which, adhered in the baking to the body of the 
vase. These colours are not affected by the action of 
water, fire, or acids, although the ware itself, apparently 
from the cretaceous nature of its body, is more or less 
injured by all these agents. The vases of this class are 
generally well made, but do not exhibit the great beauty 
of outline discernible in the vases of the pure Egyptian 
epoch. They are chiefly large jars, 2 or bowls for liquids 
or viands. Some are found of a peculiar shape, having a 
globular body, cylindrical upright neck, and handle from 
the body to the neck ; 3 vases of the same form have, 
however, been discovered in the sepulchres of the Rames- 
sid monarchs of the Twentieth dynasty. 4 Another vase 
referable to this class is a tall upright cylindrical jar, with 

1 Brongniart, Traite, p. 500 ; Mus. 2 Ibid., xiv. No. 23. 

Cer., tav. xiv., Nos. 14-19, E. R., 4863 3 E. R., 4855-58. 
-65. Rosellini, M. C., Ik. 3. 


a pointed base, having round the inside a ledge perforated 
with a row of small holes ; perhaps it was destined to hold 
flowers. On the exterior it has paintings of the phoenix 
and flowers of the papyrus. 1 These vases principally come 
from Coptos. 

It is owing to the circumstance of the Egyptians 
depositing these vases in their tombs, filled with various 
kinds of food and other substances for the future use of 
the deceased, that so many in a perfect state have been 
preserved. In them have been found corn, barley, 
lentils, the dates of the doum palm, the fruit of the 
mimusops, that of the balanites, or heglyg, eggs, and 
the clayey sediment of Nile water : as well as traces of 
articles of luxury, or medicaments, such as a thick viscous 
fluid, the lees of wine, fragrant solid balsamic and 
imctuous substances, asphalt, a paste composed of bitumen 
combined with some other material, a snuff-coloured 
powder, and chopped straw. The celebrated historical 
papyri of M. Sallier were said to have been found in vases, 
and the Greek ones of the Turin collection came from 
these fictile repositories in the tombs of the western bank 
at Thebes. In fact, vases answered, at that period, the 
purposes for which caskets or boxes are employed now. 
It would be an endless task to attempt to detail all their 
manifold uses, as they were the silent companions and 
humble ministers of all classes, from their cradles to their 

1 E. R, No. 5282. 



One of the most singular modes of employing this pale 
glazed ware of the Grseco-Egyptian class, was for writing 
on it, for which, sometimes, the yellow ware was also used. 
In the tombs of the kings and other places, slices of 
calcareous stone have been found, on which have been 
sketched figures of deities or other subjects, resembling 
the working sketches of a painter, as well as inscriptions, 
chiefly in the hieratic character. 1 At the Roman period 
inscriptions were often written upon potsherds, or trape- 
zoidal fragments of vases about two or three inches square. 
Many of these pieces have their inner sides turned in con- 
centric bands, as if they had originally formed part of 
cylindrical vessels, or the necks of jars. The same 
custom prevailed among the Copts, and many of these 
fragments have Coptic inscriptions on them. The prophet 
Jeremiah speaks of drawing a city upon a tile, which 
shows that a similar custom obtained among the Jews ; 
and the Chinese school-boy still learns the difficult cha- 
racters of his language by tracing them upon a similar 
object. 2 The Egyptian inscriptions have been written on 
them in the usual black ink with a thin writing-reed. 
Inscriptions in the hieratic or Egyptian writing-hand are 
not common ; they are chiefly religious. 3 Those in the 
demotic or popular writing, which was used after the 
Persian rule till the close of the first century of our era, 

1 E. R., 1-2-10 ; Youug, Hiero- * Morrison, Chin. Gram., Preface, 

glyphics, PI. 53, foil. 3 E . Rg> 5 6 4 3j 5544. 


are probably receipts ; but their contents have not yet 
been explained. 1 The Greek inscriptions on those brought 
principally from the Roman stations of Syene and Pselcis, 
commencing with the reign of Vespasian and terminating 
with that of the Antonines, consist of short memoranda, 
receipts, and epistles. Those from Syene are acquittances 
by the tax-gatherers (npanrrip^ apyvpiov) and publicans 
(juio-0wrcu) of " the sacred gate of Syene " for payments of 
the tax paid by craftsmen (xeipcovatoz>) or contributions 
(fjiepio-fjios). 2 One more curious than the rest, is an acquit- 
tance from Antonius Malcha3us, the port-admiral, to 
Harsiesis, a goose-feeder. 3 Those from Pselcis are receipts 
of the soldiers to the commissary for their rations. 4 Most 
of these were written by clerks, and, from the fact of 
their being found in duplicate, it is probable that they 
were used as tallies one copy being kept in the public 
office, and the other given to the payer, which accounts 
for their discovery near the stations. One is a letter 
written about the time of the reign of Severus. In the 
chapter which treats of the pottery of Assyria and 
Babylon we shall have occasion to advert to a similar 

The Coptic inscriptions are almost all religious, with 
some few exceptions consisting of memoranda or short 
letters ; and probably belong to the age of Constantine. 
They are not dated either by indictions or by the 
Dioclesian era. 5 

1 E. R., 5677-5760 ; Young, 1. c. 3 E. R., 5790 ; Bockh, 1. c. 4864. 

2 E. R., 5790-5849 ; Bockh, Corp. 4 Niebuhr in Gau's Nub. Tab. viii. 
Ins., Greec., No. 4863 b,-4891 ; Mi- ix. p. 18-20; Bockh, Corp. Ins., No. 
nutoli, Reise, xxxii, 17 ; Young, Hiero- 5109, p. 458. 

glyphics, PI. 53, 54, 55. 5 E. R., 5863-5894. 



Glazed Ware Analysis Glaze Colouring matter Use of glazed ware in 
architecture and inlaying Vases of various kinds from the Sarabut El 
Khadem Greco-Egyptian vases Inscribed tiles Toys and draughtsmen 
Amulets, beads, bugles, pectoral plates, scarabsei, &c. Small figures of 
the gods porcelain finger-rings Sepulchral figures Glazed stone vases 
rings and other ornaments of this material. 


HITHERTO \ve have been treating of that kind of Egyptian 
pottery which was unglazed, and which, consequently, 
being only used for common and domestic purposes, did 
not require any high degree of skill in the potter. We 
are now about to examine those kinds to which the 
Egyptians applied a vitreous glaze, and which represented 
the porcelain of the present day and the fayences of the 
middle ages. The term porcelain, however, which archaeo- 
logists and others have applied to this ware, is not strictly 
correct, since it exhibits neither the translucence, the 
compactness, nor the hardness of that substance. Nor 
can it be defined as glazed terra-cotta, since the body of 
the ware is of a different substance from that material. 
It is of a white or grey colour, and of a sandy, friable 
texture, the particles of which it is composed being hard, 
but having little or no cohesion. The constituent parts 
consist of silica and alumina, carbonate of lime, magnesia, 
oxide of iron, and water ; but the analyses present results 


so different, that no very satisfactory conclusion can be 
drawn as to the true proportions of the substances em- 
ployed. These were, probably, different, according to the 
manufactory, and the period in which the ware was made. 
The clay used, however, was only just sufficient to hold 
the sand together ; and a small quantity of soda found in 
it seems to have been introduced to effect the glazing. 
Its specific gravity is 2'613, and it is not fusible even at a 
white heat. This paste, or body, which was the core ot 
the glaze, could have very little plasticity, presenting a 
gritty, sandy mass, difficult to form into vases, and con- 
cave pieces turned on the wheel ; it was, however, more 
easily stamped in moulds, in the shape of small figures of 
various kinds. The reason why the Egyptians used this 
kind of paste appears to have been that their argillaceous 
clays would not combine with their siliceous glazes. When 
placed on vases of the kind described in the preceding 
chapter, this glaze would have bubbled, peeled, scaled, or 
fallen off". The use of lead in glazing had not yet been 
discovered, and the siliceous glaze required to be held by 
other siliceous particles, which were all retained in a 
granular state by the clay. 1 When the object had assumed 
the intended shape, the glaze was laid on. It was com- 
posed of silica probably a finely ground or triturated 
sand, and soda, to which were added certain metallic 
oxides to produce the colour required. For the fine 
celestial blue, which is still the admiration of all who view 
it, and scarcely rivalled after thirty centuries of human 
experience, an oxide of copper was employed. 2 The green 

1 Brongniart, Traite, i. 505. de la Verrerie n en Egypte ; Descr. de 

2 Boudet, Notice Historique de 1'Art 1'^gypte Antiq. Mem., t. ii. p. 17. 

V 2 


glaze, which, in many instances, seems to be the blue 
changed by the effects of time, is also stated to have been 
produced by another oxide of the same metal. The red 
glaze, but rarely seen, is conjectured to be a protoxide of 
copper ; the violet, to be formed by an oxide of manga- 
nese, although capable of being produced by gold. Yellow 
was, perhaps, made with silver ; the white glaze with tin, 
or a white earth. 1 No very recent analysis has, however, 
been made ; and it is to be regretted that we are com- 
pelled to acquiesce in the conjectures of archaeologists, 
rather than to adopt the tests of chemists. 2 Of these 
colours the celestial blue is the predominant one, the rest 
being occasional varieties, used for objects made in the 
Greek and Roman epochs, when foreign ideas and tastes 
had superseded the genuine national feelings. The glaze 
is often thick and tender, susceptible of injury from the 
action of air, and liable to become covered with a saline 
efflorescence ; it only partially resists strong acids. From 
the impression of linen cloths 3 which some objects bear, it 
would seem that the glaze was laid on with pledgets of 
linen, unless these were used in the furnace to prevent 
the adhesion of contiguous pieces. The application of 
this porcelain in the arts was very extensive. It was 
highly prized, and was esteemed valuable enough to be 
exported objects made of it having been found in Greece 
and Italy : but of the technical means employed in its 
preparation there are no representations in the sepulchres. 
It is as old as the Sixth dynasty. In all cases where 

1 Passalacqua, Cat. Rais., p. 254, 258, 3 Compare, for example, specimens, 
an d ML B. M., E. R., No, 1120-27, on the back 

2 See, however, the general account of which are the traces of linen, 
of this ware. Mus. Pract. GeoL Cat. p. 32. 


beauty of decoration was required, and the object was not 
much exposed to the influence of moisture, this elegant 
material was used. 


One of the earliest instances of its application is to 
decorate the jambs of an inner door of the Pyramid at 
Saqqara, in the style of the chimney-pieces plated with 
Dutch tiles which were in fashion about half a century 
ago. The tiles are two inches long by one broad, and 
almost an eighth of an inch thick. 1 Some are of a bright 
blue colour, slightly convex on the exterior, having a plate 
behind which was perforated horizontally, and was let 
into a layer of plaster a wire having been probably run 
through the tiles to secure them to the jamb. They 

No. 31. Tile for inlaying, inverted to show No. 32. Inlaying tile of dark 

manner of insertion. Egypt. Boom, porcelain, from the Pyramid 

No. 2440. of Saqqara. Egypt. Room, No. 


seem to have been made expressly for the doorway, for 
some of them have numerals in hieratic characters at 
the back. The tiles are rectangular, bevelled inwards, 
so as to fit into plaster. 2 They are of a dark colour, 
almost black, and thinner than those just described. 3 A 

1 E. R., 2437-42. 7, 8 ; Segato, Saggi Pittorici, fol. Fir. 

2 Vyse, Journal, iii. 45 ; Minutoli, 1827, fasc. ii. 
Eeise zum Tempel des Jupiter Ammon, 3 E. R M 2444, 45. 
s. 405407 ; Taf. xxviii. fig. 6, a, b, c, 


tablet in Lord Belmore's collection 1 had the usual repre- 
sentation of the cow of the goddess Athor, inlaid in blue 
porcelain on the calcareous stone in which it was sculp- 
tured. The early statues of Egypt, seem, like the acro- 
lithic ones of Greece, to have been often composed of 
different materials, such as ivory and ebony, or wood and 
porcelain. When porcelain or vitreous pastes were inlaid, 
the portions made of this material were the extremities, 
as the fingers and toes, the beard and eyes, and parts of 
the dress, such as the collar round the neck, the bracelets, 
and anklets. One of the finest specimens of this appli- 
cation of porcelain in inlaying, is a head-dress or wig, 
found at Thebes, which formed part of a small figure of a 
king, 2 probably about three feet high. The mass of which 
it is composed is of a deep blue colour, the fashionable 
head-powder of the day being probably of that hue. So 
regular is the arrangement of the curls, that they appear 
to have been pressed out of a mould. A rich fillet or 
diadem which passed round the head, is inlaid with small 
tesserae about half an inch long, and one-eighth of an inch 
wide, of bright red paste, imitating jasper and gilded 
porcelain. The royal asp or urseus is wanting. It was 
secured on the statue by a plaster of fine lime, and must 
have presented an appearance like the Lucca della 
Robbia ware. In the collections of the British Museum 
is a beard of deep blue porcelain, probably from a mummy 
case, 3 and some fingers and toes, 4 for inlaying into 
a figure. The ends consist of long plugs, and the pieces 
were fixed in with pins of glazed ware. Sometimes 

1 See Plates 7, fig. 1. 3 E. R., 6894. 

2 E. R., 2280. * E. R., 2409-2418. 



only a part of the inlaid work was in porcelain ; thus 
in the coffins belonging to the mummies of Tenamen 1 and 

No. 33. Beard of blue No. 34. Porcelain Finger for inlay- No. 35. Coffin of Horus ; eyes 

porcelain, probably ing. Egypt. Room, No. 2408. and beard inlaid with porce- 

from a mummy-case. lain. Egypt. Room, No. 6659. 
Egypt. Room, No. 6894. 

of Horus, 2 in the Museum, the eyes have only their brows 
and lids of blue porcelain, the white being composed of 
ivory, and the pupils of obsidian ; while in the coffin of 
Horus, a priest, the plaits of the beard are inlaid with 
paste or blue composition. Even at an earlier period, 
when the coffins were made in the shape of rectangular 
chests or boxes, the two eyes, called the symbolical 
eyes, inlaid into the sarcophagi, were of various sub- 
stances, 3 and without doubt occasionally of blue porcelain. 
Besides the inlaying of coffins, porcelain seems to have 
been applied in the same manner to a variety of domestic 
objects. A box of dark wood, in the British Museum, 
which was taken out of a sepulchre at Thebes, has at the 
sides, and on the cover, a square border made of rect- 

1 E. R., 6660. 

2 E. R., 6659. 

3 E. R., 6654. 


angular tesserae of blue porcelain, alternating with similar 
pieces of ivory, stained red. 1 We meet with several 
objects which were evidently inlaid into various articles, 
either used as furniture, or for sepulchral ornaments. 
These have a bas-relief on one side, and a rough flat 
surface on the other, enabling them to adhere by a 
mordant to the wood or other substance to which they 
were attached. Among examples of this class may be 
cited a small seated figure of a hawk-headed deity, so 
vitreous as to be almost a paste ; 2 a kneeling figure of 
Isis, deploring the death of her brother Osiris ; 3 some 
uraei, 4 or serpents ; a representation of the heavens, 5 and 
various legs, arms, and heads of deities or monarchs, in a 
thick opaque glaze, of a dark red colour, intended to 
imitate red jasper. 6 The pectoral plates, 7 called uta, 
described below, were also often inlaid with narrow 
borders of coloured porcelain, and even the whole figures 
of the gods and other emblems upon them, are composed 
of pieces of the same material, which formed a coarse 
mosaic. 8 The art was also applied to minute objects. 
An excellent little specimen of a scarabseus, about an inch 
long, in the possession of the Duke of Northumberland, 
has the body made of steaschist, covered with a vitreous 
green glaze, while the elytra are inlaid with coloured 
porcelain. There are in the British Museum two most 
remarkable pieces intended for inlaying. One is a tile of 
blue porcelain, six inches long by four inches wide, on 
which, in outline of a darker blue colour, is traced the 

1 E. R., 5897. * E. R., 2050. 

2 E. R., 836. e E< R-> 6247-55. 

3 E. R., 836. 7 E. R., 7846-70. 

4 E. R., 1973-74. C f. E. R., 7861-62, 66. 


figure of a royal scribe, named Amenemapt, worshipping 
Osiris ; l the other, which is circular, has a curious repre- 
sentation of a spider in the centre of its web. 2 


The vases made of this porcelain are of small size, and 
few in number ; for it was difficult to manipulate the coarse 
gritty paste into forms either complicated or of large 
dimensions. Few objects occur of a foot in height. Those 
made of it were rather ornamental than useful, and were 
not well adapted for the rougher domestic purposes. Some 
few, such as the bowls and deep cups, may indeed, upon 
special occasions, have held fruit or liquids ; but the smaller 
jars were apparently for holding cosmetics, and the boxes 
for salves or ointments. The cases which held the black 
antimony powder for colouring the eyes, called by the 
Egyptians stem or stibium, were some- 
times of this ware. They are generally 
of cylindrical shape, in imitation of 
slips of reed, of which they were 
usually made. 3 A remarkable one of 
white porcelain, in the British Museum, 
is inscribed with the name and titles 
of Anchsenamen, the wife of King 
Amenanchut, one of the later kings 
of the Eighteenth dynasty. 4 Perhaps 
the small plinths, to which are attached 
rows of little vases, were adapted for 
some use connected with the toilet, or for holding drugs, 

No. 36. Stibium Case. E. R. 

1 E. R., 6133. 2 E. R., 6134. 3 E. R., 2610-11, 2588. 4 E. R., 2573. 



although they have been generally supposed to be part of 
the painters' pallets. 1 Some of the other vases, such as 
the open-mouthed ones, seem adapted for unguents, -while 

No. 37. Painter's Pallet of blue porcelain. Egypt. Room, 
No. 5541. 

No. 38. Stand for four little 
vases. Egypt. Room, No. 
553T. Rosellini, M. C., 
No. 80. 

the smaller-sized bottles may have contained essential oils 
or perfumes. One vase, of elegant oval shape, resembling 
a cartouche, has two holes for red and black paint, and 
was decidedly used as an inkstand. 2 Some flasks made of 
this material are of a complicated form, the body being an 
oblate compressed sphere, the neck slender, the lip imi- 
tating the flower of the papyrus, the orifice of the mouth 
exceedingly small, as if intended to allow oil, or some 
similar thick liquid, to ooze out drop by drop. Round 
their necks is usually modelled the Egyptian collar called 
usch. There are generally two small handles at the neck, 
which sometimes represent apes seated and holding their 
fore-paws to their mouths, or else the head of the ibex ; 
and at their sides are broad bands on which are inscribed 
lines of hieroglyphics, consisting of a short invocation to 
the principal gods of Egypt, such as Amen-Ra or Jupiter, 
Mut or Juno, Chons or Hercules, Phtha or Vulcan, Pasht, 
the wife of Phtha, and Atum Nefer, their son, to confer 
health or a happy time on the proprietor of the vase. 

1 E. R., 5537-39-40-41. 


One of these vases in the Museum of Leyden has 
on it the name of Amasis, who reigned B. c. 569. 1 They 
are not of the fine blue porce- 
lain, but of a pale or dull 
green, and sometimes of a 
bluish colour. They appear 
to have been imitations of 
vases in the precious metals, 
as their decorations resemble 
those of the gold and silver 
vases represented in the sculp- 
tures. The most singular fact 
connected with them is their 
discovery in the sepulchres of 
the Polledrara 2 in Etruria, 
amongst other remains bearing an Egyptian character. 
From their style, which is not of the best period of Egyptian 
art, it is probable that they were made about the age of the 
Psammetichi in the Twenty-sixth dynasty, or the seventh 
century B.C., when the Tyrrhenians 3 were masters of the 
seas, and obtained these and othir trinkets from Egypt 
by their extensive commerce. 4 In colour and the texture 
of their paste they much resemble the half of a small box 
inscribed with one of the royal names of Amasis II., the 
last monarch of the Twenty-sixth dynasty, who fell into 
the power of the Persian monarch, Cambyses, when he 
conquered Egypt. 5 This box is decorated with winged 
figures of bulls and other animals, in the Assyrian style ; 

No. 39. Aryballos. Egypt. Room, 
No. 4770. 

1 E. R., 4767-78 ; Leemans, Mon. 
Eg. PI. Ixviii. 441. 

" Micali, Mon. In. Tav. vii, fig. 4, 5, 
Abeken, Mitfcelitilien, s. 399. 

3 E. R., 4767-4777. 

4 Rosellini, M. C. lv., 81. 

5 E. R., 4766. Trans. Roy. Soc. Liter, 
vol. iii, p. 177. 


a proof of the ascendancy of the Chaldean religion in 
Egypt at the time of its manufacture. 

Of similar ware, more compact in its texture, but of the 
same dull green varnish, are several small bottles in the 
shape of gazelles, 1 and porcupines, 2 with small circular 
mouths and short necks. Like those before described, 
they probably held oil. It is probable that no vases of 
this peculiar fabric are older than B.C. 900 800 ; at all 
events, none can be identified as being of an earlier age, 
for, during the Nineteenth dynasty, the bright blue fay- 
ence was more fashionable. An elegant little bottle of 
this ware has its side cut in six facets, and is ornamented 
at the angles with the representation of leaves. 3 Round 
the neck is a triple row of beads. Another of brighter 
blue is in the shape of a goose trussed ready for the table, 
the handle being ingeniously formed by the head and 
neck. 4 

A few vases of this ware appear to have been made for 
the sideboards of the powerful and wealthy, such as cups 
in the shape of modern wine-glasses, tumblers, and mugs, 
one of which being inscribed with the name and titles of 
a son of Rameses II., must have been specially made for 
his use. These cups are ornamented with lines of a darker 
colour, also glazed, imitating the petals of the lotus, or of 
papyrus: the hieroglyphical inscriptions are also traced 
in the same darker colour, over which the whole glaze 
was fused. 5 Bowls of this colour, some of about a foot 
diameter, were also made. Some smaller and deeper 

1 E. R, No. 4765. s E. R., 4779-87. Cf. Champ. Not. 

1 Ibid. No. 4763-4. Mus. Cb, X, p. 94. Prisse, Mon. % 

Prisse, Mon. Eg. PI. xlix, 14. xlix. 1. Rosellini, M. C., liv, 56, Ivi, 

4 Ibid. 13. 110. 



ones seem to have held various viands for the table. 
They were occasionally decorated with ornaments in a 
darker outline, such 
as flowers of the 
papyrus rising out 
of the centre. 1 One 
has an ornament 
crossing the diame- 
ter, representing a 
closed flower of the 
papyrus between two buds, and on each side a chse- 
todon, 2 a fish of the perch species, eating a young stalk 
of a water plant, the bud hanging from its mouth. This 

No. 40. Bowl of blue porcelain, ornamented with 
flowers. Egypt. Room, No. 4790. 

No. 41. Bowl ornamented with Fish and 

No. 42. Bowl inlaid with titles 01 Ra- 
meses II. 19th dyn. Egypt. Room, 
No. 4796. 

was a favourite device. 3 One of the most remarkable of 
these objects is a bowl in the British Museum. It is nearly 
hemispherical, and the body is of a dull purple ground. 4 
Round the lip is an inscription in porcelain of a yellow 

1 E. B., 4794. 

2 Leemans, Mou. Eg. liv, lix. 

3 Cf. Wilkinson, M. C., t. ii, p. 398. 

4 E. R 4796. 


colour, containing the names and titles of Rameses II., 
monarch of the Nineteenth dynasty. The foot is orna- 
mented with a band of circles, consisting of the usual petals 
of lotus flowers. Some other vases of this class in the 
Leyden Museum, have a seated female musician, attended 
by her ape, together with animals, and inscriptions. 

An excavation undertaken by Major Macdonald, in 
1847, on the site of the temple of Athor, which formed 
at once the temple and station of the miners at the 
Sarabut el Khadem, near Mount Sinai, brought to light a 
considerable quantity of fragments of vases and other 
objects of this glazed ware. None of those deposited by 
Major Macdonald in the Museum are remarkable for their 
size, but they are exceedingly interesting, being fragments 
of figures, cups, bowls, handles of jugs, and other vessels, 
many inscribed with the names of monarchs, commencing 
with Thothines III. and his regent sister Hatasu, of the 
Eighteenth, and ending with Rameses III., or Miamoun, 
of the Twentieth dynasty. As many of the inscriptions 
state that the monarchs were beloved of Athor, the god- 
dess of the Temple, " who rules over the Mafka," or copper 
mine, it is evident that these vessels were made expressly 
for the service of the station. From their peculiar appear- 
ance, it is probable that they were fabricated upon the 
spot. 1 

1 E. It 2405 a., 2417 a., and foil, 4795 a., 4803 a., &c. 



Draughtsmen, of conical or cylindrical shape, were 

No. 43. Draughtsman (abu) of blue porcelain. 
Egypt. Koom, No. 6413. 

No. 44. Draughtsman (abu), having the 
head Of a cat. Egypt. Room, No. 6414. 

sometimes made of porcelain, 1 also striped balls, of a blue 

No. 46. Toy in shape 01 a date of the dou 
palm. Egypt. Room, No. 6400. 

No. 45. Striped ball of blue porcelain. 
Egypt. Room, No. 6390. 

and dark blue colour, supposed to have been used as 

children's toys, 2 egg-shaped objects, 3 

imitations of the date of the doum 

palm, 4 and studs of hemispherical 

shape, which were used as ear-rings, NO. 47.-To y or ornament, in 

1 blue porcelain, in shape of 

and inserted into the ears with a pin. ^ 01 ^- Egypt Boom ' No - 


Amulets, in the shape of small figures, were extensively 
manufactured by the Egyptian potters. If we may judge 

1 E. R, 6411-12-13, 6414. 3 E. R., 6401-4. 

Ibid. 6389-93, Wilk. M. C., il 432. 4 E. R, 6400. 


from the quantities still found after twenty or thirty 
centuries of devastation, millions of these objects must 
have been made for the decoration of the dead or living. 
They even formed an article of export, having been found 
in Greece and Italy, and among the ruins of Persepolis 
and of Nineveh. It is probable that the mode of making 
them was long a secret to the Greeks and Romans, for no 
imitation, which can be referred to an early period, is 
known. They bear evident marks of having been stamped 
in moulds, and it would seem that a well-finished model 
was first prepared in terra-cotta, from which, after it had 
been baked, impressions were taken in a fine clay, flattened 
in a thick and circular shape. 1 These impressions formed 
moulds, which, when they had been duly baked, were 
ready for use. The paste or core of fine sand, mixed with 
a small quantity of argillaceous clay, was then pressed into 
the mould, the line left by the gates pared away, and the 
specimen, if of very fine work, retouched where defective. 
Separate impressions were taken of the hinder and fore 
parts, and the orifice, by which they were intended to be 
strung, was then made with a wire. After the glaze had 
been laid on, the figures were baked in the furnace being 
deposited side by side for marks in the glaze on some 
specimens show where they have adhered. The objects 
made by this process exhibit a great variety of forms, and 
range from six or nine inches to a quarter of an inch in 
length. They comprise amulets in the shape of various 
deities of the Pantheon ; of the sacred animals, and reli- 
gious emblems ; studs for the hair ; 2 drops for ear-rings ; 

1 Cf. E. R., 34 et teq. Descr. de 2 Descr. de 1'fig. Ant vol. ii. c. xviii. 
1'fig. Ant voL v. PL 87. fig. 19, 20, 21. p. 18. 


beads, and pendants representing flowers, and other 
emblems, which, strung in concentric rows, formed collars, 
necklaces, bracelets and anklets ; scarabsei, of various 
dimensions, the larger ones inscribed with certain formula 
relative to the heart ; large pectoral plates, which were 
hung round the neck, and finger rings. The application 
of this material to the decorative arts was most extensive ; 
but it was much too fragile for the ordinary wear and tear 
of life, and must have been principally* used for the 
imitative jewellery of the dead ; especially for the beaded 
network with which the corpse was covered. The meaning 
of this practice is as yet entirely unknown ; and, although 
in certain pictures and bas-reliefs, Osiris, who is always 
mummied, is seen encased in such a network, yet the 
hieroglyphic legends do not afford any explanation. 
Perhaps this custom may be symbolical of the discovery 
of the lost limbs of Osiris in the Nile. The most perfect 
examples of these networks, which are made of bugles 
and beads, have a scarab with outstretched wings over the 
region of the heart, and at the sides the four sons of 
Osiris, the genii of the internal viscera. The beads 
are of various sizes and dimensions, some being several 
inches, others scarcely a tenth of an inch long. The 
larger ones seem to have been stamped out of a metal 
or stone mould, and many of the smaller may have been 
made by the same process. The bas-relief amulets have 
sharp edges ; much sharper, indeed, than terra-cotta 
moulds could have produced. Among the beads are 
bugles of blue porcelain, generally about fths of an inch 
long, and perforated with a rather large hole ; other 
bugles of a more conical shape ; beads, generally made of 


a glassy paste, slightly rounded at the base ; spherical 
beads sometimes of rather large size ; and globular ones 
of smaller dimensions. There are also annular beads, 
generally of small size, distinguished by having large 
orifices and small bands of porcelain ; and flat plate . 
beads, like bone buttons, which occasionally are crenated. 
The bugles were strung in nets and formed, with the 
other small globular beads, the exterior beaded network 
of mummies. They often had small globular beads placed 
between them in order to conceal the thread at the angle. 
The conical beads were apparently strung, but I am not 
aware that any network of them has been found. The 
globular beads were also strung on network ; but the flat 
circular beads, like bone buttons, were diapered in fillets, 
which passed like a ribbon under the chin : at least they 
are so arranged on the mummy of a priestess in the 
British Museum. 1 The annular beads are generally of 
various colours, and are often elaborately worked into 
patterns representing the winged scarabseus thrusting 
forward the sun's disc, or into lines of hieroglyphical 
inscriptions. They are threaded and netted together in 
compact masses, and form a mosaic of thin cylinders, the 
respective parts being only in beads coloured blue, red, 
white, and yellow. These beads are certainly as well 
executed as they could be at the present day ; and some 
are extremely small, being not more than TO of an inch 
diameter. 2 In one of the Theban tombs a representation 

1 Mummies covered with these rich xxxviii. Cf. Mummies, B. M., E. R, 

vests are engraved in Alexander Gor- 6669, and foil. 

don's Essay, and in Pettigrew's History 2 E. R., 7041-77, various speci- 

of Mummies, PI. vi. Minutoli, Reise mens. 
zum Temple des Jupiter Ammon. Tab. 


of the process of threading these bugles and beads was 
found by Rosellini. 1 Three men are seen hard at work. 
One stands filing bugles of green porcelain. Another, 
seated, has before him a basket full of these bugles, 
some of which he has filed in rows ready for a collar. 
The third man drills a hole in a piece of wood. 

It would appear that some of the mummies were 
still more elaborately decorated their breasts having 
been covered with a collar of beads of various colours 
and sizes, similar to those which are seen depicted 
on the coffins of mummies. These beads are moulded 

No. 48. Beads in shape of fruit and flowers. From beaded work of a Mummy. 

in bas-relief on the side presented to the spectator, 
while the side towards the body is flat. They have a 
small ring above and below, formed of a separate 
piece fitted on before they were baked. Some represent 
bunches of grapes, and are appropriately coloured purple. 2 
Others in shape of the date of the doum palm, are of a 
deep red colour. Those intended to represent the edible 
fig, are of a yellow colour, while those which are imitations 
of the leaves of the palm-tree are coloured green, or white. 
These gay and various colours seem, however, to have 

1 Mon. Civ. t. ii., p. 307, 308. 

* The beads in the Collection of the 

British Museum are numbered. 
7502, aud foil. 


E. R., 



been reserved for mummies embalmed in the most ex- 
pensive manner. 1 Persons of ordinary rank had only the 
usual blue bugles. These seem to have been pressed 
from moulds, and are probably not much older than the 
Twenty-sixth dynasty, or about eight centuries before 

Besides the beaded work, another ornament was the 
pectoral plates, hung by a cord to the neck, and called in 
Egyptian uta or uja, which name was also given to the 
Sun's eye, generally called the symbolical eye. These 
plates are usually in the shape of an Egyptian doorway 
with its recurved cornice. 2 The subjects represented on 
them always have allusion to sepulchral rites. The most 
usual subject is the scarabseus, kheper, representing Osiris, 
or the Creator Sun, placed upright in a boat, and hailed by 
the goddesses Isis and Nephthys. 3 The base of the 
scarabaeus, which is of an oval shape, is generally inscribed 

with the thirtieth chapter of 
the Sepulchral Ritual, 4 more or 
less complete ; in allusion to the 
mystical transformations which 
the deceased had to undergo 
before he could obtain his 
heart. The scaraba3us was 
sometimes let into the plate 
by leaving a hole in it for the purpose. On plates in 

No. 49. Pectoral plate from a Mummy. 

1 Passalacqua, Cat. Rais. 8vo. Paris, 
1326, p. 146. Rosellini, M. C. Teste, 8m 
Fir. 1834, t. ii., p. 307. 

2 Pettigrew, History of Egyptian 
Mummies, 4to, Lond. 1834. PI. viii. ; 
E. R., 7846-68. 

3 Champ. Mus. Ch. X., p. 125 ; Lee- 
mans Mus., Leid. Mon. g., PI. i., and 

4 Lepsius, Todtenbuch. Taf. xvL 
c. 30. 


which no scarabseus is inserted, the subject is traced in 
outline, and may then represent the deceased standing 
and adoring Osiris, or the jackal of Anubis seated on a 
doorway, or a train of goddesses. On the reverse are 
the symbols of Life and Matter. These plates have in 
their cornice a series of holes, by means of which they 
were attached to the network of bugles thrown over 
the external linen wrappers of the bodies. Specimens 
of finer workmanship are often made of steaschist, 
covered with a siliceous glaze, and have their subject 
carved in flat Egyptian bas-relief, or else have the 
figures inlaid in coloured paste or porcelain. Although 
green is the favourite colour, yellow and white are 
also found. 

Besides the ornaments of the external wrappers, various 
other amulets and beads are found strung round the necks 
of mummies. Some have supposed that they were the 
necklaces worn during life, but it is more probable that 
they were made expressly for the dead. What figures 
were to be made in this material, seems to have been 
fixed by some special rule ; certain forms being of very 
great rarity, while others are extremely common. Osiris, 
for example, seldom occurs, while Isis and Nephthys are 
constantly found. They are seldom more than six inches 
high. One specimen in the British Museum, of the Greek 
period, representing Jupiter Serapis, is about one foot high ; 
but the majority of these figures are from one to two inches 
in height. They are evidently copies of statues, as they 
have the same heads and head-dresses as the figures of 
the gods. The left foot is generally advanced when 
the figures are represented walking, and the hands are 



extended and pendent by the thighs. The spaces between 
the limbs are reserved, i.e. not cut away, so as to show 
the limbs. The figures stand on a small rectangular 
base, and have behind an upright plinth, 
generally perforated at the top. Some of 
these figures are of exquisite style, and 
rather resemble gems than porcelain in 
the fineness of their details. None are 
extant of an earlier date than the Twenty- 
sixth dynasty, or from the sixth to the 
eighth century B.C., although it is probable 
that some were manufactured before that 
period. A coarser kind, of later style, 
instead of a plinth behind, have merely 
rings to hang them to the necklaces. 
These have the limbs detached or in open 
work, and, although much less elegant in 
design, occasionally show more freedom of position. 
The ring is placed at the nape of the neck. A few of 
the figures are seated, but these are rarely ringed, and 
for the most part have perforated plinths. When the 
figure had neither ring nor plinth, it was perforated verti- 
cally. Some are in profile, and the genii of the Amenti, 
as they are called, are often merely flat slices of porcelain 
cut out in outline, as if with a pair of scissors, and with 
one or two holes at the feet and head to connect them 
with the reticulated bugle work. Others, however, are in 
bas-relief, and of much better style. These figures have 
their collars and sashes in bas-relief ; and their decorations 
are sometimes painted red and yellow. 

Among the figures of the gods are those of Amen-Ra, 

No. 50. Kahhsenuf. 
From a bead work. 
E. B., No. 1189 a. 


represented as a man, walking or seated, wearing on his 
head the disc of the sun, and two tall plumes ; of Mut, 
the mother goddess, the companion of Amen-Ra, wearing 
on her head the psclient or Egyptian crown ; of Chons, 
their son, mummied, wearing the lunar disc, sometimes 

No. 51. Tauti (Thoth). 
E. B., No. 520. 

No. 52. Tahur (Thoueris). 
E. B., No. 1.34T. 

No. 53. Taut (Thoth), ringed. 
E. B., No. 518. 

hawk-headed, seated, holding his emblem, or the left 
symbolical eye, that of the moon ; of Phtha Socharis, the 
pigmy or pataikos, the Vulcan of Memphis, a bow-legged, 
naked dwarf, having on his head the scarabseus, kheper, 
emblem of his power as the creator, and standing on two 
crocodiles, or else holding swords and snakes, supported 
by Bast, the lioness-headed goddess, and by Isis and 
Nephthys. In some cases he has a double head that of 
a hawk in addition to his own. The lion-headed goddesses 
Pasht-Merienptah, Bast, and Tafne, wearing the sun's disc, 
a disc and plumes, a serpent, and seated upon a throne, 
holding a sistrum, often occur, with inscriptions recording 
their names and titles. Athor, or Venus, cow-headed, or 
as a female bust with cow's ears, occasionally surmounted 
by her emblem, the propylon, is also found. Ra, the midday 


Sun, a hawk-headed god, is represented standing and wear- 
ing the sun's disc ; while Nefer- Atum, the son of Bast and 
Phtha, having on his head a lotus flower and plumes, is 
either advancing or standing on a lion. Her or Labu, 
the lion-headed god, probably a form of Horus, wears 
the crown called atf. 

Besides these, there are Thoth, the Mercury of Egypt, 
ibis-headed, writing on a palette, or holding in his hands 
the left eye of the Moon, with Ma, or the deity Truth, 
seated, and wearing on her head the ostrich feathers, her 
emblem. Also Mau, or Light, kneeling on his right knee, 
and holding up the sun's orb ; and Taher or Thoueris, 
Apt, and the other goddesses, figured as hippopotami, 
standing upright, and having the tail of a crocodile down 
the back. Osiris is represented seated on his throne, 
wearing the cap of Truth, mummied, and holding the 
crook and whip ; Phtha as the Tat, in shape of a Kilo- 
meter. The celestial Isis stands, wearing the disc and 
horns, or else is seated, and nurses her son Horus ; 
while the terrestrial Isis has a throne, her hieroglyph, 
walks, or seated suckles Horus, or kneeling deplores 
the death of her brother Osiris. Nephthys, the sister of 
Osiris, has her phonetical name, the basket and house 
upon her head. Small plates often occur, apparently 
little pectoral plates, having Horus, the Sun, in his nascent 
state, or at the dawn, walking hand-in-hand with Isis, his 
mother, and Nephthys, his aunt. Horus, appears either 

1 Champollion, Not. Descr. du Musee Descr. de 1'%. Ant. vol. v., PI. 62 89. 

Charles X. 16mo, Paris, 1827, p. 1, &c.; Minutoli, Reise, PI. xxxiii. ; Pocockc, 

Leemans, Mon. du Muse"e de Leide, 8vo. Trav. in East, I.e.; Caylus, Recueil d'An- 

Leide, p. 1, and foil. ; Birch, Gallery, Pt. tiquit^s. Tom. i. figyptiens. 
i. ; Prosper Alpin, Hist. Eg. Nat. tab. i. ; 


in his character as the elder Horus, and brother of Osiris, 
or else as the younger Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, 
hawk-headed, and wearing the pschent. Anubis, jackal- 
headed, the presiding deity of embalmment, is represented 
holding a Nilometer, or walking. A very common type is a 
grotesque leonine pigmean deity, the supposed Baal or 
Typhon, either standing or kneeling, holding a sword, or 
playing on the tambourine ; on his head are feathers or 
plumes, and a lion's skin is thrown across his back. To 
this long list may be added some of the inferior deities, 
such as the four genii of the Amenti, already described, 
and deities with the heads of tortoises, snakes, and 

Nor are only the divinities represented, but also the 
principal animals sacred to them, such as the cynocephali 
or dog-headed baboons, emblems of Chons and Thoth, 
seated, and sometimes wearing the lunar disc ; lions, 
emblems of Phtha, and Pasht ; the dog, and the jackal, 
emblems of Anubis ; cats, the emblems of Bast ; the bull 
Apis ; some of the sacred cows, emblems of Athor ; the 
pig, the emblem of Typhon, and the ibex, indicative of the 
same god ; the hedgehog and hares, the sacred animals of 
Osiris Onnophis, are also found. Of the feathered tribe 
comparatively few occur. The chief of them, the hawk, 
wears the pschent of Horus, the disc and urseus serpent of 
the Sun, the lunar disc, the plumes of Mentu-Ra, the cap 
of Socharis : besides these we find the vulture, emblem of 
Mut ; the ibis, of Thoth ; and the Bennu, or nycticorax, 
of Osiris. Among the reptiles represented, are the cro- 
codiles of Sabak, ursei or cobra-capella snakes, emblems of 
the gods, human-headed, to indicate Rennu or Mersekar, 


scarabsei, some with human and others with lions' heads. 
Among fishes, the latus, the bulgad, and the oxyrhyncus ; 
among flowers, the lotus and papyrus. Mixed types are 
much rarer ; of these there are the sphinx and the human- 
headed hawk or soul. The objects most commonly found 
are the symbolical eye, emblem of the Sun or the Moon ; 
the papyrus sceptre, the buckle or emblem of life, fami- 
liarly known as the crux ansata, or key of the Nile, the 
easel or upright with bars, by some also called the Nilo- 
meter, emblem of stability. Of rarer occurrence are the 
animal-headed sceptre, crowns of the upper or lower 
region, feathers of the cap of Phtha Socharis, little pillows, 
curls, and staircases. On reviewing this list, which by no 
means comprises all the objects found in the debris of the 
sepulchres, it will be seen that they are principally the 
mystical amulets, mentioned or figured in the Book of the 
Dead, and ordered to be placed on certain parts of the 
body, either to confer benefit or to avert evil. Woe betide 
the unprovided mummy ! 


The porcelain finger-rings, telu, are extremely beautiful, 
the band of the ring being seldom above - of an inch in 

No. 54. Porcelain finger-ring, No. 55. Ring of red porcelain, -with 

E. R., 2977. the name of King Ankhutamen, 

of ISth dyn., E.R., 3027. 

thickness. Some have a plate on which, in bas-relief, is the 


god Set, or Baal, full face, or playing on the tambourine, 
as the inventor of Music ; others have their plates in the 
shape of the right symbolical eye, the emblem of the Sun ; 
of a fish, of the perch species ; or of a scarabseus, which 
is said to have been worn by the military order. Some 
few represent flowers. Those which have elliptical plates 
with hieroglyphical inscriptions, bear the names of Amen- 
Ra, and of other gods and monarchs, as Amenophis III., 
Amenophis IV., and Amenanchut, of the Eighteenth and 
Nineteenth dynasties. One of these rings has a little 
bugle on each side, as if it had been strung on the beaded 
work of a mummy, instead of being placed on the finger. 
Blue is the prevalent colour, but a few white and yellow 
rings, and some even ornamented with red and purple 
colours, are found. It is not credible that these rings, of 
a substance finer and more fragile than glass, were worn 
during life. Neither is it likely that they were worn by 
the poorer classes, 1 for the use of the king's name on 
sepulchral objects seems to have been restricted to func- 
tionaries of state. Some larger rings of porcelain of 
about an inch diameter, -f- of an inch broad, and -iV of an 
inch thick, made in open work, represent the constantly 
repeated lotus flowers, and the god Ra, 2 or the Sun, 
seated, and floating through the heaven in his boat. 
Common as these objects were in Egypt, where they 
were employed as substitutes for the hard and precious 
stones, to the Greeks, Etruscans, and Italian Greeks 
they were articles of luxury, just as the porcelain of 
China was to Europeans some centuries ago. The 

> Rosellini, M. C. ii. 307; Passa- J Wilk. M.C., iii. p. 374, n. 40822 
lacqua, Cat. Rais., p. 146. 23. 


Etruscans set these bugles, beads, and amulets in settings 
of their exquisite gold filigree work, intermixed with gold 
beads and precious stones. Strung as pendants they 
hung round the necks of the fair ones of Etruria. In one 
of the tombs already alluded to at the Polledrara, near 
Vulci, in Italy, was found a heap of annular and curious 
Egyptian bugles, which had apparently formed a covering 
to some bronze objects, but the strings having given way, 
the beads had dropped to pieces. These, as well as the 
former, had been obtained from some of the Egyptian 
markets, like that at Naucratis ; or from the Phrenician 
merchants, in the same manner as the flasks. One of the 
most remarkable of these personal ornaments is a bracelet, 
composed of small fish strung together and secured by 
a clasp. 


These figures, which formed an extensive branch of the 
porcelain manufacture, were called shabti, or shabshab, and 
were ordered to be made according to the Egyptian Ritual. 
They represent the deceased, and only two or three types 
are known. The most common is that depicted in cut 
No. 56, in which the deceased is represented wearing on 
his head the wig called namms. To his chin is attached 
a beard, and his form, enveloped in bandages from which 
the hands alone emerge, resembles a mummy set upright. 
In the right hand is a pickaxe, in the left a hoe, and a 
cord, to which is attached a basket, to hold the seed-corn. 
The sixth chapter of the Great Ritual is either traced in 



linear outline, or else stamped in intaglio in hieroglyphics, 
and generally in horizontal lines, round the body. The 

No. 56. Sepulchral figure. No. 57. Porcelain sepulchral figure No. 58. Sepulchral figure 
in shape of a Mummy. with slab behind. 

figure stands on a plinth, which is occasionally covered by 
the inscription ; and behind is a sort of pillar, intended 
apparently to attach it to a wall, and occasionally 
inscribed. A rarer type, which prevailed at the time 
of the Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties, represented 
the deceased standing, and in the costume of the period. 
As these objects are of very common occurrence, some 


explanation of the meaning of their formula may not 
prove unacceptable. A short and common one 1 not 
sanctioned by the Ritual, merely contains the name, titles, 

No 59. Sepulchral figure, 
xix dynasty. 

No. 60. Sepulchral figure, 
xx dynasty. 

and occasionally the genealogy of the deceased, preceded 
by the word s'het, " illustrious " or " luminous is the dead." 
There were two modes of inserting the inscription. The 
hieroglyphics were either drawn in darker outline, with a 
kash-reed duly prepared, which is the manner in which 
the sepulchral figures of porcelain of Amenophis III., 
Sethos I., and others, were inscribed ; or else they were 
impressed with a stamp, in imitation of those carved in 
stone, wood, and other materials. Such is the method 

1 For examples of these figures, see Descr. de 1'lSg. Ant., voL v., PL 62. 15 
16. PL 65, 6. PI. 78, 11, 12. 


observed on figures used for the funerals of officers de- 
ceased, in the reigns of the kings of the Twenty-sixth 
dynasty, B.C. 800 525. In other instances they were 
prepared blank, and the relations were content with 
allowing a scribe to write the hieroglyphics with a fine 
reed on the surface of the porcelain. These inscriptions 
are executed with more or less care, sometimes consisting 
merely of the name and titles of the deceased ; at other 
times, of the whole chapter of the funeral Ritual. They are 
arranged horizontally down the front, and perpendicularly 
down the back, rarely passing over the feet. Many figures 
appear to have been left without any inscription. These are 
generally small and of inferior style ; they seldom have a 
plinth behind, and the arms, whip, crook, and other acces- 
sary details, are often inserted in blank outline. These 
figures were deposited in boxes of sycamore wood, and 
drawn to the sepulchre on sledges. 1 The rich and powerful 
had them also made of stone, wood, and other materials. 
Great numbers of them are found, all repetitions of one 
model, which varies from nine inches to one inch in 
height ; and from their type and inscription, it is evident 
that they must have formed the staple of the potter's trade. 
The prevalent colour of them is blue, sometimes of a deep 
and almost purple hue, but generally of the cobalt or celes- 
tial tint. Green rarely occurs, white is still more 
uncommon ; and in figures of that colour the hierogly- 
phics are brown or purple. Yellow and red figures are 
also of rare occurrence. Sometimes these figures are of 
fine execution, the modeller having exerted his utmost 
talent to execute them in his conventional style. All 

1 Lepsius, Todtenbuch, ii., c. 6. 


the inscriptions commence with the formula set Hes-ar, 
" shone upon " or " illustrious Osiris," or " Osirified," i.e. 
the deceased. Then follows the text of the sixth chapter l 
of the Ritual, entitled "the chapter explaining how to 
make the labouring figures of the Osiris in the Hades." 
It appears from the contents of the formula that the 
use of these figures was to aid the deceased in his 
labours of preparing and irrigating the ground, and 
raising the crop in the mystical fields of the Aahenru 
or Aahlu, probably the bean-fields, or Elysium, and in 
the transport of the food from the west to the east. 
It has been conjectured that they were deposited by 
the relations, but it would rather appear that they were 
like the Chinese yung, or dummies, the substitute for 
human victims formerly offered at the grave in order to 
assist the deceased in his labours in the future state. It 
would be tedious to detail the names of all the function- 
aries of whom figures are known ; it suffices to say that 
they were essential to all classes of society, from the 
monarch to the priest, or the village scribe. They have 
been found only in Egypt and her possessions ; yet as 
they were often kept ready-made, there is no reason why 
they may not, like other undoubtedly sepulchral objects, 
have occasionally found their way into the foreign market. 


The last process which we have to describe is the 
application of a vitreous glaze to different substances 

1 Passalacqua, Cat. Rais. p. 172-3. 


carved in certain hard materials, so as to produce a 
peculiar glazed ware. The substance chiefly employed 
was agalmatolite or steaschist, closely resembling the 
soapstone of which the Chinese figures are made. The 
advantages obtained by the process were, greater sharp- 
ness of the edges, and greater density of the substance ; 
which before it had undergone the fire of the kiln, was 
exceedingly soft, and easily carved. The method of pro- 
ceeding was as follows : The object was first of all made 
of the required shape, either on the lathe or by the 
graver ; and after it had been coated with a layer of 
glaze, which was generally of a uniform colour in each 
specimen, it was transferred to the furnaces. This mate- 
rial was especially used for minute objects in which 
carving or engraving of any kind was deemed requisite. 
The earliest dated specimen of it is of the reign of 
Thothmes I. of the Eighteenth dynasty, about 1800 B. c. ; 
but earlier specimens probably exist, and one little object 
with the name of Chuvu may be as old as the celebrated 
Cheops. It was used for most of the purposes to which 
porcelain was applied, but it was undoubtedly the most 
highly prized of all the vitrified wares, except perhaps 
pastes or glass. In the British Museum are preserved a 
leg of a footstool, of this material, six inches high, turned 
and provided with mortises, evidently showing that it 
was joined to some other material, and a vase for holding 
colours or stibium, in the shape of four cylinders united 
together, on which is neatly incised, " Health to the scribe 
Amasis." Another vase for holding kohl or antimony 
powder for the toilet, of the ordinary shape of these little 
pots, stands on a small pedestal of the same material, and 

VOL. I. 


has carved round it in open work, a frieze of guitars and 
feathers, expressive of the idea, " good and true." Another 
elegant, but mutilated vase, of this kind, possibly of a 
kind of sandstone, with a globular body, wide cylindrical 
mouth, and elegant stem, bears in front on a small tablet 

No. 61. Vase of a glazed schist, bearing the name and title of Thothmes I. 
Egypt. Boom, 4762. 

the prenomen and name of Thothmes I. On all these 
objects the glaze is of an olive green colour. Sepulchral 
figures, shabti, for the funerals of persons of high rank, 
similar to those already described in porcelain, but sharper 
and finer, were made of this material ; and frequently also 
the pectoral plates called uta, or uja. Jars of it for the 
entrails are seldom found. Subjects are often carved on 
articles of this description in intaglio or bas-relief, and 
the details inlaid with pieces of porcelain and vitrified 
steaschist of various colours. One of the most remarkable 
objects in this substance is a painter's pallet, inlaid with a 
figure of Osiris. Under this class ma\- also be mentioned 


the small figures which decorated the net-works or neck- 
laces of mummies, similar in all respects to those described 
in the account of porcelain, being the amulets and charms 
of persons of rank, and representing the principal deities 
who presided over the care of the soul, and the welfare of 
the body. Besides these, some little statues, made of this 
glazed steaschist, not strung, but deposited with the dead, 
perhaps their household gods during life, are found ; and 
there is in the Museum of the Duke of Northumberland, 
at Alnwick Castle, part of a figure of Amenophis III. of 
this material. It was never employed for domestic uses, 
probably from the difficulty of obtaining it in masses 
sufficiently large, and from the precious nature of the 
objects made of it ; for many must have failed in the 
furnace. Its chief use was for seals, and amulets, 
worn as objects of personal attire ; for while its superior 
compactness secured it from being readily broken or 
injured, it was also capable of receiving a higher finish, 
and much sharper impression of the subjects executed, 
than porcelain. The principal shape employed for 
seals of this material was the sca- 
rabseus beetle, called in Egyptian 
kkeper, or " creator," and the sacred 
emblem of the god who made all 
things out of clay. The insect stands 
upon an elliptical base, on which 
are engraved the requisite hiero- 

No. 62. Scarabseus of 

glyphics. The elytra of the beetle are fS^*Si& 

1 . 11* 11 i Boom, 2935. 

plain, rarely having a symbol engraved 

upon them ; a rare specimen already mentioned, and one 

of the most beautiful, has the elytra inlaid with coloured 

H 2 


pastes. The glaze of these beetles is of a deep blue or 
green, rarely of a red or yellow colour. They measure 
from 3 inches to in. long, from ^ in. to -^ in- broad, and 
from 1^ in. high. The ordinary size is about f in. long, 
^- in. broad, in high. Besides scarabaei, other types are 
met with, such as oval tablet-shaped amulets, having on 
one side the god Bar, Baal, or Typhon, hippopotami, tebt, 
cats, the Egyptian hedgehog, the cynocephali, aani, wear- 
ing the disc of the moon and seated, the fish chsetodon, 
of the perch species, which was probably the latus, rami, 
grasshoppers, hema, flies, af, cowries, and the symbolical 
eyes of the sun and moon. Among the geometrical shapes 
are squares, rectangles, ovals, circles, cubes, prisms, paral- 
lelopipeda, cones, and pyramids. They are all pierced 
either through their long axis or diameter with a narrow 
cylindrical hole, were strung on linen cords when worn as 
necklaces, 1 or else on a gold or silver wire when set in 
the bezels of rings, in which they revolved. In some 
instances they were encased in a little frame of gold or 
silver, in order to protect them more effectually from 

The hieroglyphics engraved upon these scarabaei are 
executed in flat intaglio, sometimes with a wonderful 
accuracy and delicacy, completely rivalling those on 
gems. In fact, they corresponded in point of art with the 
objects engraved on carnelian and other precious stones 
among the Etruscans and Greeks, and on the vitreous 
pastes of the Romans. The author of a tract on Egyptian 
glass observes the minute delicacy with which on a little 
scarabseus, five millimetres long, is engraved the hiero- 

1 Passalacqua, Cat. Rais. p. 146. ' 


glyphic of a scarabseus scarcely one millemetre in length. 1 
On some only a solitary hieroglyph is cut ; but on others 
as many as three lines of these symbols are inscribed. 2 
They are of all ages, from the Fourth dynasty down to the 
Roman empire. The principal period of their manufacture 
was, however, the reign of Thothmes III. of the Eighteenth 
dynasty, one-tenth of these amulets bearing his name. 
A great number of others are referable from their style 
to the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasties. 
The other amulets are also chiefly of the same age ; 
perhaps, however, towards the commencement of the 
Nineteenth dynasty, rectangular and geometrical shapes 
became more prevalent. 

The cylinders are of an earlier period, and are chiefly 
inscribed with royal names. One in the Imperial Library 
at Paris bears the titles and name of Shafra, a monarch 
of the Fourth dynasty, and two in the British Museum, 
those of Osertesen or Sesortesen II. and III., monarchs of 
the Twelfth dynasty. One at Vienna has the name of 
Petamen, a scribe, and is probably of the Twenty-sixth 
dynasty. In general they are executed with more than 
usual care, and it is extraordinary to find them in use at 
this early period, as no impressions made from cylinders 
have been found. 

1 Descr. A. vol. v, PI. 85, figs. 17 20 ; diversi argomenti d' Archseologia, vi. ; 
Ant. Mem., vol. ii, c. xviii, p. 18 ; Palin Descr. de 1'Eg. A., vol. v. PI. 79 and foil.; 
N. G. in the K. Villerhets Histoire, 8vo, Steinbuchel, Scarabees Egyptiens figu- 
Stockholm, 1833, 11. re's du Muse's des Ant. de S. M. 1'Em- 

2 For further information and engrav- pereur. Wien, 1824; Bellermann, iiber 
ings of these amulets, cf. Klaproth, Col- die Scarabeen-gemmen, BerL 1820 21. 
lectionPalin, 4to, Paris; 1829. Leemans, Tassie, Cat. Gems; Champollion, Not. 
Mon. % PI. xxvii ; xli xliv. Not. Descr. p. 50-52 ; E. R. 3522-4374. 
Descr. p. 21; St.Quintino, Lezioniintorno 


It is important to observe that these objects attest 
a community of art in Assyria and Egypt. Some of 
the amulets, in shape of a head, wearing a round 
cap, are supposed to be of the Persian period. The 
mottoes or hieroglyphics found on them are of diffe- 
rent purport, probably varying according to the caprice 
or sentiment of the wearer. Some are the figures, 
names, and titles of the principal gods of Thebes and 
Memphis ; such as Amen-Ra or Jupiter, Mut or Juno, and 
Chons or Hercules ; Phtha or Vulcan, the tutelary god 
of Memphis ; Bast, Pasht, or Bubastis, the Egyptian 
Diana ; and Nefer Atum, the son of Phtha and Pasht. 
The names of Osiris, Isis, Horus, and some of the inferior 
deities of the Pantheon occur, and the principal animals, 
such as lions, cynocephali, the bull Apis, the cow of Athor, 
which produced the Sun, jackalls, cats, and other sacred 
animals ; besides many combinations of serpents, scarabaei, 
lotus flowers, and other emblems and symbols, such as 
meanders, and curved and spiral lines, the meaning of which 
it is not easy to determine. These subjects were probably 
. appropriate for the signet rings of the numerous religious 
body attached to the temples. Another large class of these 
objects, adapted for the public functionaries, are inscribed 
with the names, prenomens, and other titles of the kings 
of Egypt, and are most valuable for the illustrations which 
they afford of Egyptian history, some of the names being 
scarcely known except from these sources. The infor- 
mation they convey is, of course, generally very laconic, 
but sometimes the names are coupled with some facts 
connected with them ; such as, that the king is the son of 
a certain queen, or that he is beloved of the god Amen-Ra, 


or that he has conquered the foreigners. In the reign of 
Amenophis III., of the Eighteenth dynasty, scarabsei of 
the unusual length of 3 inches, and inscribed with several 
lines of hieroglyphics, were issued. They record the 
marriage of this king with Taia, the name of the queen's 
parents, and the limits of the Empire of Egypt Naharaina 
or Mesopotamia on the North, and the Kalaas on the 
South ; l the number of 2 lions killed by the king in the 
first ten years of his reign ; and the dimensions of a 
gigantic tank, or lake, made, in his eleventh year, 3 to 
celebrate the festival of the waters, and to receive the 
boat of the Sun. None of these objects are of a later 
period than the age of the Persians. The last division 
consists of those which are inscribed with names or 
mottoes, such as, " A happy life ! " " Sacred to Amen !" 
" May your body be well, your name endure ! " " Good 
luck !" &c. Such seals were probably used in epistolary 
correspondence, and generally served as rings ; but they 
were often inserted among the beads of necklaces or 
bracelets. It has been supposed that the amulets were 
also used as money for the purpose of barter or exchange, 
though it is evident that this could not have been the case, 
not the slightest trace of any such custom being discover- 
able among the hieroglyphical inscriptions, nor in any of 
the scenes depicted in the Tombs ; while, on the other 
hand, clay seals, which have evidently been impressed from 
similar objects, are found on letters written during the 
time of the Ptolemies. 

1 E. R. 4096 ; Rosellini, M. R. xlvi. 3 Rosellini, M. R., xliv ; Dr. Hincks 

3 E. R. 4095 ; Young, Hieroglyphics, on the Age of the XVIIIth Dynasty of 

PI. xiii ; Descr. de 1'figypte, A., vol. v, Manetho, Trans. R. Irish Acad., vol. iii, 

PI. 81, fig. 6, No. 2. Part 1, p. 7, 4to, Dublin, 1843. 


We here close' the account of the potteries of Egypt, 
which never attained a higher excellence in the art of 
making porcelain. Yet this porcelain was regarded by 
contemporary nations with as much admiration as that of 
the Chinese excited in Europe in the Seventeenth Century. 
But a further step was undoubtedly required to produce 
a ware at the same time compact as stone and brilliant 
as glass, and the discovery of this is due to the Chinese. 
The Egyptians, although they possessed the requisite mate- 
rials, failed to combine them so as to make a true 



Assyrian pottery Sun-dried clay Kiln-baked bricks Inscriptions Terra-cotta 
writings Unglazed pottery Terra-cotta figures Glazed ware Bricks 
Vases Enamelled bricks. Babylonian pottery Sun-dried bricks Kiln- 
baked bricks Unglazed ware Babylonian writings Bas-relief sand figures 
in terra-cotta Glazed ware Coffins. Jewish pottery. Phoenician 


ALTHOUGH the pottery of Assyria and Babylonia bears 
a general resemblance in shape, form, and use to that of 
Egypt, it has certain specific differences. As a general 
rule, it may be stated to be finer in its paste, brighter in 
its colour, employed in thinner masses, and for purposes 
not known in Egypt. Hence it exhibits great local pecu- 
liarities ; but, as prior to the excavations of M. Botta and 
Mr. Layard, only a few specimens were known, and 
as even now their number is comparatively small, the 
Assyrian pottery has afforded less opportunity for inves- 
tigation than the Egyptian or the Greek, The Assyrian 
sculptures, too, do not give that insight into the private 
life of the people which is presented by the wall-painting 
of the Egyptian tombs ; and their philology has hitherto 
been only partially investigated. 



The plains of Assyria, like the valley of the Nile, being 
abundantly supplied with clay by the inundations of the 
Tigris and Euphrates, the potter was as well provided with 
the material of his art as the Egyptian in the Fayoum or 
the Delta. It was most extensively employed for the manu- 
facture of bricks, which were easily formed of the common 
clay moistened with water and mixed with a little stubble 
to bind it together. The chief use of bricks was for forming 
the high artificial platforms or mounds, generally about 
30 feet high, on which the Assyrian edifices were placed ; 
and, for this purpose, they were fabricated out of the 
clay dug from the trench or dry ditch 1 with which the 
city was surrounded. They were also employed for 
the walls of the town, for the houses of the inhabitants 
and the tombs of the dead. 2 They were cemented with 
a mortar made of wet clay and stubble ; and when 
employed for military purposes, were revetted with blocks 
of the gray marble^ of Mosul, a kind of very calca- 
reous gypsum, to prevent them from crumbling, and to 
enable them to offer greater resistance to those ancient 
siege-pieces the battering-rams. In some instances, as 
at Mespila and Larissa, 3 the walls were demi-revetted, or 
faced with stone only half way up ; namely, about 50 feet 
from the bottom of the ditch, quite sufficient to resist 
the attacks of the ram. When used in the internal por- 
tions of the great edifices, they were also faced with slabs 

1 Layard, Nineveh, ii. 275. = Xenophon, Anab. III. iv. 7-10. 

8 Ibid. ii. 248. 


of the Mosul marble, on which historical and religious 
subjects were carved in bas-relief, and painted ; or were 
covered with stucco, on which similar scenes were 
depicted. 1 Some of these bricks have been even found 
gilded ; 2 and there is every reason to believe that the 
unrevetted walls of the Assyrians, like those of Ecbatana, 
were coloured externally white, black, purple, blue, and 
orange, as well as silvered and gilded. 3 It would appear 
that the bricks were made in a square wooden frame or 
mould, but not inscribed or impressed with a mark, like 
the Egyptian. There is some difficulty in measuring them 
accurately, as they are not so carefully and truly made as 
the bricks of Babylon or Egypt. 

Unbaked figures, bearded, and with a conical cap like 
that of a deity, were found under the pavement-slabs of 
the Assyrian palaces, as if deposited there for propitiatory 
purposes. 4 These are the only methods in which sun- 
dried clay is known to have been employed in Assyria. 


Although the Assyrians employed baked bricks less 
frequently than the Babylonians, still they were sufficiently 
common among them ; and these indestructible records 
have preserved some most important facts in the history 
of the people. They were made by the same process as 
the sun-dried bricks, being mixed with loam and sand, 
and also with stubble or vegetable fibre, apparently, to 
hold them together before they were sent to the kiln. 

1 Layard, ii. 12, 36, 38, 40. Geogr. Soc. x. p. 127. 

1 Ibid. ii. 264. 4 Layard, ii. 256. 37. 1. 

3 Herodot. i. 98; Cf. Rawlinson in 



They are slack-baked, light, and of a pale red colour. 
Like the Egyptian baked bricks, they were chiefly em- 
ployed to keep out moisture, hence their use for the 
ground floors and outer walls of the palaces. Some of 
the tombs were made of them. 1 They were laid in two 
tiers, with layers of sand between them, apparently to 
keep them level, or else to repel the damp. 2 Sometimes 
they were cemented with bitumen, 3 but never with reeds 
and asphalt, as at Babylon. 4 I am enabled, through the 
kindness of Mr. Layard, who has expressly measured 
them for me, to place before the reader a table of the 
dimensions of these bricks. It will be at once perceived 






K. of N. W. Palace (AshwraHal) . 




Obelisk King (Devenbar 77.) . . . 







n i> ... 





Obelisk King (Devenbar II.) from Qerdapan 




Khorsabad King (Sargori) from Sheriff-khan 


iz a 



Kouyunjik King (Sennacherib) . . . 




i a ... 








, ... 




> n ... 




i ... 




, ... 




Ashur-bani-Pul, his grandson . 










1 As at Kouyunjik, Rich, Residence, 
c. xiii. 36. 

J Layard, ii. 18 and 261. On some 
were found rude drawings and scrawls 

of men and animals; Ibid. 18. 
8 Layard, ii. 16, 18, 37, 38. 
4 Rich, Residence, p, 36. 


that they are of two classes : the one consisting of 
square bricks measuring from 22 to 12 inches, and vary- 
ing in thickness from 4 to 84 inches ; the other of rectan- 
gular bricks of about 14 inches long, 7^ to 6 inches wide, 
and 4^ to 4 inches thick, thus, like the Egyptian, being 
twice as long as they were wide, and three times as long 
as they were thick. 

Those at Kalah Shergat measured 14 inches square, 
by 3 inches thick. 

In all probability the above dimensions contain as their 
base the true elements of the Assyrian cubit. Each brick 
had an inscription impressed on it in the Assyrian arrow- 
headed character ; not stamped, as in Egypt, in a small 
square or oval depression in bas-relief, but intaglio, and 
either covering one of the broadsides, or running along 
the edge. Some semi-circular bricks in the collection of 
the British Museum, measuring about one foot diameter, 
have the inscription on the edge. It has not been stated 
how the bricks were laid at Nimrud, but at Babylon the 
impressed face was downwards. 

It is not easy to pronounce whether these characters 
were stamped, or inscribed by a potter with a style. 
Probably, however, they were made by the former means, 
as the trouble of writing upon each brick would have been 
endless. The knowledge of the history of the country, and 
especially of its geography, depends greatly on the deci- 
phering of these inscriptions ; since they not only record 
the name of the king who erected the edifice which they 
compose, but sometimes also his genealogy for two or 
three generations, and the name of the place in which 
the building stood. The formula on each brick was the 


same, with unessential variations, such as the inter- 
change of certain homophones or signs, which are of 
great value to philologists. It is these variations which 
teach the secret of the language. The inscription on 
the bricks of the N. W. or oldest palace at Nimrud, 
reads, according to Sir H. Rawlinson : 

m + 

T -V ^ 

- n i v - 


f I 

A^ >- 

T? < *? 

* I V 


beth rabu Asar-aden-pal sar kissat sar Asar l 
bar Abedbar (or Tigalbar) sar Asar 
bar Pulukh sar kissat sar Asar. 

" This is the palace of Asaradenpal, the supreme ruler, king of 


son of Abedbar, king of Assyria, 
son of Pul, powerful king, king of Assyria." 

Those in the central palace had seven lines of inscrip- 
tion, 2 

1 Layard, ii. 197 ; Rawlinson, Mem. - They are given in Layard, ii. 194. 
422. For a fragment, see Rich, Resi- For the reading, Cf. Rawlinson, 
dence, PL p. 131. Memoir, p. 415, 417. 


T Hf- <T ET * 4- 

T? T ~V * T'r 

TM IE! >f I V -ET 

m 4+ v <f- 

V ??T >=1T? A 

Temenbar, sar rabu 

sar dannu, sar kissat, sar Asar, 

bar Asar-aden-pal, sar rabu, 

Bar dannu, sar kissat, sar Asar, 

bar Abedbar, (or Tigalbar) sar kissat, sar Asar, 

sa betb. Levek. 

" Temenbar the great king, 
the supreme and powerful king, king of Assyria, 
son of Asaradenpal, the great king, 
supreme and powerful king, king of Assyria, 
son of Abedbar, powerful king, king of the land of Assyria, 

The bricks of the south-west palace contained also 
inscriptions in three lines, recording its founder, read- 
ing 1 

1 Layard, p. 1S7 Cf. Rawlinsou, Memoir, p. 423. 


T ~ 


I V - TM ~T I V 

Beth, rabu Asar-aden-asar sar rabu, sar dannu 

sar kissat sar Asar bar Tsin-akhi-irba sar kissat sar 

sar kissat sar Asar bar Sargon, sar kissat sar Asar. 

" The great palace of Asaradenasar, the great king, the powerful 

the powerful king, king of Assyria, son of Sennacherib, mighty 

king, king of Assyria, 
supreme king, king of Assyria, son of Sargon, supreme king, 

king of Assyria." 

Those at Kalah Shergat have the name of Amraphel. 

In the same manner the bricks at the Nebbi Yunus, at 
Kouyunjik, and Khorsabad, are found to record the mounds 
and sites of the cities of Nineveh, Mespila, and Sargon. 
The inscriptions on those of Gerdapan, Sherleker, and 
other localities have not yet been published. At Karamles 
was found the usual platform of brickwork, the bricks 
bearing a name supposed to be that of Sargon. 1 Rich found 
bricks at Arbila, but uninscribed, 2 as well as at Khistken, 3 
and at Denbergard, the favourite residence of Khusroo 
Purvis, 4 in the Zendan. 

1 Layard, i. 52. 3 II., 276. 

2 Rich, Residence, c. xii. p. 18. 4 II., 253. 




The Assyrians, unlike any other nation of antiquity, 
employed pottery for the same objects, and to the same 
extent as papyrus was used in Egypt. Thus bulletins 
recording the king's victories, 
and even the annals of his reign, 
were published on terra-cotta 
cylinders, shaped like a rolling- 
pin, and usually hollow, and on 
hollow hexagonal prisms. These 
are of a remarkably fine mate- 
rial, sometimes unpolished or un- 
glazed, and at others covered 
with a vitreous siliceous glaze or 
white coating. On the cylinders 
the inscriptions are engraved 
lengthwise ; on the prisms they 
are in compartments on each 
face. Each wedge is about inch 
long, and the complicity with 
which the characters (a cuneiform writing-hand) are 
arranged is wonderful, and renders them exceedingly 
difficult for a tyro to read. Those hitherto published or 
known, contain the annals of the reign of Sennacherib, 
and the precis of the reign of another king. 1 

There are the Shergat cylinder, containing the History 
of Tiglath Pileser ; a cylinder of Sargon ; Sennacherib's 
cylinders; Esarhaddon's cylinder. 

No. 63. Hexagonal prism, inscribed 
with, the records of a king's reign. 
From Kouyunjik. Brit. Mus. 

Layard, Nineveh, p. 346, and foil. 

VOL. I. 



Sales of land and other title-deeds were also incised on 
pieces of this polished terra-cotta, and, in order to pre- 
vent any enlargement of the document, a cylinder was 

No. 64. Terra-cotta tablet sealed by a cylinder. From Kouyunjik. 

run round the edges, leaving its impression in relief; 
or if the names of witnesses were affixed, each impressed 
his oval seal on the wet terra-cotta, which was then 
carefully baked in the kiln. The celebrated cylinders of 
carnelian, chalcedony, and other substances, were in fact 
the official or private seals by which the integrity of these 



documents was attested. 1 These title-deeds are portable 
documents of four or five inches square, convex on each 
side, and occasionally also at the edges. Their colour 
varies, being a bright polished brown, a pale yellow, and 
a very dark tint, almost black. The paste of which 
they are made is remarkably fine and compact. The 
manner in which the characters were impressed on the 
terra-cotta barrels and cylinders is not known ; those on 
the bricks used for building were 
apparently stamped from a mould, 2 
but those on the deeds and books 

No. 65. Inscription on edge of 67. 

were separately incised perhaps 

with a prismatic stick, or rod, or as others have conjectured, 

No. 66. Terra-cotta tablet impressed 
with seals. 

No. 07. Terra-cotta tablet with, seals. 

with the edge of a square rod of metal. In some instances, 

1 A fragment of one of these is given also Babylonian Pottery. 
in Rich, Residence, pi. xxi. p. 38, and 2 Cf. Nasmyth, Landseer, Trans. R. S. 

described as of a yellowish paste. Cf. Lit. ii. 310; Layard, ii. 184. 
Sir W. Ouseley, Travels, i. p. xxi. See 


where this substance was used for taking accounts, it seems 
just possible that the moist clay, rolled up like paste, may 
have been unrolled and incised with rods. The characters 
are often so beautifully and delicately made, that it must 
have required a finely constructed tool to produce them. 1 

Some small flat fragments of a fine reddish-grey terra- 
cotta which have been found among the ruins, appear to 
contain calculations or inventories, whilst others are perhaps 
syllabaries or vocabularies, to guide the Assyrian readers 
of these difficult inscriptions. A large chamber, or library, 
of these archives comprising histories, deeds, almanacks, and 
spelling-books, was found in the palace of Sennacherib at 
Kouyunjik. 2 It is supposed that altogether about 20,000 
of these clay tablets or ancient books of the Assyrians, 
containing the literature of the country, have been dis- 
covered. Some of the finer specimens are covered with a 
pale straw-coloured engobe, over which has been thrown a 
glaze. Some horoscopes have been already found on stone, 
and careful examination has now detected the records of 
some astronomer royal of Babylon or Nineveh inscribed 
on a brick. Thus, while the paper and parchment 
learning of the Byzantine and Alexandrian schools has 
almost disappeared after a few centuries, the granite pages 
of Egypt, and the clay leaves of Assyria, have escaped 
the ravages of time, and the fury of barbarism. 

In Egypt some receipts and letters have been discovered 
written on fragments of tile, and on the fine porcelain of 
the Chinese are often found extracts of biographical works, 
snatches of poetry, and even whole poems ; but the 

1 Layard, ii. 187. 
s Many of tho-c were found at Nimrud and in Assyria. 


idea of issuing journals, title-deeds, inventories, histories, 
prayers, and poems, not from the press, but from the 
kiln, is startling in the nineteenth century. Although 
none of these clay documents have been found with 
Persian inscriptions, the discovery of the cylinder of 
Darius I., 1 or of his viceroy in Egypt, proves that they 
had not become obsolete in his day. Some few have 
been found sealed by means of cylinders, and recent dis- 
coveries have shown that they are as late as the Syro- 
Macedonian kings of Babylonia. 

The fact that baked clay was employed in this manner 
was by no means unknown to the ancient Greek and Latin 
writers. The Chaldsean priests informed Callisthenes, 2 
who accompanied Alexander the Great to Babylon, that 
they kept their astronomical observations on bricks baked 
in the furnace, and Epigenes, who lived probably in the 
early part of the third century B.C., is stated by Pliny 3 to 
have found, at Babylon, astronomical observations, ranging 

To. 68 Seal. From T No. C9. Seal. From 

Kouyunjik. Kouyunjik. 

No. 70. Inscribed seal. From Kouyunjik. 

over a period of 720 years, on tiles (coctilibus laterculis). 

1 Grotefend, Tiber die Keilpchrift. 1838, supposes him of uncertain age ; 
4to. Getting. 1840. but as he was a Greek, it is prob- 

2 Plin. Hist. Nat. I. vii. c. Ivi. s. 57, able that he was one of those who 
ed. Sillig., although Voss, De Hist. accompanied Alexander to Babylon. 
Grsec. Westerman, p. 437, 8vo. Lips. 3 IV., v. 1. 



Another use of this plastic material in Assyria was for 
seals, which were attached to rolls of papyri, linen or 
leather, and placed either on the side of the roll when it 
was made up, or else appended by a slip or string. Several 
such seals were found in the chamber supposed to contain 
the royal archives at Kouyunjik ; among them was one of 

No. 71. Seal of Sabaco and Sennacherib. 
From Kouyunjik. 

No. 72. Egyptian seal enlarged. 

Sabaco, king of Egypt, who reigned B.C. 711, and was pro- 
bably contemporary with the Assyrian king, Sennacherib. 
It is evident that these seals cannot have been appended 
to the document in the baked condition in which they are 

Xo. 73. Egyptian seal. 
From Kouyunjik. 

No. 74. Back of seal, with marks of cords 
and fingers. 

found, and some exhibit the traces of the fingers by which 
they were squeezed, and of the cloth or strap by which 


they were appended to the royal muniments. These could 
only have been impressed while the clay was moist. 
Similar seals of unbaked clay have constantly been found 
attached to Egyptian papyri, sometimes bearing royal 
names. It is, therefore, interesting to reflect, as in the 
case of the seal of Sabaco already mentioned, that if the 
autograph of Sennacherib, or of Nebuchadnezzar, has 
been lost, time may have yet preserved an impression of 
the royal finger. 


The researches of M. Botta and Mr. Layard have 
brought to light some of the terra-cotta vessels of unglazed 
or unpolished ware which were in use among the ancient 
Assyrians. These wares were found under different 
circumstances. One saucer -shaped vase, or patera, Mr. 
Layard found built into the back of a wall of the N.W. 
palace at Nimrud, evidently through the blunder of the 

No. 75. Small heart-shaped vase, No. V6. Bowl covered with a coating and polished, 

polished. From Nimrfid. From Nimrfid. 

workman. It must consequently have been of the age of 
that palace. 1 It has rather thick sides, and is of a pale 

1 Layard, ii. 13. 


reddish-yellow clay. 'Another vessel, having equal claims 
to antiquity, which was found between two colossal bulls 
at the entrance, of a chamber of the N.W. palace, is a 
cylindrical jar, with two small handles, and ornamented 
at the sides with two figures of a god with an Egyptian 
head-dress, a bird's body, human head and arms, and four 
wings. It is 1 foot 6 inches high, 1 foot 7 inches in 
diameter, and about J inch thick. The clay is of a pale 
yellow colour, and gritty texture. Mr. Layard also found 
at the S.E. corner of the same mound an earthen sarco- 
phagus, about 5 feet long, and very narrow, having two 
jars made of baked clay, of a red colour, placed at its 
side. Upon the covering slab was the name l of the 
Assyrian king Altibar, who built the central palace. Vases 
of baked clay were found inside another sarcophagus, 
scarcely 4 feet long, which was in the shape of a dish- 
cover. Similar coffins were exhumed at Kalah Shergat. 2 
A few vases and other objects of pottery were picked up 
above the edifices of Kouyunjik. Some of these vessels 
were evidently used for purposes of sepulture, as they con- 
tained burnt human bones. 3 The vases brought by Mr. 
Layard from Nimrud were chiefly found in the tombs in 
the mounds above the palaces, which seem to have been 
tenanted after they had fallen into decay. The clay of 
these vases is generally fine, and rather yellow in tone. 
They consist of amphora with rounded bases, some small 
jugs, little jars, bricks resembling those of the ancient 
Egyptians, shallow paterae, or little cups, one ribbed, 4 like 
those represented in the hands of monarchs, a vase of a 

1 Layard, ii. 52. 3 Ibid. i. 14. 

8 Ibid. i. 352 ; ii. 18. Layard, Mon. PI. 95, 96, 97. 



purse-shape, like the Greek aryballos, and various unguent 
vases exactly resembling those found in Roman graves in 
Italy and other parts of Europe. A group of the pottery 

No. 77. Group of Assyrian vases. 

would in fact exhibit very little difference in respect to 
shape from that found in ordinary Roman sepulchres. 
With these objects were also found certain lamps, which, 
from the helices, or architectural ornaments on their 
handles, were evidently of Greek fabric, and of the period 
of the Seleucidse ; and some terra-cotta figures, also the 
work of Greek artists, and presenting well-known types. 
Some of the lamps are of a peculiar shape, with long 
recurved nozzles, still black from the effects of burning, 1 
and such as might have been lighted at Belshazzar's feast. 
The vases, few of which are of any great size, range from 
1 inch to 2 feet high. Their ornaments are of the simplest 
kind, consisting of a few annular lines or concentric 
rings, sometimes diversified with bands of hatched lines, 

1 Layai-d, Mon. PL 95, 96. 


resembling the continuous repetition of a cuneiform 

M. Botta found several vases of this kind in the excava- 
tions which he made at Khorsabad. They contained 
burnt bones, and were in the shape of urns with oval 
bodies and covers, having a hatched ornament round the 
body. Each of these vases with its contents was placed 
in a separate cell ; and they were evidently contempora- 
neous with the palace. 1 

That this unglazed ware continued to be made till a 
late period is proved by certain basins, brought by 
Mr. Steuart and Sir H. Rawlinson from Chalda?a, each 
having a lid or cover, inscribed with Hebrew and Syriac 

No. 78. Lamp from Nimrtid. 

characters. These inscriptions have been deciphered by 
Mr. Ellis, and their exact age can therefore be determined ; 
but when we consider how constant was the habit among 
the Assyrians of covering every object with their arrow- 
headed inscriptions, and that none occur on any of their 
earthen vessels, but, on the contrary, inscriptions in the 
square Hebrew and Estranghelo Syriac characters, it is 
evident that the greater part of this pottery is not of the 
old Assyrian period. It belongs probably to about the 

1 Botta, Mon. de Nineveh, PI. 165. 



fourth century of our era. When the palace fell to decay, 
consequent on the downfal of the empire, the huge mounds 
were tenanted by the Chaldean, the Greek, the Roman, 

No. 7D. Bowl with Chaldee inscription. 

No. 80. Bowl with Hebrew inscription. 

and the Arab, and it is probable that to some of these 
races many of these vases must be referred. Various kinds 
of ornament were adopted. On some, hatched lines, forming 
continuous bands, were impressed with a tool while the clay 
was moist. Others have continuous perpendicular and 
horizontal lines, formed apparently by the repetition of an 
arrow-headed character. On one specimen is a series of 
goats and pomegranates, resembling in treatment the 

No. 81. Bowl with Syriac inscription. 

No. 82. Stamp on a vase, 
apparently Sassanian. 

designs found on the gems of the Sassanian monarchs of 
Persia, but possibly old Assyrian. Painting is rarely seen 
on the unglazed vases. Some fragments from Karamles 



and other localities had pale yellow backgrounds, with 
horizontal or vertical lines of a dark brown colour. On 
some specimens a few characters resembling the Pho3nician 
have been written in a dark carbonic ink. 


Although there can be no doubt that many figures of 
the Assyrian deities, and many of the architectural orna- 
ments employed by that people, were made in terra-cotta, 
few have reached the present time. Probably, as in 
Babylon, they were cased with gold and bronze, which 
attracted the cupidity of the spoilers. Several small terra- 
cotta figures made of a fine 
clay, which has turned of a 
pale red in baking, were found 
at Nimrud l and at Khorsa- 
bad. 2 They are coloured with 
a cretaceous coating, and re- 
semble in all respects the 
Greek pottery. They are 
probably of the age of the 
Seleucidae, though some may 
be referred unhesitatingly to 
a period prior to the fall of 
Nineveh. In some of the corbels of the N.W. palace, 
the part projecting from the wall was moulded in terra- 
cotta in the shape of five fingers, and inscribed with the 

No. 83. Terra-cotta figures of Assyrian 

1 Layard, Monuments, pi. 95, Nos. 

8 Those found at Khorsabad, as well 

as the ditch or trench in which they 
were, are figured. Botta & Flandin, 
Mon. de Ninev6, pi. 165. 


usual formula, "The Palace of Asar-aden-pal, the great 
king." l These are of a pale red colour, like the cylinders. 
There are also some objects, apparently of a votive nature, 
and in the shape of sleeping ducks, made of a fine yellow 
clay, and inscribed with numerals. 2 Mo~ Ms for making 
small figures have also been found in terra-^otta. Some 
seals, about an inch in diameter, of fine dark clay, were 
discovered at Khorsabad, impressed from a circular or 
conical gem, with the subject of a king stabbing a lion 
with a sword. 3 

In removing one of the numerous slabs representing the 
hunting scenes of Ashur-bani-pal at Kouyunjik, there were 
found several little terra-cotta figures of dogs, standing, 

No. 84. Terra-cotta dog from Kouyunjik. 

made of a coarse clay covered with a blue, red, or black 
paste, and having names inscribed on them, such as the 
guardian of the house, the lion-tamer, &c. These are sup- 
posed by Sir H. Rawlinson to be images of hounds of the 

1 They are now deposited in the 2 Layard, Mon. pi. 95, no. 17. 

British Museum. 3 Botta, Mon. de Nineve", pi. 164. 


royal pack, probably those which had been killed in hunts 
of lions and other animals. 


Specimens of Assyrian glazed ware or porcelain are 
comparatively rare ; but enough have been found to show 
that it was extensively employed in the same manner as 
among the Egyptians for architectural decoration, religious 
purposes, and domestic uses. It is, however, far inferior 
in all essential qualities to the Egyptian manufacture, 
being coarse and dull, and having want of cohesion between 
the body and the glaze, while the vases and other objects 
made of it are deficient in the beautiful and elegant 
outlines of the Egyptian pottery. 


The appli cation of a glaze to bricks, in order by this 
means to give the appearance of fayence, to the sides of 
rooms, and even (if we may believe the mythological 
accounts) to the walls of cities, was probably derived by 
the Assyrians from the Egyptians, who at a very early 
period had inlaid in this manner the chamber of the 
pyramid at Saqqara. The glazed or enamelled bricks from 
Nimrud are of the usual kiln-dried kind, measuring 13^ 
inches square, and about 4^- inches thick. They were 
laid in rows horizontally above the slabs of sculpture of 
the Mosul marble, and seem to have been employed in the 
construction of cornices. They are glazed on one of the 
narrow sides or edges only, having on this edge various 
.patterns, chiefly of an architectural nature, such as guil- 


loche or chain ornaments, bands of palmettes or helices, 1 
and fleurettes or flowers of many petals. The colours 
employed were blue, black, yellow, red, and white. The 
glaze, which is much decomposed, easily exfoliates, and 
the colours have lost much of their freshness. 2 It would 
appear that patterns of tolerably large size were executed 
in this manner, each brick having its appropriate portion 
enamelled upon it. Thus, for example, there is a foot in a 
sandal and part of the leg of a figure, 3 about 2 inches long, 
which indicates a figure about a foot high, on one brick in 
the British Museum, and on another is the head of a goat, 
apparently also part of a figure. Another brick found by 
Mr. Layard in the earliest palace of Nimrud had a hori- 
zontal line of inscription in arrow-headed characters of a 
darker colour, and with square heads, like nails. Its tenor 
was of the usual purport, " This is the great palace of 
Asar-aden-pal." 4 Bricks of this glazed kind were found 
chiefly in the space between the great bulls which 
flanked the entrances of 
the chambers. FromNim- 
rud were also brought 
corbels of blue fayence, 
or what has been called 
porcelain, 5 the under part 
modelled to represent the 
five fingers of the hand. , 

No. 85. Blue corbel from Nimrtid. Bnt. Mus. 

They were let into the 

wall to hold some architectural member, and are 8 inches 

1 Layard, Monuments of Nineveh, 3 Ibid. pis. 84, 87. 
fol. London, 1849, pis. 84, 86, 87- 4 Layard, ii. 180. 

2 Cf. Layard, ii. 112. 5 Layard, Monuments, pi. 84. 


long and 4 inches broad, that part only which projected 
from the wall being vitrified. A brick brought from the 
second excavation at Nimriid has on it the subject of 
the monarch receiving a draught of wine from a eunuch. 
It is traced in a thin dark outline upon a blue ground, and 
resembles a Dutch tile, like those which used to ornament 
the stoves and chimney-flues of our ancestors. 

The recent analysis, made in the Museum of Practical 
Geology, of the colours of the enamel employed in this 
brick, shows that the opaque white was produced with 
tin, the yellow with antimoniate of lead, or Naples yellow, 
the brown with iron, the blue and green with copper. 
The flux and glazes consisted of silicate of soda aided by 
lead. The body or paste of the brick is of a very calca- 
reous quality, and to aid the adhering of the enamel to 
the brick, it was only laid upon one surface, which was 
placed horizontally when baked. 1 This is proved to have 
been the case by the melted enamel having trickled down 
the sides. The brick appears to have been first sjightly 
baked, and after being painted, when cold, with the 
required colours, to have been a second time sent to the 
furnace. This glazed ware was probably produced at a 
lower temperature than that made at present, which it is 
difficult to manufacture without its warping in the kiln. 
The enamelled bricks from the palace at Nimrud show 
that whole walls were composed of them, and formed a 
kind of mosaic work, representing subjects of consider- 
able dimensions ; for not only are there fine architectural 
ornaments, such as the guilloche, rosettes, leaves, and 

1 Sir H. De la Beche and Mr. Trenkam Reeks, Mus. Pract. Geol. Cat. of Spec. 
8vo. Lond. 1805, 30-32. 



flowers, goats, and winged animals, but also part of the 
face of a figure which must, when complete, have been 
about three feet high, and subjects like those of the friezes 
in alabaster. These had their subjects in white outline 
on pale blue, olive-green, and yellow grounds. Many 
enamelled bricks were also found at Khorsabad. 1 Similar 
bricks have been found in the palace of Susa by 
Mr. Loftus, with the remains of a Persian cuneiform 
inscription, and other ornaments. Columns and pilasters 
were also made of semi-circular bricks. 


Several vessels of this fayence or porcelain, which re- 
semble in their general cha- 
racter Egyptian vases, have 
been found amidst the ruins 
of the Assyrian palaces, chiefly 
in the tombs of the mounds. 
Two, in the shape of amphorae, 
with twisted handles, were dis- 
covered in a sepulchre of the 
central mound, 2 and are now 
in the British Museum. Others 
were found at Kalah Shergat, 
Kouyunjik, and Karamles. 3 All 

the mOUndS Of Assyria, in fact, No. SS. Vase discovered in tombs of 

[central mound at Nimrfid. 

have scattered amidst their 

debris the remains of the vessels of fayence which 

1 For some specimens, see Layard, 
Monuments of Nineveh, fol. Lend. 1849, 
pi. 84. 

VOL. I. 

2 Layard, ii. 18; Mon. of Nineveh, 
pi. 85. 

3 Ibid. 


formerly decorated the palaces. Fragments in the British 
Museum, acquired by Mr. Rich, Mr. Steuart, and during 
the Euphrates Expedition, show that vessels lined with a 
coarse blue glaze were in use in Assyria. The clay of these 
vases is the same as that of the bricks, except in one or two 
instances, in which it is of a fine white colour, like that of 
the body of the Egyptian figures. A small glazed scara- 
ba3us was found by M. Botta at Khorsabad. 1 The prevalent 
colour of this ware is a fine bright blue, verging to a green 
when the surface has been slightly decomposed. Other 
fragments, found in different localities, were of a pale lilac 
colour, or of a yellow pattern on a blue ground. In some 
instances the ground was white, with stripes of a brown 
and of a purple colour. 2 Few specimens are found, 
and there is consequently every reason to believe that 
this porcelain was rare and highly prized. As it has 
been discovered only very recently, no analysis has as yet 
been made, either of its composition or its colouring 
matter ; but there is every reason to believe from its 
appearance that it is the same as the fayence of Babylon 
the fine clay of the country forming its body, and the 
glaze being a vitreous silicated substance coloured with 
metallic oxides, principally of copper. 

Some egg-shaped amphorae, with a blue glaze, have been 
discovered at Arban, besides several plates and bowls of 
a yellow paste, glazed with brown and purple arabesque 
and floral patterns, probably to be referred to a later period 
than the Arabian dominion. Some of the fragments dug 
up at Sherif Khan were overlaid with a white engobe. 

1 MOD. de Nin., pi. 154. - Layard, Monuments, pi. 85. 


Two large discs found at Baashok, with raised studs, 
ornamented with a pattern of leaves resembling the 
antefixal ornament of the Greeks, and alternate flowers of 
the pomegranate, were also painted in dark brown upon 
a cream-coloured engobe, and glazed. 



THE structures of Babylon, like those of Assyria, were 
erected on platforms of sun-dried bricks, and the inner 
portions of the walls, and the more solid masses of the 
buildings, were made of the same material. Hence sun- 
dried bricks are found in all the great ruins of the country ; 
at the Mujellibe, 1 the Birs Nimrud, 2 the Akerkuf, 3 Niffer, 4 
and in the immense mounds 5 which mark the walls or 
other sites of the ruined cities of the plains of Shinar. 6 
These bricks, not being often found entire, have 
proved less attractive to the traveller and archa3ologist 
than the kiln-dried bricks, and hence their dimensions 
have been left unrecorded. They are rudely shaped, 
resembling clods of earth, and are composed of a kind of 

1 Layard, Discoveries, p. 165-167; della Valle, 4to. 1616; Rich, Memoir, 28. 
Mon., pi. 53, 54-55. 4 Rich and Porter, loc. cit. 

2 Layard, Discoveries, 1853, p. 132. 5 Rich, Memoir, 8vo. Loud. 1815, 

3 Rennel, in Archseologia, xviii., 249; 62. 

Sir R. K. Porter's Travels, ii. 329 ; Pietro 6 Rawlinson, Mem. Cf. infra. 

K 2 


clay-mortar, intermixed with chopped straw, grass, or 
reeds. Those of the Akerkuf have no straw. These 
bricks were made by the usual process of stamping out of 
a wooden block mould. They were laid with slime or 
clay, and reed. 1 


Besides these sun-dried bricks, remains of kiln-baked or 
burnt bricks are found in all the principal ruins of ancient 
Babylonia, and were used for the purpose of revetting or 
casing the walls. Like the sun-dried bricks they are 
made of clay mixed with grass and straw, which have, of 
course, disappeared in the baking, leaving, however, traces 
of the stalks or stems in the clay. 2 Generally they are 
slack-burnt, of a pale red colour, with a slight glaze or 
polish. 3 The finest sort, according to Mr. Rich, are white, 
approaching more or less to a yellowish cast, like our 
Stourbridge, or fire-brick ; the coarsest are red, like our 
ordinary brick. Some have a blackish cast, and are very 
hard. 4 The finest are those which come from the ruins of 
the Akerkuf. The general measurement of the kiln- 
dried bricks, at the Birs Nimrud, is 1 ft. 1 in. square, and 
3 in. thick. 5 Some are submultiples, or half of these 
dimensions. A few are of different shapes for particular 
purposes, such as rounding corners. 6 Those at the Aker- 
kuf measured a trifle less, or 12| in. square, and 2} in. 
thick, 7 and are placed at the base of the monument. The 

1 Porter, ii. 277. s Ric i 1) Memoir, 62 ; Brongniart, 

2 Porter, ii. 329. Traits', 316. 

3 Porter, ii. 310. 6 Rich; Memoir, 62. 

4 Bronguiart, Traite", ii. 89, 90. 1 Porter, Travels, ii. 277, pi. 65. 


bricks of Al Hymer, on the eastern bank, measure 14 in. 
long, 12f in. broad, 2i in. thick, and are of fine fabric. 1 
There are bricks of two dimensions at this ruin of the 
Birs Nimrud ; those on the northern brow, a little way 
down it, measure 12 in. square, and 3^ in. thick; they 
are of a pale red colour, and used for revetting the monu- 
ment. Lower down to the east of this, they are 4f in. 
broad, and 12f in. long. 2 Similar bricks were found at 
the Mujellibe, and in one place was an entire wall of them 
60 feet thick. 3 The whole plain here is covered with 
masses of brick work, and on one of the mounds the bricks 
are so red, that it looks one bright gleaming mass. 4 The 
bricks from the Mujellibe or Kasr are described as very 
hard, and of a pale yellow colour ; and this edifice presents 
a remarkable appearance of freshness. 5 I have seen only 
one fragment of a brick from Nifier ; it is of a white, or 
rather yellowish- white, colour, and sandy, gritty texture. 
This spot, it will be remembered, is supposed to be the 
site of old Babylon. All these bricks are made by the 
same process as those of Assyria, namely, stamped out of 
a wooden or terra-cotta mould, and are also impressed 
with several lines of cuneiform character. This impres- 
sion is always sunk below the superficies, rectangular, and 
often placed obliquely on the brick, with that disregard 
to mechanical symmetry which is so usual on works of 
ancient art. The stamp is generally about 6 inches long, by 
4 inches wide, and the number of lines varies from three to 
seven : an arrangement quite different from that observed 

1 Porter, ii. 396. A Porter, ii. 313. 

2 Porter, ii. 313. 5 Porter, ii. 355, 365, 366. 

3 Rich, Mem. 28. 



on the bricks of Assyria, and rather resembling that 
adopted by the brick-makers of Egypt. The inscriptions 

No. 84. Brick Stamped with name of Nebuchadnezzar. Royal Society 
of Literature. 

sometimes commence with the figure of a lion, a bull, or 
what may be intended for an altar. 1 These read, accord- 
ing to Sir H. Rawlinson, 

[of] Nebuchadnezzar, 

the king of Babylon, 

founder of Beth Digla, 2 or Saggalu, 

and of Beth Tzida 

son of Nebopalasar [I am]. 

Since the period of the researches of Porter, Rich, and 
Fraser, a careful excavation and examination of the ruins 
of the supposed temple of Belus at the Birs Nimrud has 
been made by Sir H. Rawlinson in 1854. From the re- 

1 Beauchatnp, Journal des Savans, 2 According to Dr. Hincks, Layard, 

1790; Europ. Mag. May, 1792. Disc., p. 515, Beth Shaggah. 


mains of three terra-cotta cylinders found at the corners of 
the stages of the brick-work, he has discovered that it was 
dedicated by Nebuchadnezzar to the seven planets. It 
was a kind of step-shaped pyramid, constructed like the 
apices of the obelisks found at Nimrud and Kouyunjik, 

No. 85. Birs Nimrtd, Restored. 

each step being formed of bricks of a different colour, 
and appropriate to one of the planets, to which the 
edifice was consecrated. The highest part, the second 
original step, composed of vitrified bricks of a greenish- 
grey colour, is supposed to have been the step of the moon ; 
the next, a mass of blue vitrified clay, produced by the 
application of fire to the mass of brickwork on the spot, is 
thought to have represented the planet Mercury. The 
fourth stage, built of a fine yellow brick, is conjectured to 
have been anciently gilded, and to have been sacred to the 
sun ; the fifth, of bricks of a roseate pink hue, to have 
been the tier of the planet Mars ; the sixth, of red bricks, 
to have belonged to the planet Jupiter ; the seventh, of 
black bricks, daubed over with bitumen, to have been 
sacred to the planet Saturn. The base, or platform, was 
of crude unbaked bricks. The pink bricks measured 
14 x 14 x 4 inches, the yellow 13^ x 13^ x 3f, the blue 



12J x 12f x 31, the grey 12 x 12 x 3, and the red 14 x 
14 x 5 inches. 1 Sir H. Rawlinson has endeavoured to 
trace a certain harmony 'of the proportions of the bricks 
to that of the stages or platforms, and that of the celestial 
spheres ; an ingenious idea, which, however, he has reluc- 
tantly abandoned. The walls of the Median Ecbatana 
were built of different coloured bricks on the same 
principle, which must be regarded as one of the most 
remarkable adaptations of coloured brick -work to religious 
or symbolical uses. 

No. 80. The Mujellibo or Kasr, exhibiting the Breastwork. 

The bricks at the Mujellibe had an inscription of seven 

1 See Rawlinson, Lecture Roy. Inst. for details; Layard, Nineveh, p. 495, 
fora general description of the Birs. 


lines; 1 those at the Birs Nimrud, three, four, or seven' 
lines : 2 others from the neighbouring ruins have five. 
Those from Niffer have five lines. The bricks at the 
Kasr had seven lines ; those at Al Hymer, on the 
eastern bank, ten lines. 3 Some of the bricks found on 
the hill of the Mujellibe had their inscriptions at the 
edge. 4 

Sir H. Rawlinson states that he has examined on the 
spot bricks of above one hundred different towns and 
cities in an area of about one hundred miles in length, and 
thirty in breadth, which comprises Babylonia Proper, and 
that all have the name of Nebuchadnezzar ; and that on 
the Al Hymer bricks in the published plates of Sir R. 
Porter, he reads Hemraimsis. The ruins of Niffer, in Lower 
Babylonia or Chaldsea, are stated to be more extensive 
than those of Babylon, and the bricks are stamped with 
the name of an independent king, which has not yet been 
deciphered. At Warka, which has been only recently 
examined by Mr. Loftus, the ruins are of a stupendous 
character, and the king's name, Urukh, on the bricks 
differs from any known ; at Mugeyer and Umwaweis are 
also brick ruins, bearing stamps of their royal founders, 5 
Urukh, Sinshada, Ismidagan, and Nabonidas. The details 
of their dimensions and other particulars, however, have 
not been given ; but it may be supposed that they resembled 
the other bricks of Chaldsea. The impressed marks were 
made, of course, previously to the baking, and the bricks 

1 Porter, ii. 345. * Rawlinson, Memoir, 476, 481, 482. 

2 Ibid. 312 ; Maurice, Ruins of Baby- At the time of writing this (1850), the 
Ion, pi. 4, 34 ; Porter, ii. 354. inscriptions on these bricks have not 

3 Porter, ii. 394. been published. 

4 Ibid. 355. 


were then carried to the brick-field, and laid in the sun 
for some time, since the marks of the feet of weasels and 
birds are found upon the clay ; and on some of the bricks 
of the Mujellibe, are impressions of the five fingers, or of 
a circle, probably the bookmaker's private marks. 1 It 
does not seem to have occurred to any one that they may 
have been baked after they had been built up into plat- 
forms ; at all events, without some such explanation, it is 
difficult to comprehend the statements of travellers about 
the extensive vitrification and even masses of slag on the 
Birs Nimrud. 2 In building, the inscribed face of the 
brick was always placed downwards, and deposited on a 
layer of straw with a mortar or cement of lime. 3 This 
mortar is sometimes thin, sometimes about one inch thick. 
Bitumen was found to have been used as mortar only in 
the foundation walls. 4 Notwithstanding the interest of 
the subject, and the repeated observations made at the 
Birs Nimrud, as well as at the mounds in Lower Baby- 
lonia, no detailed account has been given of the manner 
in which the bricks are laid. 

The following table will exhibit the dimensions of bricks 
from these sites in the British Museum. They are all 
very imperfectly baked, of a light-red or even ash- 
coloured paste, but made with considerable accuracy and 
sharpness, and are intermediate between the tile and brick. 
Those from one site only resemble in their proportions 
the brick in use at the present day. 

1 Rich, KourdistaD, 289. xviii. p. 258. 

2 Porter, 312. Porter, ii. 312. 

3 Ibid. 311 ; Rich, 28, 29 ; Arch. 








Unknown king . . . . ' . ' 










Urukh . . . '''.'^ -.' '.'' 













Urukh . . . . , . 

















This mode of brick-making was of the highest an- 
tiquity in Babylon. It is mentioned in the Book of 
Genesis that burnt bricks *&b (libnah) were employed 
soon after the flood, to build the foundations of the cele- 
brated Tower of Babel, and these were cemented together 
with asphalt or bitumen "inn^ dnb JTPT lonm, (vehakhemar 
hayah lakhem lakhomer), " and slime/' or " bitumen " l 
says Moses, " was to them instead of mortar," or " for 
the purpose of mortar." The mode of building here 
described, exactly coincides with the manner in which 
the foundations of the buildings, both in Assyria and 

1 Kal fy 
Gen. xL 3. 

avrots i) ir\iv$os els \i9ov' Kal &ff(f>a\TOS tfv avTots 6 


Babylonia, are constructed. According to Herodotus, 1 the 
clay dug out of the ditches which surrounded the cities 
of Babylonia, served to make the bricks with which their 
walls were built. These were either entirely constructed 
of sun-dried bricks, or else* of sun-dried revetted with 
kiln-dried or glazed bricks, or with stone. Towering to 
the astounding height of above 100 feet, and of a breadth 
sufficient to allow large armed bodies of men, and even 
chariots, to traverse them, and well protected with battle- 
ments, they defied the marauding Arabs, and could only 
be taken by regular siege, no easy task, when the most 
destructive siege artillery consisted only of a strong, 
heavy, metal-shod beam called the ram, the lever, and the 
chisel. Hence, while vast structures of stone have been 
utterly corroded by the .devastating hand of time, or 
dilapidated for the uses of successive generations, the 
meaner edifices of brick have survived, and Babylon the 
Great is as well known from its bricks as Greece and 
Rome from their temples and medals. 

A part of one of the mounds at Warka, called the 
Waswas, -exhibited a kind of ornamental brickwork very 
remarkable in its kind, the curtain having its bricks 
arranged in a lozenge pattern, the buttress in Vandykes 
or chevrons. 2 

The state of the arts in Babylon and Egypt helps to 
elucidate some obscure points in the history of brickwork. 
At the large temple at Warka, Mr. Loftus found an edifice 
built of cones 3^ inches long, laid horizontally, apex and 

1 Herodot. i. 79; Ctesias, a Miiller. Heeren, Ideen, L s. 117. 

8vo. Paris, 1844, 19, 6 ; Berosvus, Joseph. 2 Report of Assyrian Excavation 

c. Apion. i. 19 ; Phlegon de Mirabilibus; Fund, April, 28, 1854. No. i. p. 4. 
Schol. Aristoph. Aves, 552, ed. Bind. ; 


base alternately, and imbedded in a cement of mud and 
straw. Some of the cones dug up on the platform had 
straw still adhering to their sides. The clay of these 
bricks was of a dingy yellow, but many had their bases 
dipped in black or red paint. By means of these colours 
they were arranged in ornamental patterns of diamonds, 
stripes, and zigzags. They show the use of similar cones 
found in Egypt, which must have been worked into walls 
of tombs, and which have 
been already described. At 
an edifice called the Waswas, 
and at the large temple 
at Warka, Mr. Loftus dis- 

COVered moulded Semi-Cir- No. 87. Terra-cotta Horn, with Babylonian 

Inscriptions. From Warka. 

cular bricks, which, being 

joined at their bases, formed perfect cylindrical columns. 
Other pieces of similar columns were found in a mound 
outside the south wall. 

At the Waswas building Mr. Loftus also discovered 
glazed or enamelled bricks, ornamented with stars having 
seven rays. Their glazing was black, white, yellow, blue, 
and green. A pavement of vitrified slabs, 2 feet 4 inches 
square, was found in the south ruins of Warka. Glazed 
terra-cotta lamps of the Sassanian period were exhumed 
from the cemetery. 

The researches of Mr. Loftus also discovered sun-dried 
bricks at the ruin called Bouarieh, at Warka. Their 
dimensions ranged from 7 inches to 9 inches in length, 
and from 3 inches to 3^ inches in thickness, while they 
were 7 inches wide. The walls in which they were used 
were bonded like the Roman with layers of reeds, three 


or four in number, placed at intervals of from 4 feet to 5^ 
feet. Each layer of reeds had four or five rows of bricks 
placed above it. The remainder of the building was 
constructed of similar bricks, disposed lengthwise on edge, 
the flat surfaces and narrow edges of the bricks being 
placed alternately. The cement with which the bricks 
were united contained barley straw. This arrangement of 
brickwork Mr. Loftus supposed to be Parthian. Stamped 
sun-dried bricks were discovered at the upper part of 
the edifice. It had also kiln-dried bricks stamped with an 
inscription in 8 lines, recording the dedication by King 
Urukh to the Moon, according to the interpretation of 
Sir H. Rawlinson. Some others bore the name of the King 
Sinshada, who reigned about B.C. 1500, according to the 
same authority. Small red kiln-dried bricks, pierced 
with six holes and imbedded in bitumen, were found at 
the base of the construction. 

Cones of red brick, similar to those of the Egyptians 
previously described, with bases coloured red, were found 
in a wall at "Warka by Mr. Loftus, embedded in a cement 
of mud and straw. They were only 3j inches long, by 
1 inch diameter at the base. 

Another kind of construction, of which, indeed, in- 
stances occur in Sicily and elsewhere, was found at the 
south-west building at Warka. Above the foundation 
were a few layers of unbaked bricks, on which were three 
rows of vases arranged horizontally above one another, 
with their mouths placed outwards. Above the last row 
was a mass of brickwork. Although the conical end was 
solid, many were broken. Perhaps they were intended 
for places in which sparrows or mice might build their 


nests. But vases and pipe tiles are used to the present 
day by the natives of Mosul to decorate the parapets of 
their houses. 

At the Sassanian period, unbaked bricks were placed 
rudely plastered inside edifices, and the mode of con- 
struction at this time was by placing the bricks alternately 
with their edges and flat sides outwards. Cornices, capitals, 
and other objects of terra-cotta, covered with a coating of 
stucco or plaster, and painted and gilded, were discovered 
by Mr. Loftus at Warka. 


Rich 1 mentions the discovery of various earthen vessels 
in the Mujellibe, but the mounds of Babylonia, formed 
apparently of the walls and foundations of the great 
edifices, have yielded as many of these relics as the 
mounds of Assyria ; and as they have been used at all 
epochs for sepulchres, it is not possible to determine accu- 
rately the age of the few specimens discovered. Some of 
the vases found among these ruins contained burned bones 
supposed to be the ashes of Greeks, and are consequently 
subsequent to the Macedonian conquest. There seems to 
be no doubt, however, that the statues of the gods of 
Babylon were made of terra-cotta. Such was that seen 
by Nebuchadnezzar in his dream, which was composed 
of clay and metals, 2 and that of Bel, which was of clay, 
plated externally with brass, 3 and probably also the colossi 
mentioned by Diodorus. 4 

1 Mem. 28. 3 Daniel, xiv. 6. 

2 Daniel, ii. 3335. 4 Diod. Sic. lib. ii. 9. 


The Babylonian earthenware is scarcely to be distin- 
guished from that of Assyria, and presents the same 
general characteristics of paste and shape. It consists of 
cups, jars, and other vessels. The paste of the terra- 
cottas is generally of a light red colour, and slightly 
baked. The figures have been made from a mould, 
perhaps of the same material as that in use among the 
Egyptians. The vases are of a light red colour, and of 
bright clay, occasionally, however, of a yellow hue, with 
a tinge of green. They were made upon the wheel, and 
are not ornamented with painting or any other kind of 
decoration. Probably modelled figures of deities were 
sometimes introduced at the sides and handles, as in some 
of the vases of large dimensions found in Assyria. 


Several earthenware documents of a similar nature to 
those found in Assyria, have been discovered in the ruins 
of the ancient Babylonia Proper, consisting of grants of 
land, receipts for taxes, archives, and other instruments, 
the purport of which has not yet been determined. They 
are of the same shapes as the Assyrian, and made of a 
very fine terra-cotta, sometimes of a pale straw colour, 
and of a fine but gritty texture, or else of a light brown, 
and occasionally even of a dark colour. The forms of 
these terra-cottas are very various ; some are cylindrical, 
or, to speak more accurately, in the shape of two trun- 
cated cones joined at their bases. These were probably 
turned on a pillow lathe. The rest are oblong, triangular 
or circular in form, varying considerably in thickness ; the 


inscribed surfaces are usually convex, sometimes concave, 
or nearly level. Many of the oblong pieces are rectan- 
gular, and so flattened as to approach the shape of tablets. 
One of the most valuable is a fragment of a great cylinder, 
the transcript of an inscription, now in the East India 
House, 1 containing, according to Sir H. Rawlinson, a copy of 
the Hieratical Statistical Tables of Nebuchadnezzar, which 
enumerated all the temples either built or endowed in 
Babylonia by that monarch. It is of a pale straw colour, 
and the inscription is finely written. Another fragment, 
apparently a deed, has the seals and names of the attesting 
witnesses at the edges. The material is a fine compact 
light brown clay, with a polish or slight glaze on the 
exterior. Several cylinders are preserved in the various 
museums of Europe, and some of the inscriptions have 
been published by writers on the subject. 2 All are in the 
hieratical or ancient Babylonian handwriting, which 
stands in the same relation to the complex character 
on the bricks as our handwriting does to black-letter. 

The Babylonian cylinders are stated by Sir H. Raw- 
linson 3 to be 1. Fragment, containing an abridgment of 
the dedications of the temples of Babylonia by Nebu- 
chadnezzar. 2. Rich's, (pi. 94, Babylon and Persepolis,) 
recording the clearing of the canal which supplied the 
cisterns of Babylon. 3. The Sinkarah cylinder, recording 
the building by Nebuchadnezzar of the temple of the Sun 
at Larrak. 4. The Birs cylinders, containing the rebuilding 

1 Engraved, Porter, ii. pi. 78 ; lonischer Keilschrift. 4to., Gottingen 
Dr. Hincks' Trans. Roy. Ir. Acad.,1847, 1848. 

p. 13 ; Rawlinson, Memoir, 478. 3 Rawlinson's Notes on the History 

2 Sir W. Ouaeley, Travels, i. pi. of Babylonia. 8vo. Lond. 1854 ; Lay 
xxi. : Qrotefend, Bemerkungen zur In- ard, Nineveh, p. 345. 

schrift ernes Thougefasses mit Baby- 

VOL. I. L 


of the temple of the Seven Spheres at Borsippa. 6. The 
Mugheir cylinder, commemorating the repairs of the 
temple of the Moon at Bur. 7. The great cylinder of 
Nabonith, describing the architectural repairs of the 
temples of Babylonia and Chaldea. 


A few small slabs, or pieces of terra-cotta, in bas-relief, 
have been found at Babylon, the largest being not more 
than 3 inches square and about ^ of an inch thick. On one 
of those brought by Mr. Rich from Hillah, and now in the 
British Museum, is a representation of a seated deity, 
holding in one hand a dove, and having a seated figure 
behind. On another is a female, probably a goddess, holding 
a lotus flower, like that often found on gems, especially on 
the conical ones. A third specimen, which is the best of 
all, represents a man holding by the collar a gigantic 
dog of the Thibet breed, resembling those mentioned by 
Herodotus 1 as forming the kennel of the kings of Persia, 
and to the support of which three villages were assigned. 
This design has not been stamped from a mould, but 
modelled with the hand, and the execution is remarkable 
for boldness and freedom. This specimen was obtained by 
Sir H. Rawlinson in the neighbourhood of Babylon, and 
is now in the British Museum. It is difficult to say for 
what purposes these bas-reliefs were made. Perhaps they 
may have been the first sketches of an artist, intended to 
guide him in more important works, and that last described 
may have been a study for a group in a frieze, repre- 

1 Lib. i. 192. This specimen was presented by Prince Albert to the British 



senting the bringing of tribute. The clay of which they 
are made is fine, like that of the cylinders, and delicately 

Many figures of a naked female, having only a chain 
round her neck, to which was suspended a heart-shaped 

No. S8. Bas-relief of man and dog. 

ornament, and holding her hands beneath her breast, were 
found at Warka. Some of these are of a pale, others 
of a light red, terra- cotta. They are in bas-relief, and 
all have been produced from a mould, the marks of the 
fingers being visible at the back. These figures, indeed, 
may not be earlier than the time of the Roman Empire, 
remains of all ages having been found in the various 
mounds and excavations. 



All over the ruins of ancient Babylonia are found 
fragments of glazed ware, consisting of pieces of the 
bricks with which the inner walls 
were revetted, of the cornices of the 
chambers, or of vases which decorated 
the apartments of the palaces, or 
served for the use of the temple. 1 
Some fragments of this ware, brought 
by the Abbe Beauchamp, in 1790, 
from the Birs Nimrud (Borsippa), and 

No. 89. Glazed Aryballos. . -T.M V i v 

From Babylon. presented by mm to the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, were analysed by MM. Brongniart and Salvetat. 
The material of these specimens was the same as that of 
the unbaked bricks, of coarse texture, and of a pale grey 
colour, rendered red by baking. They were glazed light 
blue and yellow. The researches of M. Salvetat showed 
that this glaze contained neither lead nor tin, but that it 
was composed of a vitreous coat of an alkaline silicate of 
alumina, coloured with metallic oxides, like the Egyptian 
glazes. The yellow part manifested the presence of oxide 
of iron ; the blue, of a deep purplish tint, might have been 
produced by cobalt ; the colouring matter of the white 
glaze is not stated. 2 A more recent analysis of similar 
colours from Assyria, made by Dr. Percy in the Museum 
of Practical Geology, 3 has shown that with a base of 

1 Rich, Memoir, pp. 28, 33. 8vo. 3 Museum of Practical Geology, Cata- 
1815. logue of Specimens, 8vo, Lond. 1855, 

J Bronguiart, Traite", ii. 8990. p. 30. 


silicate of soda, or soda glass, and oxide of tin, the opaque 
white has been produced ; yellow, with the same, and 
antimoniate of lead, or Naples yellow ; blue, with copper, 
while lead is also present in the blue, probably having 
been employed as a flux. These results are quite different 
from those of Salvetat. This glaze is generally laid on 
very thick, and does not adhere well to the body of the 
brick. The thickness is about A of an inch. This ware 
is far inferior to the best Egyptian, although some of the 
vases appear to be more compact in their paste than the 
bricks, and have a thinner and more tenacious layer of 
glaze. According to Ctesias, 1 the three circular walls 
of the palace of Babylon were ornamented with glazed 
ware, on which were represented animals richly coloured, 
scenes of hunting, and warlike exploits performed by 
Semiramis and her son Ninyas ; and the bricks discovered 
in the Assyrian palaces seem to confirm this account. 
The different members of the composition were painted on 
the edge, and the whole formed a kind of mosaic. On 
one of the chambers of the Mujellibe, fayences of the sun, 
moon, and a cow are said to have been found. 


The researches and excavations made by Mr. Loftus, 
at Warka, which, there is every reason to believe, is the 
ancient TJr of the Chaldees, 3 show that the Babylonians 
used this glazed ware for coffins. These are described as 

1 Diodor. Sic., lib. ii. 8. Ktesias, a Maurice, Observations on Eicb's Memoir, 
MUller. 8vo. Paris, 1844, p. 23. 8vo. 1816, p. 92 et seq. 

2 Beauchamp, in Europ. Mag., 1792 ; 3 Rawlinson, Memoir, p. 481. 
Journal des Savans, 1790, p. 197. Cf. 



shaped like a slipper, but having a large oval aperture 
above, through which the body was introduced, and 
which was then closed with a lid of earthenware. The 
enamel is bluish-green, and the sides were ornamented 

No. 90. Supposed Sassanian Coffin. From Warka. 

with figures of warriors dressed in enormous head- dresses, 
short tunics, and long under-garments, having 
a sword by their sides. The hands rested on 
the hips, and the legs were apart. These 
coffins were found piled upon one another to 
the height of forty-five feet. The description 
of the head-gear calls to mind the figures of 
the bulls at Khorsabad, and of the Sassanian 

NO. si.-cover of kings. 1 At Mugevcr or Umgar was found 

Coffin. From 3 

another of these pan-like sarcophagi, of oval 
shape, and made of yellow paste, but having no glaze 

It appears from Mr. Loftus's researches and excavations, 
that these glazed coffins were of the Sassanian period. 
The paste of the coffin was of a pale straw colour, and 
had been mixed with straw and imperfectly baked. On 
the upper surface of the inside, and at the bottom, were 
traces of the frame of reed matting on which the coffin 
was laid. The glaze, which was of a blue colour, but has 

1 Athenaeum, 3rd Aug., 1850, No. 1185, p. 821. 



become greenish through age, was laid on and baked 
when the coffin was placed upright on its foot. The most 
ornamented of these coffins had five rows of male figures, 

No. 92. Supposed Sassanian Coffin. From Warka. 

with bushy hair, like that on the heads of the Parthian and 

Sassanid monarchs. They are dressed in a close tunic, 

breeches, and full wig, and have their hands placed on 

their hips. Other coffins had the figure 

of a female carrying a box, and many 

were plain, without either glazing or 

figure. The figures appear to have been 

stamped from a model ; the coffins were 

moulded by the hand. Some Parthian 

coins were found strewed on the earth, 

close to the coffins. The latter were 

either placed by themselves, or else in 

vaults, formed with bricks of a light 

sandy yellow colour, almost 8 in. square. No- 

So many thousands of these coffins were 

found, that it appeared as if all Babylonia, in its later 

days at least, had been buried at Warka. 




No remains of earthen vessels used by the Hebrews, or 
even of bricks employed in the construction of edifices, 
are known ; the pottery which is occasionally found on 
the site of Jerusalem, being principally either the red 
Roman ware, or that called Samian. The depth of 
debris, which in some places reaches 40 feet, and the fact 
of no excavations having been undertaken on the site, are 
the probable reasons why no entire vases or other terra- 
cotta objects have been discovered ; whilst the low state 
of the art among the Jews may have caused the frag- 
ments, which must always abound in the vicinity of great 
cities, to be neglected. It is, however, possible that the 
Jews obtained the principal earthenware they required 
from Egypt, and that, as among some other oriental 
peoples, metallic vessels were preferred for the kitchen or 
the table. The notices of the potter's art in the Scriptures 
are comparatively few ; and though the manufacture of 
bricks is mentioned, it is generally with reference to other 
nations, as in the account of the Tower of Babel, and of 
the Eg}-ptian forts of Pithom and the Migdol-en-Rameses, 
or " Fort Rameses." 

Some of the later prophets, indeed, especially those 
who had been in captivity at Babylon, speak of the 
treading out of the clay l with the feet, of the making it 
into bricks, and baking them in the furnace. The prophet 
Jeremiah describes the potter working at his wheel. 
This, called obna-im in Hebrew, 1 was formed of two round 

1 Nahum ill 14 ; 2 Samuel xii. 31. 



stones, or two wheels of wood placed one on the other, 
the upper one being smaller than the lower. It has been 
supposed that the Jews knew the process of glazing vases 
by means of litharge. 1 

No. 94. Interior of Inscribed Bowl. 

Certain vases of pale straw-coloured clay, with 
Chaldsean inscriptions in the square Hebrew character, 
and Estranghelo-Syriac, supposed to contain magical 
incantations to demons, were found at Amram and other 
places in Babylonia. 2 These have been decyphered by 

1 Munk, Palestine, p. 389 ; Jahn, xxvi. 23. 
Archseologia, I. i. p. 642, c. v.; Proverbs 2 Layard, Nineveh, p. 50.9 et seq. 


Mr. Ellis and have been considered as old as the Captivity 
of the Jews ; but their date is much more recent : indeed, 
it may be doubted if they are ancient at all, vessels so 
inscribed being said by good authorities to be in use 
among the Jews of Turkish Arabia up to the present 

M. De Saulcy 1 obtained from a place to the east of the 
Moabites a fragment of pottery resembling that found at 
Mycena3, of the earlier Greek style, and supposed by some 
to be Phoenician or Assyro-Phoenician. 2 

At Jerusalem, also, has been lately found one small 
terra-cotta bottle or lecythus, having in relief at its 
sides bunches of grapes and leaves, resembling the subjects 
on the later coins of Judrea. 3 


THE pottery found on the coast of Syria is principally 
of the second period of the Greek and Roman occupation 
of the country, few or no specimens being referable to 
the time when the Phoenicians were under their own 
monarchs. In the collections of the Museum at Sevres is 
a lecythus or oil-cruse, found at Tyre, of the lustrous or 
polished Egyptian ware, and exactly similar to those which 
come from Egypt. Notwithstanding the space which the 
Phoenicians occupy in ancient history, and the traditions 

1 Journal Asiatique, 1855, vol. x. p. 3 Athenseum Franfais, 1856; Bull. 
418,419. Arch., p. 4. 

2 Layard, Nineveh, ii. p. 166. 



of their skill in navigation and in the manufactures, they 
have left behind them few or no remains. Glass and 
purple dyes were their staples, and their pottery was 
probably for domestic use. At an early period, in 
common with the Aramaean nations, they were celebrated 
for their toreutic and metallic work, 
their stained ivories, and their glass 
manufactures. According to the 
legend of Sanchoniatho, they claimed 
the invention of brick-making, or 
rather their own story was that 
Hypsuranius l invented, in Tyre, the 
making of huts with reeds, rushes, 
and the papyrus. After the generation 
of Hypsuranius were Agrieus (the 
hunter) and Halieus (the fisher), the 
inventors of the arts of hunting and 

brothers, one of whom, Chrysor or 
Hephaestus, was the first who sailed in boats, whilst his 
brother invented the way of making walls with bricks. 
From this generation were born two youths, one called 
Technites (the workman), and the other A utochthon (earth- 
born), who invented the method of making bricks with 
loam and straw, and drying them in the sun. They 
also invented tiling, all moral fables recording the 
progress of civilisation. It is much to be regretted that 
travellers, who have often remarked the fragments of 
pottery which exist in the ruins of the now desolate cities 

These were followed by two NO. 95. cmse of polished 

11 ware. Egypt. Room, No. 


1 Sanchoniatho, ab Orellio, p. 17 ; Cory, Ancient Fragments, p. 8. 


of Phrenicia, have not thought of depositing some of 
them in the European museums, where they might 
have been scientifically examined. The question of the 
vases called Phoenician found in Greece and Italy will be 
treated of under those localities ; the fragments bearing 
traces of Phoenician fabric found at Nimriid have been 
already described. According to Herodotus, the wine 
which came from the Syrian coast to Egypt in his day, 
probably of the celebrated vintage of Helbon, was imported 
in amphorse. A lamp, with a Palmyrene inscription, has 
been recently found at Palmyra. 1 

1 Ath. Fran9., 1855 ; Bull. Arch., p. 102. 




Etymology Division of the subject Sun-dried clay Terra-cotta Bricks and 
tiles Friezes, &c. Statues and figures Colouring Subjects Reliefs 
Prices Cattle Cones, &c. Dolls Lamps. 

WE have already alluded to the antiquity of the 
fictile art among the Greeks. Their term for pottery, 
keramos, is supposed to be derived either from keras, 
a horn, probably the most ancient material of which 
drinking-vessels were formed, or else from kerannumi, to 
mix. They likewise applied the word ostrakon, the name 
for an oyster-shell, to pottery ; and oa-TpaKiva Topfv^ara is 
their generic term for works in terra-cotta. 

The art of working in clay may be considered among 
the Greeks, as among all other nations, under three 
heads, according to the nature of the process employed : 
namely, first, sun-dried clay ; secondly, baked clay, but 
without a glaze, or terra-cotta ; and thirdly, baked clay 
with the addition of a glaze, or porcelain. It is under 


these three heads that it is proposed to treat the subject. 
The first, from its limited use, will occupy our attention 
but very briefly. 


Sun-dried clay was used by the Greeks for modelling 
objects intended for internal decorations. Thus Pausanias 
mentions having seen in the King's hall at Athens objects 
modelled in this material, by Chalcosthenes. 1 We may 
infer, from another passage of the same author, that 
bricks of sun-dried clav continued to be used in Greece at 


least till the time of the Roman dominion ; since he 
relates that Antoninus, a man of senatorial rank, repaired 
the temple of ^Esculapius at Epidaurus, which was con- 
structed of unbaked bricks. 2 The temple of the Leprsean 
Demeter in Arcadia, 3 that of the Stirian Demeter in 
Stiris, 4 and the chapel of JSsculapius at Panopeus, 5 were 
all of this material. The walls of many fortified cities, 
as Mantinea, for example, seem to have been made of 
sun-dried bricks, 6 which resisted the battering ram better 
than baked ones. A statue of Prometheus, of unbaked 
clay, still existed at Panopeus in the time of Pausanias. 7 

The edifices of crude clay have disappeared, and the 
dimensions of the bricks are consequently unknown. 
They were probably of the same dimensions as the baked 

1 Pausanias, x. 4. Plin. N. H. xxxv. * ii. 27, 7. 

12, 45; xxxiv. 8, 9. There is some 3 v. 5, 4. 

difficulty in distinguishing between this 4 x. 35. 

Chalcosthenes and another potter of 5 x. 4, 4. 

the same name, but the former must 6 Xenophon, Hell. v. 2; Mem. iiL 1. 
have belonged to an early period of the Vitruv. i. 5. ; Pans. viii. 8, 5. 

art. ' Paus. x. 4. 


bricks, but the nature of the material required them to 
have a greater thickness. 


The use of terra-cotta among the ancients was very 
extensive. It supplied the most important parts both 
of public and private buildings, as the bricks, roof-tiles, 
imbrices, drain-tiles, columns, and other architectural 
members. It also served for pavements, and for the 
construction or lining of cisterns and aqueducts. Among 
its adaptations to religious purposes may be noticed the 
statues of the gods which stood in the temples, besides 
copies of them on a reduced scale, and an immense 
number of small votive figures. It also supplied the 
more trivial wants of every-day life, and served to make 
studs for the dress, bases for spindles, tickets for the 
amphitheatres, and prizes for victors in the games. Of it 
were made the vats or casks in which wine was made, 
preserved, or exported ; the pitcher in which it was 
served, and the cup out of which it was drunk ; as well 
as all the various culinary and domestic utensils for which 
earthenware is used in modern times. It furnished the 
material for many small ornaments, especially figures, 
which are often of a comic nature ; and supplied the 
undertaker with bas-reliefs, vases, imitative jewellery, and 
the other furniture of the tomb. 


Although the Greeks sometimes used bricks for building 
their temples, tombs, and houses, yet they were not 
altogether indispensable in a country abounding, like 


Greece, with stone. They are mentioned by Greek 
authors chiefly when speaking of foreign or barbarian 
edifices, and in a manner which shows that they were not 
much employed in Greece at the time when they wrote. 
They are said to have been used in the Homeric age. The 
altar of the Herceian Jupiter at Troy, on which Neop- 
tolemus slew Priam, was constructed of bricks. The palace 
of Croesus, the houses at Sardis, that of Mausolus at Hali- 
carnassus, and of Attains at Tralles, were built of the same 
material ; as well as the Philippeum at Olympia, and the 
monument of Hephaastion at Babylon. 1 Hyperbius of 
Crete, and Euryalus, or Agrolas, are stated to have erected 
the first brick wall. But the very epithet, " brick-bearers/' 
which the Greeks applied to the Egyptians, Aiyvin-ol 
TT\Li>Oo4>6poi^ shows that they regarded the use of bricks with 
a certain contempt, or, at all events, as a characteristic 
distinction ; and indeed it appears, from the vestiges of 
Grecian temples, that stone was uniformly employed in pre- 
ference. Some fragments of baked bricks of a red paste 
from Athens, and of tiles of a red and yellow paste from 
Cape Colonna (Sunium), together with a drain-tile of red 
clay from Ephesus, are in the Museum at Sevres ; but 
these may belong to a late period of Grecian history. 3 

Mr. Burgon found at Alexandria Troas, either in the 
walls of the old city or in those of an aqueduct, triangular 
bricks, apparently half of the didoron, divided through 
the diameter. They formed a right-angled triangle, the 
base of which measured 14f inches, and the perpendicular 
line from the apex 7 inches, with a thickness of 2J inches. 

1 Hirt, Geschichte der Baukunst, 3 Brongniart and Riocreux, Mus. de 
121. Sfevres, 19. 

2 Aristoph. Aves, 1134. 


They were of a fine red clay, and were worked into the wall 
so as to form lozenge-shaped panels, a mode of brickwork 
which prevailed during the time of the Roman empire. 

Avolio mentions remains of walls at Hyccara, Minoa, 
Lilybseum, Heraclea, Himera, and Tyndaris. At Catania 
are the remains of a Roman odeum and brick theatre. At 
Tauromenium are a naumachia and brick vaults belonging 
to the corridor of an amphitheatre ; also some brick tombs. 
The brick remains of the pharos, erected by the architect 
Orion on the bay of Pelorus, may still be traced ; and 
ruins of similar buildings occur at Capo d'Orlando, the 
ancient Agathyrnum. Other remains of red-coloured 
bricks were found to the west of jEtna, and some 
large bricks near Himera. 1 The Greek bricks were 
named after the ancient word ddron, or palm, to which 
their dimensions were adjusted. There were three kinds : 
the diddron, or two-palm brick, ' measuring a foot in 
length, and half a foot, or two palms, in breadth ; the 
tetraddron, or four-palm brick, measured four palms on each 
side ; and the pentaddron, or brick of five palms on each 
side. The pentaddron was employed in the construction 
of public edifices ; the tetraddron for private buildings. 
Another kind called the Lydian, was one foot and a half 
long, and one foot broad, and derived its name from its use 
in Lydia. The mode of their manufacture is described by 
Vitruvius, and will be mentioned in the chapter on Roman 
Pottery. At Massilia, or Maxilua, and Calentum, in Spain, 
and at Pitane in Mysia, bricks were made so light that 
they floated in water. 2 

1 Avolio, 42 47. xxxv. 14; Strabo, xiii. p. 614, c. 

2 Vitruvius, ii. c. 8, 9 ; Pliny, N. H., 




Tiles were extensively used in Greece for roofing. 
They were said to have been invented by Cinyras, 
in Cyprus. 1 Those for house use are square and flat, and 
have the sima of the cornice turned up. 2 This part was 
painted with lotus flowers, the elegant ornament called the 
helix, or honeysuckle, and mseanders in red, blue, brown, and 
yellow colours. Two tiles of this description, in the British 
Museum, measure 2 feet 3 inches wide, and 8 inches broad. 
Similar tiles have also been found in Greece, but with a 
hollow gutter to carry off the rain, and having lions' heads 
moulded in salient relief, with the mouth open, to act as 
spouts. 3 In Doric architecture the mouths of these lions 
were closed. Vitruvius says, that the lions' heads ought 
to be sculptured on the sima of the cornices. According 

No. 96. Cornice with Lion's Head. British Mi 

to the traditions of the potters, one of the earliest appli- 
cations of the plastic art was to the making of these tiles. 
Dibutades, a Sicyonian potter, was the first who placed 
these heads, or masks (personas) at the extremity of the 

1 Hirt, Gescluchte, i. 193, s. 4. a Dodwell, Tour in Greece, i. 333. 

2 Stackelberg, Die Graber, taf. v. Stackelberg, Die Graber, tuf. vii. 



imbrices or gutter-tiles. 1 Spouts were modelled in various 
other forms, such as the forepart of a lion, or the mask of 
a Silenus or Satyr, crowned with ivy. 2 

It is also probable that in Greece, as among the Romans, 
the suspensurce, or hollow floors 
of the hypocausts, as well as 
the flue-tiles of the hot baths, 
were made of terra-cotta. Tiles 
were also employed for con- 
structing graves, in which the 
body was deposited at full 
length. In the oldest sepul- 
chres of this kind, it appears 
that after the floor had been 
paved with flat tiles, the body 
was laid upon it, and then 
covered with arched tiles. The 
latter had an orifice at the top, 
in order that they might be 

carried with the hand ; and after they had been placed in 
the ground, this aperture was covered with lead. The flat 
and square tiles were in use at a comparatively late period. 
Some graves had a second layer of tiles to protect the 
body from the superincumbent earth. 3 

Some rare specimens of Greek tiles were found by the 
Baron Giudica at Acraa in Sicily. Those used for carry- 
ing off the rain were 3 palms 3 inches long, and 1 palm 
3 inches broad. They were stamped on the outer side, 
close to the border, with the letters $ </> or 3> E in a circle. 

No. 97. Spout in shape of the forepart 
of a Lion. British Museum. 

1 Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxv. 12, 43. 

2 British Museum. 

3 Stackelberg, Die Graber, tav. vii. ; 
Dodwell, Tour, i. 452. 


The tiles which covered these were 3 palms 3 inches long 
and 9 inches broad. On some other Sicilian tiles the 
potter had placed the triskelos, or three legs, as an emblem 
of the country. Besides these, some bore the Greek 
inscription 2H2IMO2 ; others the Latin ones, C. MVR. 
D. C. (Caius Murrius, decurio of the colony), and 
GALBA, 1 the name apparently of the emperor. 

Several of the tiles found at Olbia, near Nicolaief, have 
oblong labels stamped upon them, with the names of the 
Greek edile of some state during the period of whose 
office they were made, in exactly the same form as those 
found on the handles of amphorse, which will be 
hereafter described ; as 




"Chabrias being edile Ariston being edile," whilst the 
last names, Heracleides and Poseidonius, probably indicate 
the proprietors of the pottery. 2 

In the ostracism of the Athenians, the act of voting, or 
ostracophoria, was performed by means of fragments of 
vases, on which were inscribed the names of those whom 
they wished to banish. 3 

At Corcyra, tiles and bricks are also found stamped 
with the names of magistrates, apparently those of the 
Prytaneis, with the preposition Em underneath, indicating 

1 Avolio, 27, 31, 37. 5, 6 ; Plutarch in Pericl., 161 ; Pollux, 

2 Bekker, in the Melanges Gre'co- viii. 20; Hesychius and Suidas, voce, 
Romaines. 8vo. St Petersburg, 1854, /cepo/uejK^ /UC(TT<|. Nepos.inThemist.viii. 
p. 492. 496. 2; in Cimon, iii. 1 ; Aristid., L 2; Plut. 

3 See Paradus., J. A., De Ostracismo in Aristid., 211, 322. 
Atheniensium. 8vo. Lugd. Bat., 1793, 


the existence of some public regulation respecting the 
potteries. A list of these inscriptions will be found in the 
Appendix, No. 1. 

Tiles recently discovered by Dr. Macpherson at Kertch, 
the ancient Panticapseum, have impressed upon them in 
oblong labels, letters in relief, reading Basilike ' the Royal/ 
probably referring to the house or palace, and the date of 
the archonship of Ugianon, the letters A . . . th, and some 
other mutilated inscriptions. These are of a remarkably fine 
bright red paste, with flanges and the usual border above, 
and depression below for fixing the tiles upon each other. 
They measure 1 foot 6 inches long by 1 foot wide, and 
are probably of the sort called Lydian, which had these 
dimensions, and was named from its use in Lydia. The 
imbrices which covered the joints had upright sides and 
an arched top, and were 6 inches broad. These were not 
stamped. Other tiles discovered by Mr. Burgon, in exca- 
vations made at Athens, had in a label, A0E, the com- 
mencement of the word * Athenian.' Tiles found by 
Mr. Newton, in the graves at Calymna, had the word AIO 
in intaglio, or circular labels with monograms in relief, on 
the body of the tile. One had, ' of Eupharnus/ the name 
of a maker, or magistrate, in a label on the edge. 


The joints of the flat roof tiles were covered by the 
imbrex, or rain-tile, which was made semi-cylindrical, the 
sides generally upright with an arched top. These tiles 
were made by the same process as the flat tiles, and were 
moulded. They are not inscribed, but some found at 


Metapontum were painted with mseanders and egg-and- 
tongue ornaments. Some, found by Dr. Macpherson at 
Kertch, are 4 inches high and 8 inches broad. The 
mode in which they were adjusted may be seen in the 
works of Campana l and Canina. 2 Another kind of 
tile was that which terminated in the antefixa. It was 
made in imitation of the marble tiles which had the same 
ornament, and consisted of a long horizontal bevelled body, 
terminating in a semi-elliptical upright, on which was fixed 
some moulded ornament, generally the helix, in bas-relief. 
These tiles were laid on the ends of the other tiles at the 
sides of the building, to prevent them from slipping. 
They were sometimes inscribed. 3 Tiles served as missiles 
during sieges or civil disturbances, and it was with such a 
weapon that Pyrrhus was killed. The tiles just described 
are made of a fine clay. Those from Metapontum, 
examined by M. Brongniart, were found to be more 
compact and fine at the elliptical end than in the body. 
Sometimes the whole of a naos, or chapel, was 
constructed of tiles ; as that sacred to Diana, seen by 
Pausanias at Phocis, and another on the road leading to 

Till Byzes of Naxos 4 invented (01. L.), B.C. 580, the art 
of constructing the roofs of temples with slabs of marble, 
the method which he employed in building the temple 
of Jupiter at Elis, the ancient temples of Greece were 
roofed with terra-cotta tiles, and the pediments, friezes, 

1 Opere en Plastica, tav. vi. xxix. 

2 Archittetura Antica, sez. ii. tav. 4 Campana, loc. cit., p. 8. Byzes was 
xcvii. contemporary with Alyattes and Asty- 

3 British Museum, Elgin Saloon, No. ages, Pausan., v. 10; Cf. Liv., xlii. 2. 
297, Seroux d'Agincourt, Recueil, pi. 


and other members, were made of the same material. 
The recent excavations on the site of the Erectheum * 
show that the temple which existed there before the Per- 
sian invasion was decorated with painted terra-cotta 
members. The temple of Apollo at Megara and other 
old temples were also built of terra-cotta. As the art 
became more developed, the pediments of Doric temples 
were ornamented with bas-reliefs in terra-cotta, which 
were ultimately superseded by marble groups in alto- 
relievo. These early reliefs, called protypa, or bas-reliefs, 
and ectypa, or high-reliefs, were also used for decorating 
houses and halls. 


Avolio 2 mentions a guilloche cornice in the museum of 
Syracuse ; also another at Eryx, ornamented with gryphons, 
and some representing scenes from the Dionysiac or Isiac 

Many of the architectural members of the Greek 
temples were undoubtedly made of terra-cotta. Such 
remains, however, are rare, and most of the fragments of 
friezes hitherto discove/ed appear to belong to the period 
of Roman domination rather than of Greek independence. 
Those discovered amidst the remains of the old cities of 
Italy, chiefly those of maritime Etruria, are the work of 
the Etruscans ; nor are those of Southern Italy and 
Magna Grecia entirely Greek. A fine specimen of an 
egg and tongue moulding, glazed internally, of a light red 

1 Campana loc. cit. 2 Ibid. 97, 98. 


colour, has been recently discovered at Kertch. It pro- 
bably formed part of the cornice of a tomb. 


The pipes by which water was distributed from the 
aqueducts, or drained from the soil, were also made of 
terra-cotta. A drain-tile of red terra-cotta, found at 
Ephesus, is in the Museum of Sevres. 1 Similar pipes, 
supposed to have been used for conducting water from an 
aqueduct, have been discovered by Mr. J. Brunton, at Old 
Dardanus, in the Troad. They have been turned upon 
the lathe, are smooth outside, but grooved inside. Their 
dimensions are 1 foot 10-| inches long, 4-J inches diameter 
at the bore, and about 1 inch thick. They are neither 
stamped nor ornamented, except by an annular grooved 
line at each end. Cylindrical in shape, they are broader 
at one end than the other, with a collar at the narrow end 
to insert into a similar tile as a joint. The clay of which 
they are composed is of a pale red colour, and rather 
coarse. They were united at the joint by a mortar made 
of lime, white of egg, and tow, and, except that they are 
unglazed, resemble the drain-pipes now in use. 


The terra-cotta figures are made of a paste distinguished 
from that of the vases by its being softer and more porous. 
It is easily scratched or marked with a steel instrument ; 
it does not give out a clear ringing sound when struck ; 

1 Brongniart and Riocreux, Mus. de Sevres, p. 19. 


[Vol. I., p. 168. 


nor when submitted to a high temperature does it become 
so hard as stone-ware. 1 Its colour ranges from a deep 
red to a pale straw, and its texture and density vary in 
specimens found in different localities. Ancient works in 
terra-cotta are distinguished from the modern by their 
greater lightness and softness. The mode of working in 
this material was by forming the prepared clay into the 
required shape by means of the fingers, or with peculiar 
tools (K&vafioi). To give the finer touches, the nails were 
employed, as we have already mentioned in the Intro- 

The art of working thus in terra-cotta was of great 
antiquity. The invention of it was claimed by the Corin- 
thians, who are said to have exhibited in the Nympha3um 
of their city specimens of the first efforts in it from the 
hand of the celebrated potter Dibutades. In order to 
preserve the likeness of his daughter's lover, he moulded in 
terra-cotta the shadow of his profile on the wall ; and this 
production is said to have existed in the Nymphseum when 
the city was stormed by Mummius. 2 The invention was, 
however, also claimed by the Samians, who maintained 
that Rhoecus and Theodorus, who were sculptors in bronze, 
and who flourished about the xxx Olympiad (B.C. 657), 
had first practised the art of modelling. 3 As the early 
sculptors cast their bronzes solid, like the Egyptians, who 
are supposed to have been the fathers of the art, it is 
evident that modelling in clay must have preceded work- 
ing in bronze. To Dibutades is also ascribed the mixing 

1 Brongniart, Trait, i. 305. 3 Ibid, j Pauofka, Res. Sainior., 91. 

Plin. xxxv. 12, 43. 


of ruddle, or ochre, with the clay, in order to impart to 
it a warmer tone. 

Pausanias mentions having seen at Athens two remark- 
able terra-cotta groups in salient relief, representing 
Theseus killing the robber Sciron, and Heos or Aurora 
carrying off Kephalos. These groups, which were of con- 
siderable size, were modelled. 1 It appears certain that 
the Sicyonian artist Lysistratus, brother of the celebrated 
Lysippus, 2 was the first to make casts of statues by means 
of terra-cotta moulds. By this means the principal statues 
of Greece were multiplied, just as works of art are in the 
present day by plaster-casts. A few ancient statues of 
terra-cotta existed in the shrines of Greece in the time of 
Pausanias, as that in the temple of Ceres and Proserpine at 
Tritsea in Arcadia ; and in the temple of Bacchus at 
Athens, where there was a composition representing one of 
the kings of Athens entertaining Bacchus and the other gods 
at table. 3 Some artists of the later schools combined the 
plastic art with that of painting, and the celebrated Zeuxis 
was accustomed to model in terra-cotta the subjects which 
he afterwards painted. Many of his works existed in Am- 
bracia at the time that city was captured, and its master- 
pieces of art were dragged to Rome by Fulvius Nobilior. 
Pasiteles, an artist who lived at Rome in the time of 
Pompey, always first modelled his statues in terra-cotta, 
and used to call the plastic art the mother of statuary 
and carving. 4 Some clay figures appear to have been 

1 Paus., i. 3, 1. 4 Campana, loc. cit, Sillig, Diet, of 

2 Plin. xxxv. 12, 44; Campana, An- Artistsof Antiquity, 8vo. London, 1836; 
tiche Opere in plastica, Roma, 1842, p. 7. Pliny, Nat. Hist., xxxv. 12, 45. 

3 Paus. i. 7. 


of a toreutic nature, having parts of the body executed 
in a different material. Such works, indeed, were rare ; 
but the extraordinary nature of the combination was 
much modified by the colours with which all terra-cotta 
figures were painted. Nor were such works unknown in 
Assyrian art. 

That these models were also made in plaster, appears 
from the account given by Pausanias of the statue of the 
Olympian Jupiter at Megara. Theocosmos, an artist of 
that town, had undertaken to make the statue of gold 
and ivory ; but the breaking out of the Peloponnesian 
war put a stop to his labours. When Pausanias saw it, 
only the head of the god was constructed of gold and 
ivory, the other portions of the figure being made of 
gypsum and terra-cotta. 1 

The immense number of terra-cotta objects at Athens 
is alluded to by the pseudo-Dicsearchus 2 and by Demo- 
sthenes. 3 It appears that on certain festive occasions in 
Greece, there were competitive exhibitions of clay figures 
and other objects of art ; which accounts for the excellence 
attained in these productions. Such statues existed till a 
late period of the Roman empire. It is mentioned in an 
epigram of Nicsenetus, that there was a celebrated clay 
statue of Mercury at Constantinople ; 4 yet few figures of 
any size have come down to us. There are in the British 
Museum two statues of Muses from Pozzuoli, about 3 feet 

1 Pans. i. 40. * avroBev barpaKivAv fj.e Kal tv iroffl 

2 Qavncurrbv irXivQlvtav <Ii<av a.vQpdiw<p "y^ivov 'Epftfjv 

5i$a.ffKa\ioi>. Bibs 'EAActSos, lib. i. p. eirXa.a'fv atyiSos KVK\OS ^\iffa6^fvos 

182. irr/Aby tyvpdthjv' ov tyevcrofiai, a\\' 

3 Philipp. i. 9. t>/\r?<ra, 

& tivf, 6ffTpa.Kea>i> SvfffJiopov fpycurlfiv. 
Anthologia a Jacobs, torn. i. p. 205. 



high ; and a torso, probably of a terminal Priapus, of the 
size of life, the head and arms of which are wanting. A 
Mercury, the size of life, is also in the Museum of the 
Vatican. But there are no statues of this material of 
any great dimensions extant, which can be referred to an 

ancient period of art. All have 
perished amidst the wreck of the 
shrines and palaces. Neither have 
any moulds in terra-cotta for the 
casting of bronze statues been dis- 
covered, although it is evident that 
they must have been prepared for 
that purpose. 

The chief attention of inferior 
artists was directed to the produc- 
tion of small terra-cotta figures, 
which the Greeks used either as 
ornaments or as their household 
gods. They rarely exceed 9 inches 
in length, and resemble the modern 
plaster casts. They were called pe- 
linoi (in? Aiyot), 1 or " clays ;" and one 
of these, representing Hephaestus, 
presided over the hearth. They 

f , . r i ,1 

-are found in great abundance in the 
vicinity of the large cities of anti- 
quity, and many specimens are preserved in the Museums 
of Europe. Numerous specimens have been discovered 
recently in the little island of Calyrnna, 2 and outside 

No. 98. Terra-cotta figure of 

paiias- Athene. From Agri- 


1 Ariatoph. Aves, 436. 

2 Arch. Anz. 1848. p. 277. 


the walls of ancient Tarsus. 1 Many of these are repe- 
titions of one another. A careful examination shows 
that they were made by the same process as the modern 
plaster-casts. A model figure, protypos, was first made 
in terra-cotta with the modeller's tools, and from this was 
taken a mould, typos, apparently also in terra-cotta, 
seldom in more than two pieces, which was then baked. 
The figures, technically called ectypa, were made from this 
mould by pressing into it the clay, formed into a thin 
crust, thus leaving the figure hollow. Usually the base 
was open, and at the back were holes, either to allow the 
clay to contract without cracking, or for the purpose of 
fixing the image to the wall. When the wet figure was 
withdrawn from the mould, it must have been carefully 
dried, and then retouched by the modeller. Finally, it 
was consigned to the furnace, and baked at a low 


The method of colouring these figures was well known 
to the ancients ; and it would appear that the Greeks had 
a body of artists who were solely employed in painting 
statues, bas-reliefs, and other architectural ornaments. 2 
Two modes principally prevailed. In the first the whole 
ground of the figure or bas relief was coloured celestial 
blue, and the relieved parts were picked out with red, 
yellow, and white. The faces, especially in the old style 
of the art, were painted of a deep red, as among the 

1 Barker, Lares and Penates, 8vo. 2 Plato, Repub. iv. 420; vi. 327, 

Lond. 1853. p. 145. 328. 


Egyptians. 1 In other instances it is probable that they 
were coloured with the most harmonious distribution of 
tints by artists of renown, as in the case of Damophilus 
and Gorgasus. The celebrated Posis, a contemporary of 
Varro, executed such exquisite plastic imitations of fruits 
in terra-cotta, that they were mistaken for the objects 
themselves ; which could not have been effected except by 
painting them, like the artificial fruits in wax at the 
present day. A great number of terra-cotta statues have 
been painted with flat colours like distemper, consisting of 
ochrous or opaque colours mixed with chalk and size, or 
with white of egg. These paints were so used as to give 
the figures a gay and lively look, without any design of 
imitating nature. They were laid on after the terra-cotta 
had been baked, and are not very solid, but peel off easily. 
The tints are pure, and not shaded ; and the colours 
usually employed are white, red, yellow, blue, and violet. 2 
In the archaic figures the favourite colours are blue and 
red. The former is seen on the chiton and tunic of the 
seated figure of a goddess, brought from Athens, and now 
in the British Museum (No. 5) ; while several figures of 
the same early period have their garments either coloured 
red, or else the borders marked out in that colour. At a 
later period blue prevailed for the draperies ; but the 
borders and selvages of tunics, and sometimes the whole 
of the garment, were coloured pink, which had then become 
fashionable among artists, and was very promiscuously 

1 Campana, 25. Compare Virgil, Eel. "Fictilis et nullo violatus Jupiter auro." 

X. 27, and the commentators; Pliny, Juven., xi. 116. 

Nat. Hist, xxxiii. 1, 36. There is rea- 2 Clarac, Muse"e de Sculpture, Partio 

son to suppose that in later times they Technique, 30. 
were gilded; Martial, Epigr. iv. 39. 



employed. As an example is given the figure of an 
Aphrodite from Gales, now in the British Museum. The 
face and arms of the goddess are white, the wreath is 
coloured pink, the hair is a light 
red, the diploid talaric tunic the 
lady's gown is blue with a kind 
of pink apron, the necklace yellow, 
probably in imitation of gold. 
Several other figures, represent- 
ing Muses, have their tunics pink, 
pink and white, or pink and blue. 
A charming little figure of Mar- 
syas, seated, crouching, and play- 
ing on the double pipes, is 
coloured pink (No. 165) ; a 
rhyton, representing the face of 
Silenus, a Pan, and a Trojan or 
Asiatic, are of the same colour. 
Yellow, a colour which more 
readily flies, is not so frequently 
found ; but the base of a statue 
of Fortune, another of that of 
Ganymede holding a cock, and a 
vase in the shape of a panther, 
are of this colour. Green is oc- 
casionally found, as on the acanthus leaf on the helmet of 
the statue of Minerva before mentioned, and on some other 
specimens. Purples and browns are of very rare occurrence. 
White was used at all periods for the flesh and garments 
of females ; but it is often difficult to determine whether 
it may not be only the leucoma, or priming, from which 

Xo. 09. Coloured Figure of 
Aphrodite. From Gales. 


the colour has dropped. Black appears only rarely, and in 
accessories. Of gilding there are many remains, but it was 
sparingly applied, the lingering remains of good taste pro- 
hibiting a too profuse employment of this reflecting surface. 
It is found upon terra-cotta vases in Etruscan tombs. A 
small head either of Jupiter, or JEsculapius, in the British 
Museum, has gold-leaf adhering to the hair, which was 
anciently gilt. Some small medallions with heads of Pallas 
and of the Gorgons, from Athens, appear to have been 
entirely gilt. 1 Some terra-cotta affixes, shaped like Erotes, 
and the forepart of chimseras, projecting from a vase, are 
also gilded. 

There is every reason to suppose that the colours 
employed in painting terra-cottas were made from the 
same earths, though of a coarser kind, as the ware itself. 
Some information on this matter has been preserved by 
Theophrastus, Vitruvius, Dioscorides, and others. For 
white the painters used a white earth from Melos, and 
white lead. The reds were composed of a red earth, 
probably ochre from Sinope, and vermilion, the last espe- 
cially for walls. Yellow was obtained from Scyrus and 
Lydia. Of arsenic, sandarica, and orpiment little use was 
made ; but a yellow ochre was obtained by burning a red 
earth. The Egyptian smalt served for blue, as may be 
seen still on many terra-cottas. Cyprian blue was also 
employed. Indigo was discovered at a later period. 
Copper green was obtained from many spots, and mixed 
with white or black. White was made from the burnt 
lees of wine, or from ivory. 2 Pliny evidently speaks of a 

1 Clarac, Muse'e de Sculpture, Partie 165, 166; Stieglitz, Uber die Mahler- 
Technique, 30. farben, 8vo, Lips., 1817. 

2 Hirt, Gesch. der bild. Kunst, 


painter upon terra-cotta in the words, "figlinum opus 
encausto pinxit;" 1 and such specimens will probably be 
found. Indeed it is by no means improbable that certain 
roof-tiles have preserved their colour owing to encaustic 
painting. Among the Greeks, however, terra-cottas were 
generally painted with colours, among which red pre- 
dominated, in tempera. 


It would require too much space to enumerate all the 
various forms and subjects represented in terra-cotta. 
Among the figures are found the principal gods of the 
Hellenic Pantheon, and a variety of local divinities. The 
earliest of these, in their general treatment and accessories, 
present the characteristics of the hieratic school of art. 
Together with the representations of divinities 2 are found 
those of sacred animals ; such as the cattle of Zeus, and 
the swine of Demeter or Ceres ; or sacred furniture, such 
as footstools, and even small chairs. 3 At a more advanced 
period of fictile art, the treatment becomes freer, and the 
range of subjects more varied. Bacchse, or Muses, in a 
variety of attitudes, and figures taken from the Satyric 
drama frequently occur. After the conquest of Greece 
and Asia Minor by the Romans, grotesque and caricatured 
forms are introduced, such as dwarfs, moriones, and other 
depraved creations of Roman taste. 4 

Many of these little figures, in the shape of animals 

1 Nat. Hist. lib.xxxvi. c. xxv. s. 64. Caylus, Recueil, t. iii. pi. Ix. no. 1. 

Panofka, Terracotten, i. & foil. ; 3 Dodwell, Tour, i. 446. 

Agincourt, Recueil, pi. viii. 8, xiii. 1, 2, 4 Dodwell, Tour, i. 446 448. 
4, xiv. 3, 5, 6, xv. 11, 12, 13, 14, 

VOL. i. N 


and other objects, such as goats, pigs, pigeons, tortoises, 
foot-stools, &c., seem, like the neurospasta or maroquins, 
to have been toys, since they have been found deposited 
with the bodies of children in the tombs of Melos and 
Athens. 1 In other cases they may have been votive 
offerings to the gods, such anathemata being offered by 
the poor. It is impossible not to be charmed with the 
grace and spirit of many of these objects, which belong 
to all periods of Grecian art, from the old, or, as it has 
been called, the Egyptian style, down to the middle age 
of the Roman Empire. Many of them are copies of the 
statues adored in the shrines ; others are sketches of 
noted persons of the day, such as emperors, philosophers, 
gladiators, and horse -riders. Groups are of rarer occur- 
rence than single figures. A few busts are found. 


Besides the small figures just described, objects in bas- 
relief have occasionally been found in sepulchres, espe- 
cially in those of Milo, the ancient Melos. They are flat 
slabs of irregular shape, the bas-relief being upon one side 
only, with the parts between either reserved or hollow, 
and having holes, apparently for pegs or nails, to attach 
them to the wall. The material, after having been 
pressed into the mould, has been scraped away at the 
back, leaving a very flat surface. These bas-reliefs were 
painted in the same style as the figures in terra-cotta. 
In the British Museum are portions of six such reliefs, 
representing Bellerophon destroying the Chimera, Perseus 

1 Brongniart and Riocreux, Mus. de Sevres, 19. 


killing Medusa, Apollo and the deer, the Sphinx devouring 
Hsemon, the son of Creon, a dancing Bacchante or Msenad 
with crotala, and the meeting of the poets Alcseus 
and Sappho. 1 In the Berlin Museum is one with the 
subject of Helle crossing the Hellespont on the ram. 2 
Another, in the possession of Professor Ross, of Halle, 
represents the hunting of the Calydonian boar. 3 One 
found at JSgina exhibited the chariot of the hyperborean 
Artemis drawn by two gryphons, and driven by Eros. 4 
A few others have been found, 5 but it is not known to 
what use these objects were applied. They may, how- 
ever, probably have been the prototype slabs of the 
friezes with which small tombs were ornamented, 6 or 
decorations for soffits of ceilings the agalmata which 
Pausanias saw in the royal hall at Athens. 7 Of a similar 
nature were the small masks, chiefly of Gorgons' heads, 
which were also either inlaid or attached to walls or 
other objects. Some of these masks, or prosopa, were 
designed for religious purposes, and hung, like the oscilla, 
on trees, whilst others were applied to architectural deco- 
ration. We may here also mention the small figures, 
heads, and other objects in salient relief, which were 
attached as decorations, procrossi, to the sides and handles 
of terra-cotta vases. Some of these ornaments were small 
circular medallions, stamped with Gorgons' heads in bas- 

1 Millingen, Anc. Un. Hon. ii. 2, 3. 4 Welcker, Monument! luediti dall' 

Miiller, Archaeologie der Kunst. i. 14, Instit. Arch. t. xviii. Annali,1830,ii. 65. 
51, 52. & Raoul Eochette, Ant. Chret. iii. 

Arch. Zeit. iii. taf. 27, p. 37 ffi, 214 24, et seq. Boss, Insel Beise, iii. 19. 
et seq. Neue Folge, i. p. 45 et seq. 6 They can hardly have been decora- 

3 Otto Jahn, Berichte der 'K. Sachs- tions for shields. Miiller, Archaeologio 

ischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft. der Kunst. 96, n. 23, p. 76. 
1848. s. 123, etseq. taf. 7 I. 3, 1, 3, 4. 

N 2 


relief, and are among the most delicate and beautiful 
examples of this branch of fictile art. These decorations 
were painted, and at a later time even gilded. Studs, 
fleurettes, and antefixal ornaments, or emblemata, in salient 
relief, were also modelled separately or stamped in moulds, 
and then affixed to the vase when wet. Avolio * has pub- 
lished a singular little monument, probably a votive tablet, 
having in relief a figure of Diana in full-face and standing, 
with a Greek inscription under it. 

Colonel Ross found at Leucas, -in Acarnania, a perfect 
terra-cotta impression from a coin of Larissa. It may 
have been the trial-piece of a die-sinker or forger, since 
persons of that class, as among the Romans, possibly 
employed the finer qualities of this material to assist 
their nefarious practices. 


There are but few notices in the ancient writers re- 
specting the prices paid for fictile objects. In the fables 
ascribed to jEsop, 2 Hermes is described entering the shop 
of a sculptor, and asking the price of a Zeus. The sculptor 
values it at a drachma a figure of Hera at rather more ; 
but if the purchaser will take the two, he is offered a 
Hermes into the bargain. From the low price it would 
seem that the figures meant must have been terra-cottas, 
though the maker of these is generally called a potter, 
or koroplathos, not a sculptor, by the Greek writers. 

1 II. Tav. vii. 2 Fab. ccxliii. Cf. Fab. cccxx. 




Another use to which terra-cotta was applied was for 
making small cones or pyramids to suspend round the 
necks of cattle. They are about 3^ inches long, and 
perforated at the top. They are frequently found in the 
fields in Greece, and especially in Attica. In general 
they are painted black and red, and those found in 
Corcyra are inscribed. Dodwell 1 saw some in the col- 
lection of S. Prosalinda with the inscriptions OPO2 
<I>AAAKO2, " the mountain of Phalax ; " A^POAEITH, 
" Venus ; " AIDS MHA&2IOT, " of Jupiter the cattle- 
feeder." An object similar in form was found in a 
sepulchre at the Piraeus, the apex of which terminated in 
the head of Atys. This appears to have been the weight 
of a steel-yard. 2 

A number of cones perforated vertically are found all 
over Greece and Italy 
the use of which is un- 
known. Like those just 
described, they may have 
been attached to the 
necks of animals, or sus- 
pended to the ends of 

Several of these cones 
and truncated pyramids have been exhumed by recent 
excavations in the Crimea, near Sebastopol and Kertch. 

No. 100. Cones. From Corcyra. 

1 Tour, i. 34, 35. 4to, Lond. 1819. 

2 Ibid. p. 458. 


Those there discovered had on the apex the impression 
of the seal of finger-rings, representing heads and other 
objects. Many were found inside the sixteen pithoi dis- 
covered in the edifice near Sebastopol. They resemble 
bells in shape. 

Some flat discs of pale red and yellow terra-cotta, in 
the British Museum, about 3 J inches diameter, discovered 
by Mr. Barker in excavations made at Tarsus, are pierced 
near the circumference with two holes for a cord to pass 
through. On one side they have in relief a star, the letters 
A and E. One of these discs, of fine yellow clay, has, in 
a label, FHMm, probably the commencement of a name. 
Another found at Tarsus had incised upon it, before the 
clay had been baked, the name of " Apollos," in letters 
of the first century, A.D. 1 Their use is unknown, but 
may have been similar to that of the cones. Similar 
discs were also discovered by Sir C. Fellowes in Lycia. 


Several children's dolls of terra-cotta have been found 
in the sepulchres of Athens. 2 They are cast in a mould ; 
the bodies, legs, and arms are formed of separate pieces 
pierced with a hole, so that they might be connected and 
moved with a string, like the modern marionettes or pup- 
pets. Hence their name neurospasta (vcvpoo-xaoTa), All 
of them represent females, and are coloured like the other 

1 Barker, Lares and Penates, 8vo, mentions as belonging to Mr. Millingen, 
Lond. 1853, p. 202. is now in the British Museum. 

2 Dodwell, Tour,i. 439. The one he 



These dolls or puppets are mentioned in the Greek 
writers. Xenophon, in his Symposium, 
or Banquet, introduces Socrates inquiring 
of an exhibitor of these puppets, what 
he chiefly relies upon in the world 1 l 
" It is," he replies, " a great number of 
fools ; for such are those who support 
me by the pleasure they take in my 
performances." " Ah ! " remarks one of 
the guests, " I heard you the other day 
praying that wherever you went there 
might be abundance of bread and wine, 
and a plentiful lack of good sense/' 
Aristotle also 2 mentions certain dolls as 
moving their limbs and winking their 
eyes ; but this can hardly refer to terra- 
cotta figures. Lucian also describes 
terra-cotta dolls, korce or nymphes* 
painted red and blue. 

No. 101. Terra-cotta 
Doll. From Athens. 

According to Clemens of Alexandria, 4 the invention of 

lamps (XVXVOL) was ascribed to the Egyptians ; and Hero- 
dotus mentions not only the feast of lamps at Sai's, 5 but 
also the lamp which burnt beside the cow-shaped sarco- 
phagus of Mycerinus, in the same city. 6 In Greece lamps 

1 c. iv. s. 55. 

2 De Mundo, s. 6. Dochvell, Tour, i. 

3 Lexiph., s. 22. Miiller, Arch. s. 305, 
4, p. 406, who cites such dolls in the 

Museum of Naples. Cf. Sibyllin. iii 
p. 449, Gall. 

4 Strom, i. 16, p. 362, P. 

5 II. c. 62. 
c II. c. 130. 


were in use in the time of the latter author ; l and when 
Aristophanes flourished, they were the common indoor 
light. According to Axionicus, a writer of the Middle 
Comedy, they were made of earth. 2 The wick was called 
epva\Xls } thryallis, f^vxviov, ellychnion, and <AoVos, 
phlomos; 3 the holes for the wicks, nvKrijpes, mykteres* 

Lamps of the usual circular shape, with one nozzle and 
a small handle, have been found at Athens, Tarsus, and 
in other parts of Greece and Asia Minor. They are of 
the age of the Roman Empire, probably of the first and 
second century of our era, and exactly resemble those 
found at Rome. On one is the bas-relief of a Bacchante 
killing a kid, a copy from Scopas. 5 A lamp of an entirely 
different kind, representing a boy reclining on a couch, 
resembles the terra-cotta figures, and is coloured. It has 
the nozzle at the foot of the couch, and is a truly elegant 
design. These lamps are made of a fine clay, which has 
been moulded and baked. Their technical peculiarities 
will be more fully described when we come to treat of the 
Roman lamps. 

The Greek lamps are distinguished from the Roman by 
their superior fineness, smaller size, paler clay, and more 
delicate art ; but above all by their inscriptions. They 
assume a great variety of shapes. A lamp found at 
Pozzuoli, near the ancient Baise, and now in the British 
Museum, is formed like two human feet in sandals. 
Another lamp, engraved by Passed, has the head of a 
bull in harness, and the inscription AP0EM (IAI) IEPOC, 

1 He describes evening by the term 3 Ibid. 115. 
of irepl \\i\vtav cup&s, lib. vii. c. 215. 4 Ibid. 

2 Pollux, x. 122. 5 Stackelberg, Die Graber,taf. lii. 

LAMPS. . 18o 

" sacred to Diana," indicating that it probably belonged 
to some temple of that goddess. 1 A most remarkable 
lamp also from Pozzuoli, and which from the Durand col- 
lection passed into that of Mr. Hope, is 20 inches long, 
and fashioned in the shape of a boat or trireme. All the 
numerous subjects with which it is ornamented refer to 
the pseudo-Egyptian religion, which prevailed so exten- 
sively in the Roman empire from the age of Tiberius to 
that of the Antonines, and which at times became the 
heresy of the court. On it is inscribed EVHAOIA, "a 
prosperous voyage," expressing either the name of the 
vessel, or a prayer on behalf of the person who presented 
it as a votive offering. At the bottom is the following 
inscription in large characters : A ABE ME TON HAIO- 
CEPAHIN ; that is, " accept me, who am Helioserapis," or 
the Sun and Serapis. 2 

As all these Greek lamps are of the period of the 
Roman dominion, they have inscriptions of the same 
nature as those found at the bottom of Roman lamps, 
consisting either of the name of a potter in the genitive 
case, or occasionally the names of emperors, as Gaius or 
Caius, Diocletian ; or their titles, as Germanicus, Pius, 
Augustus. The design of these inscriptions is, however, by 
no means clear ; and we cannot determine whether they 
signify that the clay of which the lamps were made 
was taken from an imperial estate, or mark the date or 
occasion of their manufacture ; or that they were fabri- 
cated by imperial freedmen ; or in potteries erected by 

1 Passeri, i. tav. xcviii., who however states that the lamp ia of Roman paste, 

2 Cat. Dur. 1777. 


certain emperors on their own domains ; or, lastly, that 
they were intended for the use of the imperial household 
or of the public offices. 

Greek lamps are found in great abundance in the 
vicinity of ancient Greek cities. Several hundred were 
discovered in the excavations made by Mr. Barker at 
Tarsus, and by Mr. Newton, at Calymna. A list of names 
of lamp-makers inscribed upon them will be found in the 
Appendix, No. II. 



Greek vases Casks Various kinds of vases Amphora) Stamps Names of 
magistrates Emblems Cnidian amphorae Stamps Thasian arnphorso 
Panticapsean amphorae discovered at Olbia Bosphoran Heracleau 
Teuthranian Sinopean Corinthian Miscellaneous- Sepulchral vases. 


THE principal vases of terra-cotta manufactured by 
the Greeks were large tubs or casks, called pithoi, calcu- 
lated to hold enormous quantities of wine or food ; 
amp/toreis, or vases of a smaller size, yet sufficiently large 
to hold several gallons ; phialcs, or saucers ; pina&es, or 
plates ; chijtrce, or pots ; cenochoce, or jugs ; together with 
numerous small vases used for common domestic purposes, 
and others which appear to have been appropriated solely 
to funeral ceremonies. 

Pithoi, or casks, of gigantic size are found in Italy ; 
and although no perfect ones have been discovered in 
Greece, yet fragments of them prove that they were also 
used in that country. They are shaped like enormous 
caldrons, with globular bodies, and wide gaping mouths. 
When full the mouth was covered with a large circular 
stone, called MtJwn. It must have been into such a cask 
that Glaucus, the son of Minos, fell ; and in such must the 
Centaurs, according to mythical tradition, have kept their 


stock of wine. They were sufficiently capacious to hold 
a man, and were in fact the ancient hogsheads or pipes. 
They are perhaps best known from the circumstance of 
the eccentric Diogenes having converted one of them into 
his domicile, who is represented in some works of ancient 
art stretching his body out of a pithos at the moment of 
his celebrated interview with Alexander. 1 They were 

No. 102. Pithos of Diogenes. From a Lamp. 

used to hold honey, wine, and figs. It required great 
skill to make such vases ; hence the Greek proverb char- 
acterised an ambitious but inexperienced man as " one 
who began with a cask." 2 They were made by a peculiar 
process, which is described 3 as plastering the clay round 
a certain frame-work of wood, the pithos being too large 
to be turned on the lathe. 

In the recent excavations of Mr. J. Brunton, at the site 
of old Dardanus, in the Troad, were discovered several 

1 On a bas-relief of the Villa Albani, 2 Hesychius, v. 
Winckelmann, Mon. In., No. 352. Frag- 3 Geoponica, vL 3, p. 4. Arsenius, 
mcnt of a lamp in the British Museum. Violetum a Walz, p. 231. 


pithoi of pale red clay, with thick massive bodies, and the 
stone cover. In an excavation recently made half-way 
between Balaclava and Sebastopol, by Colonel Monroe, that 
officer discovered sixteen pithoi, 4 feet 4 inches high, and 
2 feet 2 inches in diameter, inside a circular building, 
apparently a kind of store-house. These pithoi were of 
pale red ware, like the Roman opus doliare. They had 
no makers' names, but one had incised on the lip AAnnill, 
apparently its price. Various objects were found inside 
of them, and among others several terra-cotta cones. 
Similar pithoi have been found in Athens. Some of the 
fractured ones had been joined with leaden rivets. 

The pithoi of oblong form were preferred. Anatolius 
recommends them to be made of a smaller size. 


The principal terra-cotta vase, however, is the amphora, 
which was used for a variety of domestic and commercial 
purposes. So numerous are the vases of this shape, found 
all over the ancient world, that they require a separate 
description. They were principally used for wine, but 
also for figs, honey, salt, and other substances. The 
amphora is distinguished by its long egg-shaped body, 
pointed base, and cylindrical neck, from which two handles 
descend to the shoulder. The base has sometimes a ring 
of terra-cotta round it. When complete it had a conical 
cover terminating in a boss with which the mouth was 
sealed. Remains of amphorae have been discovered not 
only in Greece itself, but also wherever the Greek com- 
merce and settlements extended ; as in Athens, Sicily, 


Corcyra, Alexandria, Rhodes, Kertch or Panticapreuin, 
and Xanthus. They appear to have been used at a very 
early period ; and some found at Castrades in Corfu, near 
the tomb of Menecrates, were probably employed for 
exporting wine to Hadria. The long shape probably came 
into fashion about B.C. 300, when an active commerce was 
carried on in the Mediterranean by the island of Rhodes, 
then a great commercial entrepot. Amphora3 of this 
form are represented on the Athenian silver tetradrachmse, 
which are known to have been struck after the reign of 
Alexander the Great. On these coins the amphora is 
represented lying horizontally, with an owl perched upon 
it. This type, which is also found on coins of Gortyna 
and Thasos, alludes to the large Attic trade in oil, which 
was exported in these vases. 

Mr. Stoddart describes the Rhodian amphora he found 
at Alexandria in the following terms : " The clay is so 
pure and tenacious that its fracture is perhaps sharper 
than that of delf. The colour is pale without, deepening 
more and more within to a lively salmon hue, perfectly 
exempt from cinereous discoloration. These fragments 
(the handles) have all belonged to pointed diotce with long 
lateral handles such as are figured on the coins of Chios, 
and of Athens, symbols perhaps of their staple trade in 
wine and oil. A vase of the kind, entire, but without any 
stamp, was brought home by the soldiers employed on 
some excavations. Its height is 3 feet 4 inches. The 
perpendicular portions of the handles rise 10 inches from 
the body of the vessel ; and the ears or horizontal shoulders 
unite them to the mouth at a distance of about 3 inches. 
These handles are solid, and upon their upper surface has 



been impressed the seal, generally an oblong cartouche, 
1| inch or If inch long, and f inch high. Sometimes, 
however, it assumes a circular or an oval form. The head 
of Apollo Helios radiated, on the vase, is placed in the 
centre with the legend round it." ] 

Mr. Stoddart found at Alexandria eight well-defined 
varieties of handles broken from amphora of different 
countries. "With one excep- 
tion, they were not inscribed. 
Their general shape is depicted 
in the accompanying cut, taken 
from a perfect one found at 
Alexandria. The base of the 
amphora is a solid pointed cone, 
by which it was fixed and held 
upright in the sand floors of 
cellars. Three other kinds of 
feet are delineated by Mr. 
Stoddart. 1. The spiked foot, 
which was by far the most 
common ; 2. The collared 
foot, produced by twisting a 
clay collar round it, to aid in 
steadying the vase ; 3. The annular foot, terminating 
in a ring of clay. 

The most interesting things connected with these vases 
are the seals with which they were stamped. They are 
either circular medallions or oblong depressions. Those 
on the Rhodian specimens have either the head of Apollo 
Helios, the famous Colossus, represented in full face, or 

1 Trans. Roy. Soc. Lit., N. S., iii. 7, 8. 

No. 103. Stamped Handle of Amphora. 



No. 104. Uhodian 
Stamp. Head of 
Apollo Helios. 

else a full-blown rose ; an emblem which also appears on 
the coins of the city, so long as it continued to be a free 
state. The stamp with which they were impressed seems 
to have been made of a hard stone, as the impressions are 
too sharp to have been produced by a wood block, and 
not sufficiently rigid for a metal stamp. The annexed 
example of a circular label will serve to 
illustrate those seals having a radiated 
head of Apollo. The letters IA20NO2 are 
disposed round the head, between the rays 
of the crown. . Sometimes the name of the 
month was added after that of a magistrate ; 
and the latter was often preceded by the 
preposition Em, signifying " under " or " during the rule 
of." The annexed cut represents one of the rose stamps, 
with the legend, " Under Xenophon, in 
the month Sininthius." The names of 
the magistrates are supposed by Mr. 
Stoddart to be those of the eponymous 
priests of the Sun, by whose priesthoods 
the current year was dated. The months 
are those of the Doric calendar, namely : 
Thesmophorios, Diosthyos, Agrianios, Pedageitnios, Ba- 
dromios, Artamitios, Theudaisios, Dalios, Hyakinthios, 
Sminthios, Karneios, Panamos, and the second Panamos, 
an intercalary month. The object of the stamps is involved 
in obscurity. It is clear that they could not have been 
intended to* attest the age of the wine, as the vessel might 
be used for any sort, and the stamps bear the name of 
every month in the year. Mr. Stoddart conjectures that 
they were intended to certify that the amphora, which was 

No. 105. Bhodiau 
Stamp. Rose. 

AMPHOR.E. 193 

also a measure, held the proper quantity. He has collected 
a list of the names of magistrates found upon handles un- 
doubtedly Rhodian, as the stamps either bore the emblems 
of the city, or the names of the Doric months. It will be 
found in the Appendix (No. III.) Some of these names, such 
as jEnetor, Hephsestion, Demetrius, Zeno, and Antipater, 
appear on the coins of Rhodes, whilst others are cele- 
brated in Rhodian history. Damophilus, Menedemus, and 
Amyntas, are probably the admirals who in. B.C. 304 
commanded the fleets despatched against Demetrius 
Poliorcetes. Xenophantus .may have been the naval 
commander who blockaded the Hellespont in the war 
against Byzantium, B.C. 220. The name of Peisistratus 
was that of a general in the second Macedonian war, 
B.C. 197, who afterwards, B.C. 191, commanded a fleet 
against Antiochus. Timagoras was a_ naval commander 
who assisted the Romans in their war with Perseus. 
Polyaratus was one of the Macedonian party at Rhodes 
during the time of the Macedonian war. In like manner, 
many more of these names might be identified with those 
of celebrated leaders, orators, and historical and philo- 
sophical writers ; but it must always be recollected that, 
though the similarity is striking, the inference of identity 
is very far from being conclusive, since many individuals 
of the same state bore the same names, as is soon dis- 
covered by the examination of inscriptions. 1 

Besides those with circular medallions, many of the 
handles of Rhodian amphorae are stamped with an oblong 
cartouche, or label, from 1-^ inches to If inches in length, 
and fths of an inch wide. These may be divided into 

1 Stoddart, Trans. Roy. Soc. Lit. N. S. III., p. 31 and foil. 
VOL. i. o 


two classes : 1. Those inscribed with the name of a 
magistrate and an emblem. This class resembles the 
small signs, called adjuncts, found on the coins of various 
Greek cities ; but it is uncertain whether they were 
selected on any fixed principle, or merely adopted from 
caprice. They may, perhaps, allude to the deity whom 
the magistrate particularly honoured as the patron god 
of his village or tribe. The same symbol was often used 
by many individuals, and on the whole the number dis- 
covered is not large. Among them are found stars, a 
radiated head of Apollo, the caps of the Dioscuri, a head 
of Medusa, a rat, a dolphin twined round an anchor, fish, 
a bunch of grapes and caduceus, a flowered cross, an 
acrostolium or prow of a ship, an anchor, cornucopia?, 
garland, torch and garland, double rhyton, bipennis and 
parazonium. The table in the Appendix (No. IV.), taken 
from Mr. Stoddart, exhibits the connection of these em- 
blems with the names of magistrates. 2. The second 
class of seals consists of those bearing the name of a 
magistrate, accompanied with that of a month of the 
Doric calendar, without any emblem. But though these 
are also apparently Rhodian, they are probably of a 
different age from the circular stamps before described. 
The names of the magistrates are in the Doric genitive, 
and their dates appear to range from the foundation of 
Alexandria, B.C. 332, down to the reign of Vespasian. 



Mr. Stoddart also found forty-three specimens of handles 
of amphorae from Cnidus, the Kv&ia Kepd^ia, or " Cnidian 
casks/' as they were called. He describes their clay as 
being coarser than the Rhodian, its colour darker and 
duller, breaking with a rugged fracture, displaying particles 
of a black micaceous sand, the heart frequently having the 
livid hue of ashes produced in the kiln. Their dimensions 
were 1-j inches to 2 inches wide, f- inch thick. On the 
top of the ear was the cartouche or label, generally of a 
rectangular form, and 1^ inches long, by -J inch wide ; 
but some are either circular, or oval, or shaped like an 
ivy-leaf. 1 These amphorae differed in form from those of 
Rhodes, and are not of so early a date, most of them 
being as late as the Roman empire. The handle of 
one of these amphora3, externally of a greenish hue, 
exhibited a rough fracture, of a reddish tint at the edge 
and of a lighter shade in the centre. 

The stamps on the Cnidian amphorae, like those of 
Rhodes, are inscribed with the name of the eponymous 
magistrate, who appears to have been a demiourgos ; and 
also with that of the wine-grower, or exporter of the 
produce, which is always marked as Cnidian, and was 
probably either wine or vinegar. The annexed cuts 
represent the various stamps used on these amphorae. 
The names are accompanied with devices ; but it is not 
quite certain whether these refer to the magistrate or to 

1 Stoddart, Trans. Roy. Soc. Lit., N. S., iii. 59. 

o 2 



the exporter. Among them are a caduceus, a club, the 
prow of a galley, a sceptre, a bucranium or bull's head, 
grapes, diotae, a trident, lance-head, star, anchor, barley- 

106. Cnidian Lozenge-shaped 

No. 107. Cnidian Square Label. 

corn, 1 and diotae, with the head and neck of a lion. 
Remains of Cnidian amphorae have been found in Sicily, 
at Athens, Olbia, and Alexandria. Judging from the 
palaeography of the inscriptions, they may have been in 
use from the age of Augustus to that of Marcus Aurelius, 
or even of Severus. Lists of the names of magistrates 
and exporters stamped upon them will be found in the 
Appendix (No. V.) It will be perceived that only two of 
the magistrates are qualified with the title of demiourgos. 


Notwithstanding the celebrity of the Thasian wine, 
only three specimens of the amphorae in which it was 
exported have been discovered one at Athens, and two 
at Olbia. The edges of the handles are rounder than 
those of the Rhodian amphorae. The paste is not so 
coarse and gritty as that of the pottery of Cnidus. The 
inscriptions on them are : " Of the Thasians Phaedon," 
Arcton, Aristomedes, and Satyris." Their emblems are a 

1 Stoddart, Trans, of Roy. Soc. Lit., iv. 24, foil. ; iii. 63 and foil. 

OLBIA. 197 

cornucopiae, dolphin, and Hercules shooting the Stympha- 
lian birds. 

The age of these amphorae is supposed to be about 
B.C. 196. 

Across the necks 1 of two amphorae found in sepulchres 

ETAPXO, 1 ,, , . 
at Panticapaeum were the inscriptions . mvrrklVT that is, 

A I I I v/ i\ 

" Ariston during the magistracy of Euarchus ;" and 


under the magistracy 01 Callias son 

of " Eupamon." 2 These vases were not imported, but 
made upon the spot. 


At Olbia were also found several handles of amphorae, 
with the names of aediles of cities, and of other persons, 
either the growers of the wine, or magistrates of secondary 
rank. The names of the sediles are, Polystratus, Epi- 
curus, Callistratus, Histaeius, Hieronymus, son of Hiero- 
nymus, and grandson of Apollonidas, Hermes, Poseidonius, 
Istron, son of Apollonidas, Theagenes, son of Nicander, 
Aristocles, son of Mantitheus, and some others. Another 
series of names, perhaps of eponymous magistrates, are 
Histiaeus, Apollodorus, and Meniscus. 3 There was no 

1 Stoddart, Trans. Boy. Soc. Lit. 2109 D. 

N. S. iv. p. 1. 3 Bekker, Melanges Grfoo-Romains, i. 

2 Bockh, Corp. Inscr., NOB. 2121, p. 503, 504, 519. 


mark except in one instance, and that apparently of 
Sinope, whence the amphorae came. The emblems upon 
them were various, comprising leaves, an eagle, a head of 
Hercules, diota, and bunch of grapes. 

Eighty-six different handles, inscribed with the names 
of an aedile, and another person, supposed to be a magis- 
trate, have been found in the Crimea, principally at Olbia, 
one or two only having been found at Kertch. The paste 
of these handles, according to the researches of Professor 
Hasshagen, of the Richelieu Lyceum, differed from that of 
the amphorae of Rhodes, Cnidus, and Thasos, by its want 
of uniformity ; it contained a mixture of a coarse sand 
and fragments of quartz. Its grain was not so' fine, nor 
had it the dark colour of the amphorae of those states. 
Its colour, both outside and when broken, was bright yellow 
or greyish, and it had not been subjected to so high a tem- 
perature in the kiln. All these conditions correspond to 
the clay found in the neighbourhood of Olbia, and the lack 
of fuel on that spot, where some have supposed the vases 
stamped with the names of aediles were made. As the 
same formula appears on the tiles found in situ, this 
affords another presumption that the amphorae may have 
been made at Olbia. 

The inscriptions are impressed from a square stamp or 
label, and have the form of the magistrate's name at the 
commencement, as, being aedile His- 
tiaeus son of Mithridates ; or else the 
official title is placed at the end, as in 




the ex- 


ample, Histron son of 



Apollonidas being sedile ; x or even in the middle, as 
Borys, son of Hecatseus, being sedile. 
These stamps contained, like those on the 
handles of the Rhodian, and other 
amphorae, small adjuncts or emblems 




alluding to the magistrates or other persons whose 
names were impressed. These emblems consisted of a 
laurelled head of Apollo, bearded head, head to the 
left, old head to the left, young head to the right, head 
full-face, Victory, full-face figure standing, dog couchant, 
a horse prancing or running, eagle preying on a 
dolphin, swan, snake, sitting bird, spade and grain, ear 
of corn, laurel branch, twig, trophy, thyrsus, and 
caduceus. 2 


On some fragments from other cities of the Bosphorus 
are the inscriptions IA IM apparently with a double date, 
of the era of the Bosphorus, and 
with the name of Democrates, an 
sedile. One found near Simphe- 


ropol was impressed with the name of Apollas, an 

- Stoddart, Trans. Roy. Soc. Lit., iv. 
p. 50. 

1 Stoddart, Trans. Roy. Soc. Lit., iv. 
pp. 50, 51 ; Koeppeu, p. 300 ; Bockh, 
Corp. Inscr., No. 2085. 




On a fragment found at Olbia was the inscription, 
" Chabrias being aedile of the Hera- 





An inscription on a handle also found at Olbia, reading 
has been interpreted " Borys the sedile 
of the Teuthranians ; " but it may be 
considered doubtful whether the last 
name may not be either that of the 
grower of the wine, or of the maker of the 
The device was a bull's head. 

No. 108. Circular stamp, 
with Bull's head. 


The annexed inscription was on the 

handle of a vase also found at Olbia. The 0EOFNEITOT 
device was an eagle. The last word, A2TTNOMOT 
however, may possibly have been the 
name of a magistrate. 2 The first name is Theognetus. 


Mr. Stoddart has given the inscriptions on the handles 
of six amphorae, having in Greek characters the names of 
Cephalion, Archyas, Gorgias, Damas, Rumas, Caninius, 

Bockh, Inscr., No. 2085 c. 

2 Ibid., 2085 c. 


Visellius, M. Exsonius. 1 These handles are described as 
curved cylinders, about 6 inches in length, and 1 inch in 
uniform thickness, their clay pale and fine. The names, 
which are stamped in large inelegant letters, Mr. Stoddart 
supposes to be those of the eponymous duumvirs, who may 
have ruled the city from B.C. 44, the epoch of its restoration 
by Julius Caesar, to A.D. 15. This inference is drawn from 
the name of Caninius, which is found as the praenomen of 
certain Corinthian duumvirs. They appear, however, to 
have been rather the names of the freedmen or slaves who 
made the ware, or of the proprietors of the potteries. 2 

Mr. Falkener found in a house excavated under his 
superintendence at Pompeii, a Greek inscription of three 
lines, painted in red and black, on an amphora. All that 
is legible is the name of Menodotus and the letters " Kor. 
opt.," intended apparently to denote the best wine that 
may have come from Corinth. 


Besides the fragments attributed to the localities enume- 
rated, Mr. Stoddart also found other handles 3 of amphorae, 
which he referred to Polyrrhenia, Gortyna, Cydonia, 
Salamis, Chios, Apamaea, Lysimachia, Cyzicus, Icon, and 
Parium. The marks found upon them will be seen in 
the Appendix (No. VII.) ; but a cursory inspection will 
show that there are but very slender grounds for assign- 
ing them to these places. 

In the same Appendix will also be found the names of 

1 Stoddart, loc. cit., p. 95. 3 One ' handle inscribed Oil AH, 

2 See the inscriptions in Appendix Parion, is supposed to belong to Paros, 
No. VI. Bekker, loc. cit., p. 480. 


Greek magistrates inscribed on other vase handles, 1 the 
origin of which is quite uncertain. 


The ancients also appear to have used flower-pots of 
earthenware, especially in the festival of the Gardens of 
Adonis celebrated at Athens, in which flowers were sud- 
denly elevated in earthen pots (dyyeia Kepa/xeta, oorpa/ca 
xurpcu), 2 . and then cast into the sea, apparently as a type 
of the premature death of Adonis. On this occasion the 
women also placed these flower-pots on the tops of the 
houses. In the same festival, which was chiefly celebrated 
by the hetairce, a red-coloured figure (Kopd\\Lov) of terra- 
cotta was also introduced. 3 Pots of the same material 
were also used by the ancients for tender plants ; for 
Theophrastus, speaking of the southern- wood (afBpoTovov), 
observes that it is raised with difficulty, and propagated 
by slips in pots. The use of flower-pots placed at the 

1 The reader must consult for a iii. prefatio, p. 1, Ouvaroff, Drevnosti, 

complete account of all these handles, St. Petersburgh, 1855, 1. c. ii. Sabatier, 

Stephani Titulorum Grsecorum, part Souvenirs de Kertch. St. Petersburgh, 

ii. p. 3 5, in the Index Scholarum in 1849. Ashik, Vosporskoe Tsarstvo, 

universitate litteraria Csesarea Dorpa- Odessa, 1848, ii. Jenaische Literatur- 

tensi per semestre alterum 1848, ha- zeitung, 1842, no. 180. Stoddart, in 

bendarum. Thiersch, in Abhandlung. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lit., vol. iii. N. S. 8vo. 

der philos. philoL Classe der Kais. Lond. 1850, p. 1 183; vol. iv. 8vo. 

Bayer. Akadem. der Wissenschaft, 1837, Lond. 1853, p. 168. Bekker, Dr. 

Bd. ii. p. 779, and following. Franz. De Paul., in the Melanges Gre'co-Romains, 

Inscr. diotar. in SiciL report. Philolog., tire's du Bulletin Historio-Philologique 

1851. Jahrgang vi., Heft 2, p. 278, and de 1'Acad^mie Impe'riale des Sciences, 

foil Osann, Ueber die mit Aufschrift 8vo, St. Petersbourg, 1854, s. 416 521. 
versehene Henkel griechischen Then- 2 Eustath. in Horn. Od., xi. 590, p. 

gefasse, in den Jahrbiichern fur PhiloL 1701-45. 

u. Padagog. Supp. xviii. p. 520, and foil. 3 Raoul Rochette, Rev. Arche'ol. 

Bockh, Corp. Inscr. Graec., No. 5376, 1851, p. 112; Alciphron, i. 39. Timaeus 

Franz, in Boeckh, Corp. Inscr. Grsec., a Ruhnken, v. Kopov\d6oi. 


windows to form an artificial garden l was also known. 
It appears that the vases used in the festival of Adonis 2 
were big-bellied, probably like those which were given as 
prizes in the games. 3 


There is a vase in the British Museum which was cer- 
tainly designed for sepulchral purposes. The clay is pale, 
but the entire vase is covered with a coating of stucco. 
A myrtle wreath is traced on it in green. The shape of 
the vase is that of the lecane, and round it were placed 
the fore-parts of three chimseras, gilded. It contained 
human bones, with which were mingled a few terra-cotta 
ornaments ; one representing a winged Eros, small in size, 
but of a good style of art. Amongst the bones was the 
jaw, with the obolos, or small silver coin, which had been 
placed there to enable the soul to pay Charon his fare 
for crossing the Styx. The covering of lime shows that 
this vase was used for funereal purposes. Another vase 
was found in the catacombs at Alexandria, of the shape of 
a hydria, in pale clay, on which also a myrtle wreath was 
painted. This, when discovered, was filled with bones, for 
which it was evidently intended as a receptacle. 

There is also a class of vases, discovered of late years 
at Calvi, Capua, and Cumse, which seem to have been 
made for decorative or sepulchral purposes, as they are not 

1 Hist. Plant, vi. 7, 6 ; Raoul Ro- Plin. xix. 9, 1. 

chette, loc. cit. p. 114. 3 Hennias in Platon. Phaed. Schol. 

2 Bekker, Gallua, I p. 291; Raoul Bast. Epist. Crit., p. 193. The words 
Rochette, loc. cit. p. 118, adds to are yaa-rpta and yaarpa. 

Becker's citations ; Martial, xi. 18 ; 


at all adapted for domestic use. They are of pale red, fine 
and fragile terra-cotta, and painted, like the figures, with 
colours in tempera. The prevalent form is the askos or 
wine-skin, surmounted by various figures, attached to it or 
standing on it, or by bas-reliefs which have their flat 
reverses applied to the body, or by very salient reliefs 
projecting from it, as prokossoi. These affixed portions 
were made or moulded separately, attached to the body of 
the vase while the clay was wet, and the whole was then 
baked. The subjects are often marine ; on one is the 
head of the Medusa in front, two Tritons at the sides, 1 
and four Nereids standing on the body of the vase, as if 
borne by the Tritons. Others have Scylla, winged figures 
like the Eros of the vases of Southern Italy, Heos or 
Aurora with her winged steeds, Dolon surprised by 
Ulysses and Diomedes. 

Similar to these askoi are certain large ornamental vases, 
modelled in the shape of female heads of Bacchantes. 2 
The hair is bound with ivy-leaves, or with radiated crowns, 
and surmounted by small female heads rising from the 
sides of the large one ; whilst on the apex stands a figure 
of Nike or Victory. The whole is intended to represent 
the head of Pallas Athene in a helmet, the figure of 
Nike representing the crest, and the small heads the side 
feathers. Others are skyphi, in the shape of large heads 
with two handles. Of a similar style and period are 
certain rhyta, modelled in the shape of animals' heads, or 
with long reeded bodies, and medallions, aryballi, with 

1 Minervini, Monumenti antichi in- 2 Mon. v. liii.liv., Aun. 1853, p. 266 
editi de R. Barone, 4to, Jfapoli, 1852, 272. 
Taw. xiii. xiv. p. 65. 


flat bodies, having in bas-relief figures of Scylla ; and 
large pyxides or boxes, on which are representations of 
Scylla, and the loves of Aphrodite and Adonis. Of a like 
style are certain vases found at Agrigentum, apparently 
models of canfa or canisters, having tall conical covers, 
with a frieze of projecting lions' heads placed under 
an ovolo beading, and, round the body, modelled stems, 
amidst which are dispersed little Erotes, or Cupids, and 
heads of the Medusa gilded on a crimson ground. These 
are evidently imitated from works in metal. Other vases of 
this class are in the shape of kraters, 1 having round the 
outside small gilt figures and rosettes, laid on as emble- 
mata and gilded. There are also cenochoa, or jugs, with 
handles in the shape of youths, and affixes modelled to 
represent gryphons and other ornaments ; and vases of the 
class called kernos, consisting of four cups united together 
on a fantastic fluted stand, with emblems of the head of 
the Medusa, Erotes or Cupids, panthers, and foliage. 
These vases are probably of the Macedonian period, when 
cups and other vases were made in metal. In B.C. 330 the 
precious metals superseded the formerly esteemed works 
in terra-cotta, and the potter then endeavoured to imitate 
the new taste and fashion by reproducing in his plastic 
material humble imitations of the metallic work in high 
relief. Sometimes indeed, as on an amphora from Cumae, 
in the Campana collection, he stamped a subject from a 
mould round the body of the vase ; but he generally 
preferred to produce the required effect by detached 
pieces. Many of these generally pass for figures or 
groups, 2 and some of them are exquisite. 

1 Campana, Opere en Plastica, tav. liv. 2 Bull. Arch. Nap. v., tav. 3. 



Vases of various shapes have been found in the sepul- 
chres of Greece, such as the cenochoe, or jug ; the askos, or 
wine-skin ; the phiale omphalotos, or saucer having a boss 
in the centre ; r/iyta, or jugs, imitated from the her as, or 
horn, as well as some moulded in the shape of the 
human bust. Vases of this class, however, occur more 
frequently in Italy than in Greece. Some are of re- 
markable shape. One in the Durand collection has its 
interior reeded, and in the centre a medallion of the 
Gorgon's head ; at the edge is the head of a dog or fox, 
and to it is attached a long handle terminating in the 
head of an animal. Similar handles are often found. 
Another vase from Sicily, also in the same collection, 
with a conical cover, is ornamented externally with 
moulded subjects of wreaths, heads of Medusa, &c., 
painted and gilded. 

Many of the vases intended for ornamental purposes 

are covered with a white coat- 
ing, and painted with colours 
of the same kind as those used 
on the figures before described, 
but with few and simple orna- 
ments, "plain bands, maeanders, 
chequered bands and wreaths. 
A vase found at Melos affords 
a curious example. It consists 
of a number of small vases 
united together and arranged 

No. llOPainted Kernos, consisting of a in a double circle TOUnd a 
group of little vases. . , rm i j r 

central stand. This kind of 
vase is supposed to be the Jcernos, used in the mystic 


ceremonies to hold small quantities of viands. By 
some persons, however, it is thought to have been 
intended for eggs or flowers. It is covered with a white 
coating of clay, and the zigzag stripes are of a maroon 
colour. Such vases might have been used for flower-pots, 
and have formed small temporary gardens like those of 
Adonis, or have been employed as lamps. 



Glazed vases. Number of extant vases Places of discovery Tombs Literary 
history Present condition Frauds of dealers Earliest mention of 
Greek vases Ancient repairs Age Criteria Classification of D'Han- 
carville of the Due de Luynes Paste Clays Sites The potter's 
wheel Modelling Moulding Moulded rhyta, phialae, &c. Painting 
Tools Colours Glaze Furnaces. 

THE ware we are now to describe resembles terra-cotta 
in its general characteristics, the body of the paste being 
composed of a similar substance, but deeper in tone, and 
tender in its texture. The latter, however, varies ; being 
sometimes so hard as scarcely to admit of being cut with 
a knife ; at others, so soft, as to be readily scratched with 
a finger-nail. These vases show the highest point of per- 
fection which the ancient potteries attained. They were 
applied only to purposes of luxury and decoration, and 
used with great care and tenderness, for being little 
suited for domestic purposes. They stood in the same 
relation to the other products of the ancient potteries as 
the fayences of the middle ages, and the porcelains of the 
present day do to vessels of terra-cotta, stoneware, or 
tender porcelain. The Greek are the most important for 
their beauty and for their art. Their true designation is 
lustrous or glazed vases, and they have been placed by 


M. Brongniart in the second class of pottery. They are 
painted with various colours, chiefly black, brown, yellow, 
and red, and protected by a fine, thin, alkaline glaze, 
which is transparent, and enhances the colours like the 
varnish of a picture. They are very porous, allowing 
water to ooze through, like the hydrocerami ; and their 
paste is remarkably fine and light, giving forth a dull, 
metallic sound when struck. 


The following observations and reflections upon these 
works of ancient art are derived from numerous examples. 
The number of vases deposited in the great public 
Museums of Europe is very large, and from calculations 
derived from catalogues or from observations made on 
the spot, may be stated in round numbers as follows : 
The Museo Borbonico, at Naples, contains about 2,100 ; 
the Gregorian Museum in the Vatican, about 1,000 ; 
Florence has about 700 ; and at Turin there are 500. 
On this side of the Alps, the Imperial Museum of Vienna 
possesses about 300 ; Berlin has 1690 ; Munich about 
1700; Dresden, 200~; Carlsruhe, 200; the Louvre, at 
Paris, about 1500 ; while 500 more may be found in the 
Bibliotheque Imperiale. The British Museum has about 
2,600 vases of all kinds. Besides the public collections, 
several choice and valuable specimens of ancient art belong 
to individuals. The most important of these private collec- 
tions are those of the Due de Luynes, the Due de Blacas, the 
Count de Pourtales-Gorgier, the Jatta coUection, that 
belonging to M. St. Angelo at Naples, and a fine and choice 

VOL. I. 


one belonging to the Marquis Campana at Rome. In 
England, the collections of Mr. Hope, of Mr. Jekyll, of the 
Marquis of Northampton, and of Mr. Hertz, contain 
several interesting examples. In addition to these, 
several thousand more vases are in the hands of the prin- 
cipal dealers, as S. Barone, of Naples ; and the heirs of 
S. Basseggio, Capranesi Depolletti, at Rome ; S. Delia 
Rusca, at Florence ; M. Rollin, of Paris ; and S. Cam- 
panari and Messrs. Sotheby, in London. The total 
number of vases in public and private collections probably 
amounts to 15,000 of all kinds. 


All these were discovered in the sepulchres of the 
ancients, but the circumstances under which they were 
found differ according to locality. In Greece, the 
graves are generally small, being designed for single 
corpses, which accounts for the comparatively small size 
of the vases discovered in that country. At Athens, the 
earlier graves are sunk deepest in the soil, and those at 
Corinth, especially such as contain the early Corinthian 
vases, are found by boring to a depth of several feet 
beneath the surface. The early tombs of Civita Vecchia. 
and Csere, or Cervetri, in Italy, are tunnelled in the earth ; 
and those at Vulci and in the Etruscan territory, from 
which the finest and largest vases have been extracted, 
are chambers hewn in the rocks. In Southern Italy, 
especially in Campania, they are large chambers, about 
5 J palms under the surface. 

The accompanying wood-cuts will convey an idea of the 



manner in which the vases are arranged round the bodies 
of the dead in the tombs of Veii, Nola, and Cumae. 

No. 111. Tomb at Veii, containing vases. 

The tomb represented below is constructed of large 
blocks of stone, arranged in squared masses, called the 

No. 112. Tomb of Southern Italy, with vases. 

Etruscan style of wall, in contradistinction to the Cyclo- 

P 2 


pean. The walls are painted with subjects, the body is 
laid upon the stone floor, and the larger vases, such as the 
oacylapha and craters are placed round it. The jugs are 
hung upon nails round the walls. 1 The following descrip- 
tion, by Sir William Hamilton, will illustrate this class of 
sepulchres ; while those who remember the exhibition by 
S. Campanari of models of the Etruscan tombs, will at 
once recognise the same method of arrangement in the 
Vulcian sepulchres. 

" The most ordinary sepulchres are constructed of rude 
stones or tiles, and are of a dimension just sufficient to 
contain the body and five or six vases ; a small one near 
the head, and others between the legs, and on each side, 
but oftener on the right side than on the left. A vase, like 
the pra3fericulum and a patera, are usually found in every 
sepulchre, but the number, size, and quality of the vases 
varies, probably according to the dignity of the personage 
for whom the sepulchre was made. The better sort of 
sepulchres are of much greater dimensions, and con- 
structed with large hewn stones, generally without cement, 
but sometimes completed with cement, and the walls stuc- 
coed, and even some little ornaments of painting on them. 

" In such sepulchres, which have the appearance of small 
rooms, the body is found on its back on the floor, with the 
vases placed round it ; and sometimes vases with handles 
have been found hanging upon nails of iron or bronze, 
attached to the side walls. An exact representation of 
such a sepulchre, which I found at Trebbia, not far from 
Capua, has been published in Mr. D'Hancarville's work, 

1 D'Hancarville, vol. ii. 57, vignette. Gargiulo, p. 12. 


after my first collection of vases ; and a representation of 
an ordinary sepulchre, lately found at Naples, is the subject 
of the frontispiece of this work. The vases in the larger 
sepulchres, or subterranean rooms, are always more nume- 
rous, of a larger size, and of a superior quality in every 
respect to those of the ordinary sort of sepulchres, which 
have little to recommend them except their forms, which 
are always in some degree elegant, however rude in other 
respects. At Polignano in Pugiia, the Archbishop, showed 
me last year a large sepulchre of the best sort, which he 
had discovered the year before in his garden, and in which 
he had found more than sixty vases, and some of a great 
dimension, and most beautiful ; but except one or two, 
which are exceedingly curious, the subjects painted on 
them are chiefly Bacchanalian, and not very interesting. 
These vases are now deposited in his Sicilian Majesty's 
Museum at Capo di Monte." l 

" With these vases, fibulse, or buckles of silver or bronze, 
are often found, and sometimes the heads of spears, and 
broken swords of iron or bronze. Rings of silver, brass, 
and lead, are often found, and military belts, with clasps 
of bronze, and, what is extraordinary, I have seen the 
quilted lining of them sometimes entire, though inclined 
to moulder away on the least touch, as did two eggs that 
I once found in a bronze patera in one of these sepulchres. 
In a sepulchre at Psestuni, I remember also that I found 
the entire skull of a wild boar mixed with the vases and 
the human bones : but except we judge from these two 
instances, there is no reason to believe that it was the 

1 Hamilton, in TiscLbein, p. 26. 



custom to bury provisions with the dead. At Terra 
Nuova, in Sicily, supposed to be the ancient Gela, several 
sepulchres have been lately discovered with fine vases, 
similar to those of Nolan manufacture, and in one of them 
the egg of an ostrich was found well preserved. Some of 
these vases, as I have been assured by a British traveller 
who saw them, have Greek letters on them." 1 

An example of the mode of arranging these vases in 
the tombs of Campania will be seen in the accompanying 
wood-cut, taken from Sir William Hamilton's work on 

No. 113. Tomb of Southern Italy, with skeleton and vases. 

vases. Here the grave assumes the shape of a soros, or 
sepulchral chest, w T ith a pent-house roof, imitating a pedi- 
ment, or roof of a small temple. The body is laid on the 
floor, and the vases round it. The later tombs of the 

1 Hamilton, in Tischbein, pref. vol. i. p. 30. 


Roman soldiery and of the poorer classes, made of tiles, 
were of the same shape. 


Public attention was first directed to these vases by 
La Chausse, 1 who, in his " Museum Romanum," published 
in 1690, gave plates of a few examples. Laurent Beger 
published, in 1701, those of the cabinet of the Elector of 
Brandenburg. 2 Montfaucon, in his " Antiquite Expliquee," 
repeated these figures. 3 Dempster 4 subsequently pub- 
lished several vases, with full explanations. Gori, whose 
attention to these monuments had been attracted by 
seeing them in the work of Dempster, published several in 
his " Museum Etruscum ;" 5 and Caylus gave engravings of 
some in his "Recueil." 6 Winckelmann also published several 
vases. 7 Subsequently, D'Hancarville edited the vases in 
the collection of Sir William Hamilton. 8 The indefatigable 
Passeri published a large number of engravings of vases 
in various collections. 9 A second collection of Hamilton's, 
supposed to have been lost in the sea, was issued by 

1 Fo. Rom. 1690. Also Grsevius, The- Museum Guarnaceum, fo. Flor. 1744. 
saurus Antiq. Roman, xii. 955. Dis- 6 1752 1767. 

sertatio de vasis, bullis, armillis, fibulis, 7 Histoire de 1'Art, liv. iii. c. iii. s. 2, 

annulis, &c. p. 34. Gesch. d. K. 4to. Dread. 1764. 

2 Thesauri regii Brandenburgii volu- Monumenti Antichi Inediti ; folio, Rom. 
men tertium, continens supellectilem 1769, nos. 131, 143, &c. 
antiquariam uberrimam, imagines de- 8 Antiquite's Etrusques, Grecques et 
orum, statuas, thoraces, vasa et instru- Romaines, tiroes du cabinet de M. 
mentavaria. CoL March, 1701. Also Hamilton ; folio, 1766 1767. 
Supplement, torn. iii. 1757. 9 InThomseDempsterilibrosdeEtru- 

3 L' Antiquite* expliqude et repre- ria Regali Paralipomena; folio, Luccse, 
sentee en figures, tome iii ann. 1719. 1767. Picturse Etruscorum in vasculis 
Pte. lere, p. 142, pi. Ixxi. nunc primum in unum collect ; foh'o, 

4 Etruria Regalia, folio, Florent. 1723. Rom. 17671775. 

5 Folio, Flor. 1735-36; also the 



Tischbein, 1 with an explanation by Italynsky ; and another 
was subsequently given by Bottiger. 2 The celebrated 
Millin also published vases in his collection of unedited 
monuments, 3 illustrated with observations ; and another 
edition .appeared , under the auspices of M. Dubois 
Maisonneuve, 4 under whose name it generally passes. 
Since that time, the ," Vases Grecques," 5 the "Vases de 
Coghill," 6 and the " Ancient Unedited Monuments " of 
Millingen 7 have been published, and have been followed by 
the handsome work of the "Vases de Lamberg," 8 pub- 
lished by De Laborde ; by the " Monuments Inedits " 
of Raoul Rochette ; 9 by " Elite Ceramographique " of MM. 
Lenormant and De Witte; 10 and the "Vasi Fittili" 11 
of Inghirami ; whilst, in Berlin, the learned and careful 
publications of M. Gerhard, 12 of which the " Auserlesene 
Vasenbilder" is the most important, have diffused a 

1 Rccueil de gravures d'aprs des 
vases antiques; folio, 1791 1803. 
Tischbein's work is entitled " a Collec- 
tion of engravings from ancient vases, 
mostly of pure Greek workmanship, 
discovered in sepulchres in the king- 
dom of the Two Sicilies, but chiefly in 
the neighbourhood of Naples, during 
the years 1789 and 1790 ; now in the 
possession of Sir W. Hamilton, H. B. 
Maj. env. ext. and plenipo. at ^the 
court of Naples; with remarks on 
each vase by the collector. Pub- 
lished by Mr. W. Tischbein, Director 
of the R. Acad. of Painting at Naples. 

2 Qriechische Vasengemaelde mit 
archaeologischen und artistischen Er- 
laueterungen der Originalkupfer, torn, 
i. 8vo, Weimar; torn. ii. 8vo, Mag- 
deburg, 17971800. 

3 Monumens antiques ineMits et nou- 

vellement explique"s; 4to, Paris, 1802 

4 Dubois Maisonneuve, Peintures des 
vases antiques, vulgairement appele"s 
Etrusques, tire"es de differentes collec- 
tions, et gravees par Clener, acconv 
pagne'es d'explications par A. L. Millin, 
Membre de 1'Institut et de la Ldgion 
d'Honneur; publics par M. Dubois 
Maisonneuve ; folio, Paris, 1808-10. 

6 Fo. Rom., 1813. 

6 Fo. Rom., 1817. 

1 4to, Lond., 1822. 

8 Fo. Paris, 1813-25. 

9 Fo. Paris, 1828. 

10 4to, Paris, 1838, 1844. 

11 4to, Fiesole, 1833. 

12 4to, Berlin, 1810. Besides which 
his Trinkschalen. 1840. Etr. & Kamp. 
Vasenbild. fo. 1843. Apulisch. Vasen- 
bild. fo. 1845. Trinkschalen. fo. 1848 


knowledge of ancient vases. M. Panofka has also published 
the " Vasi di Premio," l as well as many vases in his 
description of the cabinet of M. PourtaTes-Gorgier, 2 and the 
Due de Luynes portion of his own collection. 3 In England, 
the works of Moses 4 and Christie 5 are of artistic rather 
than of archaeological value ; and neither public patronage 
nor private enterprise has undertaken works equal to 
those published on the Continent, although so desirable in 
a country whose pottery is a considerable article of export 
trade. Single vases have indeed been published by learned 
individuals and by societies both here and abroad. Of 
these, the Archaeological Institute of Rome has done the 
most for this branch of art and antiquity. 


These vases, as we have already mentioned, are often 
ranged round the dead, being hung upon, or placed near the 
walls, or piled up in the corners. Some hold the ashes of 
the deceased ; others, small objects used during life. They 
are seldom perfect, having generally either been crushed 
into fragments by the weight of the superincumbent earth, 
or else broken into sherds, and thrown into corners. 
Some exhibit marks of burning, probably from having 
accompanied the deceased to the funeral pyre. A few are 
dug up in a complete state of preservation, and still full 
of the ashes of the dead. These are sometimes found 

1 Fo. Fir. 1841. Collection of Antique Vases, 4to, 

2 Descr. de quelques Vases, fo. Paris, Lond. 1814. 

1840. 5 Disquisition on Etruscan Vases, 

3 Antiques du Cab. Pourt-Gorgier, 8vo, Lond. 1806. 
fo. Paris, 1834. 


inside a larger and coarser vase of unglazed clay, which 
forms a case to protect them from the earth. 


Almost all of those in the Museums of Europe have been 
mended, and the most skilful workmen at Naples and Rome 
have been employed to restore them to their pristine 
perfection. Their defective parts have been scraped, filed, 
rejoined, and supplied with pieces from other vases, or 
else completed in plaster of Paris, over which coating the 
restored portions are painted in appropriate colours, and 
varnished, so as to deceive the inexperienced eye. But 
either through carelessness, or else owing to the difference 
of process, the restorations have one glaring technical 
defect ; the inner lines are not of the glossy hue of the 
ancient glazed ones, and there is no indication of a thick 
raised line which follows the original outline in the old 
paintings. Sometimes the restorer has pared away the 
ancient incrustation, and cut down to the dull-coloured paste 
of the body of the vase. In some rare instances, a figure 
has been painted in a light red or orange oil paint on the 
black ground, or in black paint of the same kind on an 
orange ground. But in all these frauds, the dull tone of 
colour, the inferior style of art, and the wide difference 
between modern and ancient drawing and treatment of 
subjects, disclose the deception. 1 The calcareous incrus- 
tation deposited on the vases by the infiltration into 
the tombs of water, containing lime in solution, has been 
removed by the use of muriatic and nitric acids. 

1 Gerhard, Berlins Antike Bildwerke, s. 149. 


In other cases, vases with subjects have been coun- 
terfeited by taking an ancient vase covered entirely with 
black glaze, tracing upon it the subject and inscription 
intended to be fabricated, and cutting away all the black 
portions surrounding these tracings, so as to expose the 
natural colour of the clay for the fictitious ground. When 
red figures were intended to be counterfeited, the contrary 
course was adopted, the part for the figures only being 
scraped away and the rest left untouched. Vases, indeed, 
in which the ground or figures are below the surface should 
always be regarded with suspicion, and their genuineness 
can only be determined by the general composition and 
style of the figures, and by the peculiarities of the in- 
scriptions. The latter also are often fictitious, being 
painted in with colours imitating the true ones, and often 
incised ; indeed all inscriptions incised after the vase has 
been baked are of a doubtful character. 

The difference of style in the composition of groups, 
and especially the remarkable distinction of drawing, such 
as the over-careful drawing of details, the indication of 
nails, and various other minute particulars, are also 
criteria for detecting false or imitated vases. Water, 
alcohol, and acids will remove false inscriptions, but leave 
the true ones intact. Pietro Fondi, who had established 
manufactories at Venice and Corfu, and the Vasari family 
at Venice, 1 made fictitious vases. Wedgwood also imitated 
ancient vases, and such imitations are made at Naples for 
the purpose of modern decoration. 

1 Westropp, H. M., Epochs of Painted Vases. 4to, London, 1856. 



The oldest express mention of these vases in Greek 
authors is made by the poet Pindar, who flourished B.C. 528. 
He particularly describes the painted Panathenaic amphora} 
which were given as prizes in the contests of the Pana- 
thensean festival. Thus he sings of Thiceus, the son of 
Ulias, the Argive, who had twice obtained prizes of 
Panathenaic amphora) in the wrestling matches at Athens : 
" Him twice, at distant intervals, in the festivals of Athens, 
have sweet voices lauded. He brought the fruits of the 
olive in earth, burnt by fire, to the manly people of Hera 
(Argos) in the variegated receptacles of vases/' l 

Those made use of in the Athenian graves are unequi- 
vocally alluded to by Aristophanes. 2 Athena)us, 3 Strabo, 4 
and Suetonius, 5 mention painted vases. The later scho- 
liast of Theocritus 6 also mentions the fictile vases, painted 
all over with various colours. 


Great value seems to have been set upon these vases. 
They were repaired when broken by the pieces being 
skilfully fitted and drilled, and a rivet of lead or bronze 
neatly attached to the sides. Several mended vases exist in 
the European collections. Occasionally they were repaired 
by inserting pieces of other vases. Thus a vase with two 

1 Nemea, x. 6168. * Lib. viii. p. 382, Cas. 

2 Eccles. v. 994. 5 Vit. Jul. Cscs., c. 81. 

3 T. 466, C. Idyl i. 27, 36. 

AGE. 221 

handles, found at Vulci, of the shape called stamnos, is 
repaired with part of a cylix representing quite a different 
subject, and thus presents a discordant effect. 1 Large 
casks of coarser and unglazed ware (dolia) were also 
repaired with leaden cramps. " The casks of the naked 
Cynic," says the Satirist, " do not burn ; should you break 
one of them, another house will be made by to-morrow, 
or the same will continue to serve when repaired with 
lead." ' The Sybaritic fables, cited by Aristophanes, in 
the speech of a saucy old man in reply to some one whom 
he has ill-treated, show the use of bronze rivets. A 
woman of Syb^ris broke an earthen pot, which was 
represented as screaming out, and calling for witnesses to 
prove how badly it had been treated. " By Proserpine ! " 
exclaims the dame, " were you to leave off bawling for 
witnesses, and make haste to buy a copper ring to rivet 
yourself with, you would act more wisely." 3 


It is impossible to determine the age of the oldest 
glazed vases without inscriptions. Some seem to be 
coeval with the dawn of Hellenic civilisation, perhaps 
nine or ten centuries before Christ. Glazed vases of a very 
fine kind were probably manufactured between Olympiad 
LXXXIV. = B.C. 444 ; and Olympiad, xciv. = B.C. 404. 
Those made when painting and art had attained their 

1 Gerhard, A. V., cxlv. Cras domus, aut eadem plumbo com- 

2 " Dolia nudi missa manebit." 

Non ardent Cynici; si fregeris, altera Juvenal, Sat. xiv. v. 308 310. 

Set 3 Miiller, Literature of Ancient 

Greece, 8vo, Lond. 1848, p. 145. 


climax fall between Olympiads xciv.-cxx., or B.C. 400-300. 
The decadence of the art seems to have taken place 
about the cxx. Olympiad, after the conquest of Asia 
by Alexander the Great 1 had introduced vases of the 
precious metals and gems into Greece ; and earthenware 
vases probably fell into disuse about the first century B.C., 
having become entirely superseded by works in metal. 
In the time of Augustus they were rarities. 2 While 
however M. Gerhard 3 assigns the above dates to the art of 
making vases, Millingen 4 is of opinion that the period 
during which it principally flourished may be divided into 
three principal epochs. 

1st. That of the ancient style, B.C. 700 450, in which 
are comprehended the first efforts of the art. 

2nd. That of vases of the fine style, B.C. 450228, 
or from the time of the Persian to the second Punic 
war. The best he supposes were executed during the 
age of Phidias and Polygnotus, the latter of whom, 
according to Pliny, 5 drew his female figures with trans- 
parent garments and head-dresses of different colours, 
represented the mouth open and showing the teeth, 
and did away with the ancient conventional stiffness of 
the attitudes. 

3rd. That of vases manufactured from the Second 
Punic to the Social War, in which he includes those of the 

1 In the time of Cleomenes (Plutarch, operis antiqui scrutantes reperiebant." 
in Vita), B.C. 238, metal vases were in Sueton. C. Jul. Caes. c. 81. Out of 
common use at Sparta. thirteen tombs at Capua only one had 

2 "Paucos ante menses, quum in a painted vase. D'Hancarville, p. 103. 
colonia' Capua deducti lege Julia coloni, 3 Gerhard, Berlins Autike Bildwerke, 
ad extruendas villas sepulchra vetus- 8. 143. Rapporto Volcente, p. 112. 
tissima disjicerent, idque eo studiosius 4 Vases Grecques, Prdf. 

facerent, quod aliquantum vasculorum 6 N. H. xxv. c. 3. 


latest style found in the Basilicata, the Terra di Lavoro, 
and the ancient Campania and Lucania. 

Later than this they could not have been made, for, in 
the days of Augustus, all the towns of Magna Grsecia, 
except Rhegium, Naples, and Tarentum, had relapsed 
into barbarism. 1 

Other writers, as M. Kramer, 2 conjecture that the vases 
of the oldest style were made from Olympiad L. = B.C. 577, 
to Olympiad LXXX B.C. 457; those of the second, or 
"hard style" of art, from 01. LXXX = B.C. 457, to 01. 
xc. == B.C. 417; and those of the fine style, from 01. 
xc. B.C. 417, to 01. c. = B.C. 377. For the last class 
of vases he names no period. 3 


The following are the principal criteria for determining 
the age of vases. Those of the Doric style, with maroon 
figures upon a yellow ground, resemble the mural paintings 
in the old sepulchres at Veii, which city submitted to the 
Roman arms A.u.c. 358, or B.C. 390. The backgrounds 
with flowers appear, indeed, to have been copied from 
oriental or Assyrian art, which had ceased to exist in the 
sixth century B.C. ; while the Asiatic style of the friezes, 
which resemble those of Solomon's temple and the Baby- 
lonian tapestries, likewise indicates an epoch of great 
antiquity. The animals represented are similar to those 
seen on coins issued by cities of Southern Italy in the 

1 Strabo, vi. 253. Seroux d'Agincourt, Recueil, p. 93. 

2 Handbuch, sa. 75, 2. Creuzer, 3 Ueber den Styl und dio Herkunft. 
following Muller, Briefe, s. 123, throws 8vo, Berlin, 1837, s. 70, 71, 91, 92, 95, 
the epoch farther back, and so does 96, 113, 116, 121, 122, 210. 


sixth or seventh centuries B.C. ; or like the lions of 
Mycenso, which are supposed to date from Olymp. LXXIV., 
or B.C. 484. Mr. Brondsted is of opinion that the oldest 
Panathenaic vases may be placed in B.C. 562, and that 
those for holding oil in the tomb of the Mcerse, mentioned 
by Pindar, are nearly of the same age. Dodwell, indeed, 
assigned his vase in the oldest style, representing a hunting 
scene, to B.C. 700 ; but Miiller, whose opinion is preferable, 
gives the more moderate date of Olympiad L. = B.C. 580. 
The cup of Arcesilaus, which is only a development of 
this style of art, cannot be much later than B.C. 458. 

Other critical marks for determining the respective ages 
of vases are : 1. The subjects represented on the black 
figured vases, such as incidents in the reigns of the Arce- 
silai, B.C. 580 460, showing that vases of this style cannot 
be later ; 2. The use of aspirated consonants, introduced 
by Simonides of Ceos or Epicharmus, B.C. 529, into the 
Greek alphabet ; 3. The appearance of the hoplites dromos, 
or ' armed course/ and of the Pentathlon, first practised 
in Olympiad LV., B.C. 560. The vases with red figures 
cannot be older than the taking of Sardis, and the burning 
of Croesus the meeting of Alcseus and Sappho, and the 
figure of Anacreon being represented on them, subjects 
all pointing to an era about B.C. 545. The later vases 
of this style have the * H H li, which were introduced 
into the public acts of Athens, Olymp. LXXIV., B.C. 484. 
The peculiar shape of the drinking-cup called the Rhyton 
was perfected by Ptolemy Philadelphus, about B.C. 300. 

The later Panathenaic vases, found at Berenice, are 
dated in the time of Alexander the Great. 



D'Hancarville 1 divided the periods of the glazed vases 
as follows : 

I. Vases several centuries earlier than the Foundation of Eome. 
II. Up to the taking of Capua. 

III. Till the faU of Corinth. 

IV. Age of Vespasian ; vases distinguished by shape merely, and 

not by painting. 
V. Period of decadence, from the time of Trajan to Severus. 

He adopts the following distinguishing marks : 

I. Monochrome paintings, the figures having no distinction of 

sex, anterior to Hygiemon, Deinias, and Charmides. 2 
II. Vases of the age of Eumarus, who first distinguished the 
sexes, 9th century, B.C. 

III. Vases with full or three-quarter faces, later than Cimon 

of Cleonse, 9th century B.C., who introduced full faces 
looking up and down, the bones, and folds of drapery 
OL. LXXX. 460 B.C. Age of Pericles, B.C. 461, OL. LXXX. 

IV. Vases with transparent draperies, later than Polygnotus, 

OL. xc., B.C. 420. 

V. Vases with paintings of expression, or of every-day sub- 
jects, in imitation of the style of Zeuxis of Heraclea, and 
those with noble countenances, OL. xcv., B.C. 400 : imi- 
tating those depicted by Parrhasius, OL. xcvi , B.C. 396, 
and Apelles, OL. CVIT., cxvm. B.C. 352, 308. 
VI. Vases on which are figures expressive of the passions. 
VII. Nicomachus, the first who represented Ulysses with a 

pileus, OL. XCT. 3, B.C. 397. 
VIII. Grylli, invented by Antiphilus. 

IX. Change in the poles of chariots by Clisthenes, who re- 
duced them to one (Isidorus, xviii. 35). 
X. Masks, invented by Thespis or JEschylus. 

1 ii. 108114. 2 Pliny, N. H. xxxv. 

VOL. I. Q 


The Due de Luynes, whose observations on the ceramic 
art of the Greeks are characterised by sound judgment 
and deep artistic feeling, hesitates about denning the 
exact ages of the various styles, although he has classed 
them generally in the following order : 1. The Doric or 
Phoenician vases ; 2. Those, the body of which is covered 
with an engobe or coating like the first class, the black of 
which, is false, the glaze pale ; 3. Those with archaic black 
figures, the style of which is distinguished by a massive 
simplicity, the muscular development exaggerated, the 
touch firm, the drawing varying from the simple to the 
ridiculous, and vigorous to caricature ; 4. Imitations of 
the archaic, the varnish of which is more brilliant than 
the preceding, the outlines more careful, and the extre- 
mities better finished ; 5. Those with red figures, or with 
black outlines and figures on a white ground, comprising 
a series of ware extending from the age of Pericles to that 
of Pyrrhus, about which latter period the vases were orna- 
mented with reliefs, gilding, reeding, and twisted handles ; 
6. Barbaric imitations by the natives of Lucania, Messa- 
pia, and the Bruttii, the figures of which are often of a 
bizarre character, and the vase itself surcharged with 
ornaments. 1 


The paste of these vases, according to Brongniart, 2 is 
tender, easily scratched or cut with a knife, remarkably 
fine and homogeneous, but of loose texture. When 
broken, it exhibits a dull opaque colour, more or less 

1 Annali, 1832, p. 145 et seq. 2 Traitd, L p. 546. 

PASTE. 227 

yellow, red, or gray. It is composed of silica, alumina, 
carbonate of lime, magnesia, and oxide of iron. 1 The 
colour depends on the proportions in which these elements 
are mixed ; the paler pastes containing more lime, the 
red more iron. The ware fuses at 40 Wedgwood, 
and was originally baked at a low temperature. It is 
permeable, allowing water to exude, and emits when 
moistened a strong earthy smell. It is not known how 
this paste was prepared, for the Greeks have left few or 
no details of their processes. It has been conjectured 
that the clay was fined by pouring it into a series of vats, 
and constantly decanting the water, so that the last 
vat held only the finest particles in suspension. The 
clay was, however, worked up with the hands, and 
fashioned on the wheel. It is supposed by Brongniart to 
have been ground in a mill, or trodden out with the feet. 
Either red or white clay was preferred by the ancients, 
according to the nature of the pottery required to be 
made. 2 

Certain sites enjoyed in antiquity great reputation for 

1 The analysis of Vauquelin gave (Millin.) (Gargiulo.) Vulci. Sicily, 

silica 53, alumina 15, carb. lime 8, Garb, lime 8 7. 10 

ox. iron 24 ; Millin, Introd. p. vi. That Manganese 12 14 

of Bronguiart, Traite, i. p. 553, is, silica Ox. of iron 24 16 20 12 

55-49, alumina 19-21, ox. of iron 16-55, Residuum 5 

carb. liine 7 48, magn. 1'76. Abeken 

has also given an analysis of the paste Results are also given by Gargiulo, 

of Sicilian vases. Mittel-Italien, p. 364. Cenni, p. 21, of the analysis of Nic. 

0. Jahn Vasensammlung zu Miinchen, Covelli, of the paste of the vases of St. 

8vo. Miinchen, 1854, p. cxl., 1013, gives Agate dei Goti Nola > and Capua; and 

the following comparative table : b J Campanari, p. 56, of Lor. Valeri, of 

those of Vulci. 

(Millin.) (Gargiulo.) Vulci. Sicily. ' Geopomca, iv. 3. Among the Romans 

Silica 53 48 32 40 & was tne duty of a good householder 

Alumina . 15 16 24 16 to know the nature of clays. 

Q 2 


their clays. One of the most celebrated was that pro- 
cured from a mine near the promontory of Mount Colias, 1 
close to Phalerum, from which was produced the paste 
which gave so much renown to the products of the 
Athenian Kerameikos. The articles made of it became so 
fashionable, that Plutarch 2 mentions an anecdote of a 
person who, having swallowed poison, refused to drink 
the antidote except out of a vessel made of this clay. It 
seems to have been of a fine quality, but not remarkably 
warm in tone when submitted to the furnace ; ruddle, or 
red ochre, being employed to impart to it that rich deep 
orange glow which distinguishes the nobler specimens of the 
ceramic art. Corinth, Cnidus, Samos, and various other 
places famous for their potteries, were provided with fine 
clays. 3 At Coptos, in Egypt, vases were manufactured of an 
aromatic earth. The extreme lightness of the paste of 
these vases was not unobserved by the ancients, and its 
tenuity is mentioned by Plutarch. 4 That it was an object 
of ambition to excel in this respect, appears from the two 
amphorae preserved in the temple of Erythrse, 5 of extreme 
lightness and thinness, made by a potter and his pupil, 
when contending which could produce the lightest vase. 
The thinnest vases are of unglazed ware ; and some of 
these pieces which have come down to us are scarcely 
thicker than stout paper. Great difference is observable 
in the pastes of vases coming from widely separated 
localities, owing either to their composition or baking. 
It is much to be regretted that more profound and minute 

1 Suidas, voce. Athenaeus, xi. p. mart, Traite", L p. 582. 

482, ed. Cas. Apophthegm. Pembertou, p. 14. 

2 De Audit ii. p. 47, 2. 153. Reiske. The term which he uses is AeirrcL 
8 Pliny, N. H. xxxv. 12, 46. Brong- 5 Pliny, N. H. xxxv. 12, 46. 


scientific observations have not been directed to this part 
of the inquiry, as they might determine the question 
whether the pastes of vases extracted from the sepul- 
chres of Greece and Italy are essentially the same or 
not, and thus show whether they had a common origin. 
The paste of the early vases of Athens and Melos is of a 
very pale red ; that of vases of the Doric or Corinthian 
style is of a pale lemon colour. At the best period of the 
art the paste is of a warm orange red ; but the Lucanian 
and Apulian vases are of a paler tone. The Etruscan 
painted vases of all ages are of a pale red tone, with a 
much greater quantity of white, which appears to be 
owing to the greater proportion of chalk used in pre- 
paring the paste. It is very soft, and easily scratched 
with a knife, but well sifted and homogeneous. The 
analysis of Niccola Covelli gave for the paste of these 
paler vases, 48 of silica, 16 of alumina, 16 oxide of iron, 
.9 carbonic acid, 8 carbonate of lime, 3 of loss. Fields 
of this clay are stated to have been found in South Italy, 
but the material is universally distributed. 1 


The first glazed vases were made with the hand, but the 
wheel was a very early invention. Among the Egyptians 
and Greeks it was a low, circular table, turned with the 
foot. Some wheels used in the ancient Aretine potteries 
have been discovered, consisting of a disk of terra-cotta 
strengthened with spokes and a tire of lead. They are 

1 Gargiulo Cenni, p. 19, 20. 


represented on a hydria with black figures in the Munich 
Collection, and also on a cup with black figures in the 
British Museum. The potter is seen seated on a low- 
stool, apparently turning the wheel with his foot. Repre- 
sentations of the same kind are also found on gems. 

In making vases the wheel was used in the following 
manner : A piece of paste of the required size was placed 
upon it, vertically in the centre, and while it revolved was 
formed with the finger and thumb. This process sufficed 
for the smaller pieces, such as cups, saucers, and jugs ; 
the larger amphora? and hydria3 required the introduction 
of the arm. The feet, handles, necks, and mouths were 
separately turned or moulded, and fixed on while the clay 
was moist. They are turned with great beauty and 
precision, especially the feet, which are finished in the 
most admirable manner ; to effect which the vase must 
have been inverted. The juncture of the handles is so 
excellent, that it is easier to break than to detach them. 
Grea.t technical skill was displayed in turning certain 
circular vases of the class of askoi. With their simple 
wheel the Greeks effected wonders, producing shapes still 
unrivalled in beauty. 

We have already adverted to the contending claims for 
the honour of having invented the potter's wheel. The 
Grecian traditions attributed it to various persons, as the 
Athenian Coroebus ; l the Corinthian Hyperbius ; 2 the 
celebrated Talos, the nephew and rival of Da3dalus ; and 
to Da3dalus himself. 3 The tyrant Critias ascribed the 
invention to Athens : " That city," says he, "which erected 

. Plin. N. H. vii. 56, 57. 3 Diod. Sic. iv. 76. 

- Schol. ad Find. Olymp. xiii. 27. 


the noble trophy of Marathon also invented pottery, the 
famous offspring of the wheel, of earth, and of fire, the 
useful household drudge." l But the invention must have 
been earlier, for it is mentioned in Homer. 2 


The earlier mode of fabric was by means of the hand. 
After the clay was properly kneaded, the potter took up 
a mass of the paste, and hollowing it into the shape of 
walls with one hand, placed the other inside it, and 
pressed it out into the required shape. When raised or 
incised ornaments were required, he used modellers' tools 
the wooden and bronze chisels of his art. The largest 
and coarsest vases of the Greeks were made with the 
hand. The pithos, or cask, was modelled by the aid of a 
kind of hooped mould. 3 The smaller and finer vases, 
however, were turned upon the wheel. The Etruscan 
alone were often only modelled, and not turned. A 
potter is represented, on a great lamp in the Durand Col- 
lection, standing and modelling a vase before his furnace. 4 
Handles were modelled with sticks, and added to the 
vases, as may be observed in some gems. Handles were 
sometimes stamped or modelled, and fixed to the bodies 
while the clay was moist. The lips and necks of some of 
the smaller vases were also made separately, and then 
fixed to the body of the vase. 

1 Critias, in Athenseus, i. p. 23, B. 4 De Witte, Catal. Dur. No. 1777. 
ed. Casaub. Lenormant, Cur Plato Aristoplianem 

2 Iliad 2. 600. induxerit in convivio ; Paris, 1838, 

3 Panofka, Stir les V^ritables Nonas 4to. 
de Vases Grecques, Paris, 4 to. p. 1. 


Certain parts of the ancient painted vases were modelled 
by the potter at all periods of the art ; for on those of the 
isle of Thera, of Melos, and of Athens horses are occasionally 
found on the covers of the flat dishes moulded in full relief, 
while the handle is sometimes enriched with the moulded 
figure of a serpent twining round it. This kind of orna- 
ment is more suitable to works in metal than in clay, and 
suggests the idea that such vases were, in fact, imitations 
of metallic ones. On the vases of the Doric style, moulded 
bosses and heads, like the metallic reliefs, are sometimes 
found ; and even in vases of the hard style with black 
figures, the insertions of the handles of hydria3 are occa- 
sionally thus enriched. In the later styles modelling was 
more profusely employed ; small projecting heads were- 
affixed to the handles of jugs at their tops and bases, and 
on the large craters called amphorae a rotelle found in 
Campania and the Basilicata, the discs in which the 
handles terminated were ornamented with heads of the 
Gorgons, or with such subjects as Satyrs and Bacchantes. 
These portions were sometimes covered with the black 
glaze used for the body of the vase, but more fre- 
quently they were painted with white and red colours 
of the opaque kind. 

A peculiar kind of modelling was used for the gilded 
portions of reliefs, introduced over the black glaze. When 
the vase was baked a fine clay was laid on it and deli- 
cately modelled, either with a small tool or a brush, a 
process similar to that adopted in the Roman red ware. 
It may indeed have been squeezed in a fluid state through 
a tube upon the vase, and then modelled. As the gilded 
portions are generally small, this process was not difficult 



or important, but one vase recently discovered at Cumse 
has two friezes executed in this style. The upper one is 
a row of figures round the neck, representing the departure 
of Triptolemus, delicately modelled, coloured, and with the 
flesh throughout gilded ; the lower one consists of a 
band of animals and arabesque ornaments. Several vases 
from the same locality, from Capua, and from Berenice 
have, round the neck, modelled in the same style, wreaths 
of corn, ivy, or myrtle, and necklaces, while the rest is 


But the art of modelling was soon extensively super- 
seded by that of moulding, or producing several impres- 

No. 114. Potter Moulding the Handle of a Cup, tkyphos. 

sions from a mould probably itself of terra-cotta, 1 but 

1 D'Agincourt, Recueil, xxxiv. 90, 92. 



perhaps occasionally of stone or marble. In the former case 
the subject was modelled in salient relief with considerable 
care ; and from this model a cast in clay was taken 
and then baked. In the other case a die or counter-sunk 
impression was carved out in a stone mould. As terra- 
cotta often warps in the baking, it is sometimes difficult 
to determine whether certain reliefs are modelled or 

The potter availed himself of moulds for various pur- 
poses. From them he produced entire parts of his vase 

in full relief, such as the 
handles, and possibly in 
some instances the feet. 
He also stamped out certain 
ornaments in relief, much in 
the same manner as the 
ornaments of cakes are 
prepared, and fixed them 
while moist to the still 
damp body of the vase. 
Such ornaments were prin- 
cipally placed upon the 
lips or at the . base of 

the handles, and in the interior of the cylices or cups 
of a late style, when the art was declining. One of 
these ornaments is an impression from one of the 
later Syracusan medallions, having for its subject the 
head of Arethusa surrounded by dolphins : it was struck 
about B.C. 350. 

The moulded portions of these vases are generally 
covered with the same black glaze as is used for the 

No. 115. Situla, with stamped ornaments. 


bodies ; but many of the little lecythi found at Athens 
and in the Basilicata have only their necks and part of 
their bodies glazed, while the moulded portions are painted 
in fresco of various colours, like the unglazed terra-cotta 
figures. Such vases were probably either toys, or else 
used for ornamental or sepulchral purposes. Those from 
the tombs of Athens, engraved in the work of Stack elberg, 
represent a negro grinding corn or kneading bread, 
Dionysus reposing under a vine, Europa crossing the sea 
on the bull, a Nereid on a dolphin, a boy with a dog, a 
female child lying on the ground or on a couch, apes, 1 
and other animals. 

A subdivision of this method of moulding upon the 
vase itself is easily remarked on the saucers, phialce and 
cups, set/phi, canthari, or even smaller amphorse and other 
vessels made at a later period of the art, and entirely 
covered with a coating of black glaze. Rows and zones 
of small stamped ornaments, apparently made with a 
metal punch, have been impressed on the wet clay of 
these vessels before the glaze was applied. These 
decorations are from - to -^ inch long, and unimportant in 
their subjects, which are generally a small radiated head, 
dolphins, helices, or the antefixal ornament, and hatched 
bands arranged round the axis of the vase. This latter 
ornament was probably produced by rolling the edge of a 
disc notched for the purpose round the vase, in the same 
manner as a bookbinder uses his brass punch. Such, at 
least, was the method by which this ornament was pro- 
duced on the Roman pottery. Plain circular zones, a kind of 

1 Stack elberg, xlixlii. SIus. Pourt. xxviii. xxx. 


decoration also often used by the potters, -were more easily 
made with a pointed tool. When these vases came 
into use the potter's trade had ceased to be artistic, 
and was essentially mechanical. But they are found in 
the ancient sepulchres of the Etruscan territory, as well 
as in the more recent cities of Southern Italy, such as 

The last method to be described is that of producing 
the entire vase from a mould, by. stamping it out ; 
a process now extensively adopted in the potteries. 
During the best period of the fictile art, while painting 
flourished, such vases were very rare ; but on the intro- 
duction of a taste for goblets and other vases of that kind, 1 
the potters endeavoured to meet the public taste by 
imitating the reliefs of metal ware. 

The most remarkable of these moulded vases is a 
kind of beakers called rhyta. They have one handle, and 
are incapable of being set down on the table except on 
their mouths, so that the guests were compelled to drink 
their contents. The bodies, which are cylindrical or 
expanding, terminate in the heads of animals, which, on 
examination, appear to have been delivered from a mould. 
These heads, which are principally of such creatures as 
belong to the chace, were subsequently coloured, sometimes 
with an engobe, or coating, of opaque colours, slightly 
baked, at others with the glaze. The bodies, or necks, were 
painted in the style of the period ; but the former appear 
to have first received a kind of polish or extra finish by 
returning them to the lathe, and passing them between 

1 Arneth, Chev., Das K. K. Mxinz und antiken Kabinet, 8vo. Wien, 1845, 
s. 7, no. 60, 61. 


the potter's fingers ; for the marks of the gates, or 
divisions of the mould, are often obliterated. 

By the same process were also made the vases found at 
Vulci, of the nature of jugs, being either cenochoce for wine, 
or lecythi for oil; the bodies of which are in the shape of 
human heads, 1 sometimes glazed, made from a mould, while 
the necks were fabricated on the lathe and the handles 
added. These were coloured and ornamented on the same 
principle as the rhyta ; but their style of art, which is 
rather better, shows that they were first in fashion. 2 A few 
cups made in the same way have been discovered ; such 
as that shaped like the head of Dionysus crowned with 

No. 116. Moulded phiale ompkalotos. Chariots of Gods. 

ivy, 3 and certain early cups in the form of a female breast 
with the nipple, also of the character of rhyta, and which 
call to mind the gold vase which the vain and lovely 
Helen dedicated to Aphrodite, modelled in the shape of 
her own breast. 

1 Mus. Pourt. ii. 

Cat. Durand. 12301264, Stack elberg, xxv. 3 Micali, xcix. 


Besides the rhyta, several phialcs, or saucers, were also 
moulded ; beautiful examples of which process may be 
seen 011 the flat bossy saucers, or pJiialce omphalotte. 
Round their centre is a frieze in bas-relief of four chariots, 
each having an Eros, or Cupid, flying before it in the air ; 
whilst in the chariots themselves are Minerva, Diana, 
Mars, and Hercules, driven by female figures, and having 
before them a boar or deer. Others have imitations of 
scallop shells. One cup has the subject of Ulysses and 
the Sirens. 1 

Jugs, amphorse, jars, and cups, the bodies of which are 
reeded, were also evidently produced from moulds, 2 and 
could not be made by the expensive process of modelling. 
Of smaller dimensions, but also made by moulding, were 
small vases, apparently used as lamps, and from their 
resemblance to wine-skins called askidia. They have 

No. 117. Askos, moulded lion's head spout. 

reeded bodies, long necks, and circular handles ; and on 
their upper surface a small circular medallion in bas- 
relief, with a mythological subject. In one kind of these 

1 See Gori, Mus. Etr. tom.L tab. vi. - Gerhard, Berl. Ant. Bild., 911, 930. 
Inghirami, Monument! Etiiischi, Tav- Bull. 1842, p. 36, 37. 
ole, s. vi. Q. S. ; Berl.Aat. Bili 1643. 


vases the spouts terminate in the head of a lion. 1 Such 
vases are principally found in the Basilicata and in Sicily, 
and belong to the latest period of the Greek fictile art. 2 
After being moulded they were entirely covered with a 
black glaze. 

Besides those already enumerated, the potter produced 
from moulds small vases for the toilet of the class of 
lecyilti, or oil-vases. Such are the vases in shape of the 
bust of Aphrodite holding a flower, armed heads, the 
Gorgon's leg, a negro's head, 3 an astragalus or knuckle- 
bone, 4 or an ape holding a vase. Others are in the shape 
of animals ; as of the elephant, 5 the horse, 6 the 
mole, 7 pigs, 8 doves, 9 rams, 1 a horse's head, 2 a dead 
hare, an eagle, dolphin, apes 3 and deer, their heads 
forming the stoppers. One like the claw of a crab has 
also been found. 4 Such vases, however, may have been 
used as toys, as some have pebbles or brazen balls inside 
them, and were found near the skeletons of children. 5 
Some are in groups, of which a remarkable one, discovered 
near Naples, represented an Ethiopian devoured by a 
crocodile. 6 Others are in the forms of Silenus pouring- 
wine into a vase, 7 of a Siren destroying a youth, 8 
of pigmies and cranes, Medusas, 9 females in vessels, 

1 Passeri, i. xlv. 9 D'Hancarville, iv. 34. I. s. vi. 

2 Gerhard, loc. cit. Passeri, i. xliii. T. F. 4. 

xliv. ] Berl. Ant. Bild. 1582. 

3 Micali, ci. - Berl. Ant. Bild. 16541658. 

4 Arch. Zeit. 1851. Taf. xxxii. s. 3 Coll. Feol. 167. Cat. Dur. 1306. 
370. Stackelberg, Die Graben, xxiii. 4 Panofka, Mus. Pourt. pi. xxx. 

5 Arch. Zeit. 1849, s. 99. 5 Bull. 1829, p. 20. Cat. Magn. 104. 

6 Inghirami, Mon. Etr. vi. 3. s. v. T. G Bull. 1829, p. 19. Arch. Zeit. 1849, 
F. 4. M. E. Fontaui, Vasi di Hamilton, i. s. 100. 

1 Cat. Magn. 104. ~> Arch. Zeit. Anz. 1851, s. 37. 

8 D'Hancarville, iii. 106. 8 Berl. Ant. Bild. 1584. 

9 Cat. Dur. 1264. 



and such like phantasies, 

A vase of this kind in 

These were probably orna- 


Pourtales collection is 
moulded in the form of 
a dove, and has at each 
side a moulded figure 
of Aphrodite, slightly 
draped and recum- 
bent, stamped in a se- 
parate mould and ap- 
plied to the side of the 
vase. It was intended 
to represent Aphrodite 
crossing over the sea 
on the back of a swan. 1 
A few of the largest 
vases, such as those in 
the Museum at Naples, 
were probably mo- 
delled on a frame. 
This, which was called 

kanabos, was made of wood, and the clay was moulded 

over it. 2 

Xo. 118. Early Moulded Vase, iu shape of 

1 Panofka, Mus. Pourt. xxxix. 

- Jahn, 1. c. p. 42. Geoponica, vi. 
3. Pollux, x. 189. Aristotle de Part. 
Auim. ii. 9. Tertallian, Apol. 12, ad 
Nat. i. 12. Pliny, loc. cit. Miiller, 
Arch. s. 305. Hesych. voce. Anth. Pal. 

x. 107. Aristot. Hist. An. iii. 5. De 
Gen. ii. 6, p. 743 a. For the distinction 
between this and the Kivvafios or model, 
see Jahn, loc. cit. Cf. also the expres- 
sion stipes. 



After the vases had been made on the wheel, they were 
duly dried in the sun, 1 and then painted ; for it is evident 
that they could not have been painted while wet. The 
simplest, and probably the most common, process was to 
colour the entire vase black. The under part of the foot 
was left plain. "When a pattern was added, the outline and 
faintly traced with a round point on the moist clay, was 
carefully followed by the painter. It was necessary 
for the artist to finish his sketch with great rapidity, since 
the clay rapidly absorbed the colouring matter, and the 
outline was required to be bold and continuous, each 
time that it was joined detracting from its merit. A 
finely-ground slip was next laid upon a brush, and the 
figures and ornaments were painted in. The whole was 
then covered with a very fine siliceous glaze, probably 
formed of soda and well levigated sand. The vase was 
next sent to the furnace, and carefully baked. It was 
then returned to the workshop where a workman or 
painter scratched in all the details with a pointed tool. 
The faces of female figures were coloured white, with a 
thick coat of lime or chalk, and the eyes red. Parts of the 
drapery, the crests of helmets and the antyges, or borders 
of shields, were coloured with a crimson coat, consisting 
of an oxide of iron and lime, like a body colour. 

In the second style of vases the figures are painted in a 
deep brown or black of an unequal tone on a yellow ground, 

1 ^Esop. Fab. Ixxvii. p. 37, 38, ed. was the wish of a man's daughter who 
Tauchn. Iva. alBpia. \afnrpa. fwifjLfivri, Kal had married a potter. 
\a/j.irpbs T}AWS &s &v 6 
VOL. I. 


formed of a siliceous coating over the pale red clay of the 
vase. An improvement upon this style was the changing 
of the colour of the figures by painting, or stopping out, all 
the ground of the vase in black, thus leaving the figures 
of the natural red of the clay, and the marking of the 
muscles and finer portions in an outline of a bright brown. 
The ideas that the figures were produced from others cut 
out in paper, 1 or by a process like distemper, 2 or from 
terra-cotta copies of sculptures, 3 seem inadmissible. After 
the paint had dried, the slip, or the siliceous glaze, was 
laid over the vase, except the under part of the foot and 
the inside. 

D'Hancarville 4 supposes that the ancients made their 
vases of clay, or of decomposed sand found in the 
Samnite Vulturnus, which they levigated or refined by 
washing, leaving the clay thus prepared in water, to swell 
and become glutinous enough for the wheel. While the 
vase was moist, they gave it a coating of yellow or iron 
ochre, ferri lutei y ochrte flavce, which slightly penetrated 
the surface, and when baked became of an orange-colour. 
The vases were painted while in an upright position, and 
the artist was obliged to stoop, rise, and execute his work 
in these difficult attitudes ; nor could he remove the 
pencil from any figure which he had once begun. The 
eye must have been his only guide. D'Hancarville 
points out the following as the chief difficulties. 
The painter being obliged to draw his outline upon a 

1 D'Hancai-ville, in Bottiger's Vasen- . 3 Rossi in Milligen, Vases deCoghill, 
gemiilden, Heft. i. s. 58. p. xi. 

3 Due de Luynes, Annali, 1830. p. 4 II. p. 136138. 



damp surface, the black colour which he used was 
instantly confounded with the tint of the clay. The lines 
grew broad at first, and afterwards contracted them- 
selves, leaving but a light trace, so that the artist could 
with difficulty discern what he had been doing. But, 
what was still more embarrassing, the lines, once begun, 
could not be left off except where they met other lines 
which cut or terminated them. Thus, for example, the 
profile of a head must have been executed with a single 
continuous line, which could not be interrupted till it met 
the neck ; and in drawing a thigh or leg, the whole outline 
must have been finished without taking off the pencil ; 
proceeding from the top downwards, making use of the 
point to mark the horizontal lines, and afterwards rising 
upwards to finish the opposite side. 1 

The dark outline was drawn strongly with a thick 
pencil, to prevent the background encroaching on the 
figure. That this was done while the clay was moist 
appears by the outline uniting, which could not have 
taken place if the clay had been dry. It was so difficult 
to fill in the outlines without alteration, that they were 
frequently changed. 

The ancient artists, notwithstanding these difficulties, 
observed all the laws of equilibrium in their figures ; 
conveyed expression by means of attitude ; and, by the 
use of profile, and the introduction of accessories, or small 
objects, into the background, contrived to compensate for 
the want of perspective. 

This want of perspective was owing to the use of flat 
colours, which did not allow of shades, and the figures 

1 D'Hancarville, ii. p. 142. 

B 2 


were consequently not seen in masses distinguished by 
light and shade, but isolated in the air. Hence, in order 

No. 119. Fragment, prepared for painting the background. 

to make the figures distinct, and to express by attitude 
all the actions and sentiments required, the artist was 
compelled to use profile. The black colour, the choice of 
which at first appears singular, is, after all, the most har- 
monious, and the best suited for showing the elegance and 
purity of the outline ; whilst by its aptness to reveal any 
defects of shape, it compelled the artist to be very careful 
in his drawing. 1 


The instruments employed by the ancient potters must 
have been very like those used at the present day. The 
apparent fineness of the exterior of the vases is solely 
due to the care with which the surface was polished. 2 
The paintings were made with a kind of brush, 3 and the 

1 D'Hancarville, ii. pp. 146148. 3 Gerhard, Festgeclauken an Winckel- 

2 Annali 1832, p. 142. mann, 4to, Berlin, 1841. Taf. ii. Cf. 


artist had a stick to steady his hand while drawing ; 
he must also have had a pointed tool, like a tracer, 
for the first outline, and a sharp one for the incised 


The colours used were few and simple, and were 
evidently ground excessively . fine, and made into a 
kind of slip. Of these colours the black was the most 
important and the most extensively used. Great differ- 
ence of opinion has always existed as to the nature of 
this colour, some imagining that it was due to a peculiar 
quality of clay, others ascribing it to the employment 
of manganese. Another theory is, that the vases were 
placed in external cases of crude clay ; that the space 
between this case and the body of the vase was filled with 
shavings, which were ignited by the heat of the furnace, 
and that the condensed smoke produced the jet-black 
colour on the surface. 1 

According to D'Hancarville, it was made with lead and 
what he calls lime of magnesia. 2 Manganese, the black 
oxide of which might have been conjectured to produce 
it, is denied by Brongniart to be even traceable in this 
colour. 3 He supposes that it was a metallic oxide. 
Vauquelin takes it to be a carbonaceous matter, such as 
plumbagine or black-lead. 4 The Due de Luynes asserts it 

Jorio (Andrea), " Sul Metodo degli An- 2 II., p. 148. He probably meant 

tichi nel dipingere i Vasi." Extracted carbonate of magnesia and black-lead, 
from the Bibliotheca Analitica. 3 Traite, i. pp. 549, 561. 

1 Bull. 1837, p. 28. < So also Scherer, in Bottiger 

Vaseijgeniiilden, ii. 35. 


to be an oxide of iron. 1 M. Gerhard 2 supposes that the 
warm tone is due to a colour laid on the body of the vase 
before it was baked ; but its superior colour, like that of 
the Roman red ware, may be the result of a mechanical 
polish given by the potter. This black colour assumes 
several hues, according to the locality, age, and care with 
which it was burnt in. On the Vulcian vases it has a 
greenish tone, and where two vases touched one another 
it is frequently red or orange. On those of Caere and Nola 
it is jet black, and on the later Campanian ones of an ash 
or grey colour. Over the whole colouring matter the 
glaze was spread, the vase was then baked, and the 
additional colours were laid over the glazing. Dead colours 
only were used ; for the lustrous orange is the natural 
tone of the clay, enhanced by the glaze. These additional 
colours, it appears, were also subjected to a firing ; but 
at a much less heat than the glazed ones. The most 
important and extensively used of these opaque colours is 
the white, said by Brongniart to be a carbonate of lime or 
fine clay. 3 According to the Due de Luynes, it is a white 
alumina or pipe-clay, 4 while others have discovered in it a 
mixture of carbonate of lime and oxide of iron, 5 or have 
produced it synthetically from a white clay and borax. 
D'Hancarville erroneously conjectures it to be a white 
lime or lead. 6 Similar to this is the cream-coloured engobe 
or coating found on the ground of certain vases of the 
more ancient style, and proved by analysis to be a kind 
of pipe-clay. The deep red or crimson, sparingly used 

1 Annali, 1832, p. 143. 5 M. Dorat's analysis gave 8 carb. 

2 Berlins Ant. Bildvv., s. 146. lime + 2'4 oxide of iron. 

3 Traite, i. p. 564. 6 D'Hancarville, ii. 150. 

4 Annali, 1832, p. 143. 


on the vases of the oldest style to distinguish certain 
details, is known to be an oxide of iron ; l and the light 
red is iron in another proportion. The yellow is an ochre. 
Blue and green, but rarely found, and only on vases of 
the latest styles, were produced from a base of copper ; 2 
gilding was occasionally applied. The part to be gilded 
was made in bas-relief, of terra-cotta delicately modelled, 
of white stucco covered with a mordant, and the gold leaf 
laid on, 3 but not burnished. 

Some doubts appear to exist respecting the liquid 
employed for mixing the colours. Some have supposed 
that it was water, others, that it was turpentine or oil ; 
but the first seems the most probable. The colour was 
easily laid on, and seldom scaled in the furnace. 


The glaze with which these vases were covered is 
described by M. Brongniart as lustrous (lustre), and only 
one kind was used, the receipt for making which is now 
lost. It appears to have been composed of one of the 
principal alkalies, either potash or soda ; but it is so 
exceedingly thin that it can be analysed only with great 
difficulty. No lead entered into its composition. It is, 
however, far inferior in other properties to the modern 
glazes, for it is permeable by water. It is not, however, 
decomposed by the same chemical agents. 4 It must have 

1 Annali, 1832, p. 143. Brongniart, Rapp. Vole. not. 164 and foil. Inghi- 
Traite", p. 347. rami, Vasi Fittili, i. p. 5. 

2 Annali, loc. cit. 4 Brongniart, Traits', i. p. 552. Ana- 

3 Gerhard, Berlins Ant. Bildw. s. 147. lyses of the black glaze will be found 

in the Appendix. 


been ground exceedingly fine, and spread over the whole 
surface of the vase when the colours were perfectly dry. 
This glaze adheres perfectly to the colours, especially to 
the black, which it seems to have thoroughly penetrated, 
and with which it scales off in flakes ; but many vases 
show how imperfectly it adheres to the paste. 

The vases were first baked, and subsequently painted 
and glazed, because the glaze ran best on a surface already 
baked. As the glaze resembles that of the red Samian 
ware, it was probably produced in the same manner, 
either by a polish, or by the use of salt. The colour has 
often changed while the vase was in the furnace. 1 


According to D'Hancarville, the vases were baked in a 
naked furnace (a cuisson nue), but their colour varies when 
the glaze has received a blow of the fire, passing from 
black to green, or from green to red, and even yellow. 
This effect must be distinguished from that produced by 
the burning of pyres, by which the bodies of the vases 
were often burnt through, and a leaden, metallic, hue im- 
parted to them. 

If naturally, or by accident, any parts remained too 
pale after the baking, the defect was remedied by rubbing 
them over with a deep red ochre, which supplied the 
necessary tone. This is shown by certain vases burnt on 

1 Gargiulo, Cenni, p 29. Jorio, Let- Vasi Greci comunemente chiamati 

tera sul metodo degli antichi nel di- Etruschi, delle lor forme e dipinture, 

pingere i vasi e sulle rappresentanze de' dei nome ed usi loro in geuerale. Pa- 

piti interessanti del R. Museo. Also, lenno, R. Stamp. 1823, 8vo. 


funeral pyres, on which the red colour has preserved the 
outline of the figures, although the varnish has peeled off. 1 

The representations of ancient furnaces, as derived from 
vases or gems, exhibit them of simple construction, in 
shape like tall ovens fed by fires from beneath, into which 
the vases were placed with a long shovel resembling the 
baker's peel. In front of one depicted on a vase at Munich 
is seen a Satyr's head, intended to avert the fascination of 
the evil eye, or of the enchantments, 2 which, according to 
the popular superstition, might spoil the process of manu- 
facture. On a cup in the Berlin Museum, the vases are 
seen arranged on steps, probably the secondary process of 
drying the accessary colours ; while on a gem, the subject 
of which is a potter painting a cup, the vases are placed 
on the top of the furnace uncovered with any sagger, or 
shade, to protect them from too much heat. On another 
gem a potter is seen finishing a vase on the top of a 
small domed furnace like an enameller's. 3 

A kiln, represented on a vase from Pozzuoli, has a tall 
chimney, and open furnace below. In some cases the 
vases appear to have been placed on the flat upper part 
of the stove. But on one gem the painter, or modeller, is 
seen finishing a vase, with two sticks placed on a conical 
object with a semi-elliptical opening, supposed to be a 
closed furnace, like the enameller's, if, indeed, it is not the 
sagger or covering for the vase. On the hydria at Munich, 
already mentioned, a seated youth is represented about to 
place an amphora in the kiln, while several vases, all 

1 Annali 1832, p. 144. vii. 108. Bekker, Anecd. Grec. p. 305. 

2 Jalm, I.e. s. 46. Pliny, N. H. xxviii. Larcher, Vit. Herodot. lib. vi. 182. 
2, 4. Homer, Hymni, Camiuos, Pollux, 3 Jalm, 1. c. Tav. i. 3, 4. 


coloured white, lie ready to be baked. A labourer is at- 
tending to the fire. The kilns were heated with charcoal or 
anthracite ; and it is related of the elder Dionysius, tyrant 
of Syracuse, that being unwilling to trust his unpopular 
throat to the razor of a barber, he was accustomed to singe 
his beard with the embers. 1 When the vases were re- 
turned from the furnace, the potter appears to have made 
good the defects of those not absolutely spoiled ; and the 
tone of some parts, especially the feet, was improved by 
rubbing them over with a red ochre, probably with wool. 
No furnaces have been found in Italy or Greece, 
although indications of a terra-cotta manufactory were 
discovered at Gales. 2 

1 Plutarch, Dio. 9. 2 Gargiulo Cenni, p. 19, 20. 



Glazed vases continued Rise of the art in Greece Painting of vases Earliest 
style, brown figures Second period, maroon figures Development 
Earliest black figures Doric style Old style, later black figures Cream- 
coloured ground and black figures Red figures Strong style Fine style 
Florid style Polychrome vases Decadence Mode of treatment 
Progress of painting. 

HAVING thus detailed the few technical notices which 
can be collected respecting the mode of manufacturing 
glazed Grecian vases, we will now proceed to consider 
them with regard to their style of art, as displayed in 
their painting and ornaments. 

The first traces of Grecian art and refinement appeared 
upon the coast of Asia Minor. The Greeks, there placed 
in contact with the old and magnificent monarchies of 
Asia, became imbued with the love of luxuries unknown 
to those of their race who inhabited the bleaker shores 
of the Peloponnese. In the Iliad, which presents a 
glowing picture of early civilisation, the decorative, as 
well as the useful, arts of life are frequently described ; 
and amongst them that of the potter is not the least 
prominent. Thus we find the dances of the vintage 
compared with the revolutions of the potter's wheel ; l and 
the large wine-jar or pitkos is mentioned, which held the 

1 Iliad, xviii. 600. 



whole stock of wine belonging to a household, and which 
was, in fact, the cellar of the Homeric age. 1 The 
expression, x<*^ Kf s "-fpap-os, applied by Homer 2 to the 
brazen vessel in which the Aloides confined Ares, shows 
that clay was the material usually employed for making 
large vessels, and that in his time the use of metal for 
such purposes was rare. 


It is supposed that originally vases were uncoloured, 
that they were subsequently painted black, and that 
afterwards, when the arts arose, they were ornamented 
with figures. The last sort of vases are supposed to have 
been used by the richer classes, and the black ones by 

poor people. Vases of plain 
black glaze, placed in the se- 
pulchres, were called Libyes? 
The first attempts at art 
would be plain bands or 
zones disposed round the 
axis of the vase. These 
bands or friezes were sub- 
sequently enriched and di- 
versified by the introduction 
of the forms of flowers, 

animals, and insects, drawn 
with the childish simplicity 
of early art. Thus on some 
the scarabseus is beheld of gigantic proportions, soaring 

No. 120. Diota of the earliest style. 

1 Iliad, ix. 405. Ibid. ix. 469. 
* Ibid. v. 387. 

3 Millingen, Vases Grecs, Introd. p. 
iv. Hesychius voce A<0uey. 



above a diminutive stag, and a herd of puny lions are 
placed in a row, under another row of gigantic goats. 1 
Some vases, with white ornaments of maeanders, lines, &c., 
upon a black ground, much resemble those found in the 
sepulchres of the early Peruvians, 2 and may perhaps be 
regarded as displaying the first attempts at decoration ; 
but as the art of making vases was practised at the same 
time as that of inlaying and chasing, it is probable that 
the invention of a glaze and the introduction of ornament 
were simultaneous. 

Near the ancient sites of Tantalis on Mount Sipylus, 
the tomb of Agamemnon at Mycenae, that of Achilles in 
the Troad, 3 in the old 
sepulchres under the 
Acropolis at Athens, 
at Delphi, and in the 
islands of Rhodes, Milo, 
the ancient Melos, and 
Santerino, 4 the ancient 
Thera, a kind of pot- 
tery has been disco- 
vered, which has every appearance of being the earliest 
painted ware manufactured by the Greeks. 5 It is com- 
posed of a fine light red paste, covered with a thin 
siliceous glaze, and having ornaments painted on it in 
red, brown, or dark black lines, which have also been 
burnt into the body of the vase. 1 Such decorations 

No. 121. Cylix of the earliest style. 

1 See Due de Luynes, Annali, 1830, 
p. 242. 

2 Vases deLamberg. II. xlviii. 423. 

3 Burgon, Trans. Roy. Soc. of Liter., 
vol. ii. p. 258; Stackelberg die Graeber 

der Hellenen, fo., Berlin, 1837, Taf. ix. ; 
M. Brongniart, Mus. Cer., PL xiii. 

4 Gerhard, in Annali, 1837, p. 134 ; 
Bulletino, 1829, p. 126 ; Ann., 1841, 10 ; 
Morgenblatt, 1835, s. 698. 


are the earliest which the vase painters adopted after 
they had discovered the art of covering the whole surface 
with a glaze. They bear great similarity to the decorations 
of the early Greek architecture, as exhibited in the 
sepulchres of the Phrygian kings, 1 and the facings of the 
tomb of Agamemnon, 2 works which some regard as the 
remains of Pelasgic architecture. They consist of hatched 
lines, annular lines or bands passing round the body of 
the vase, series of concentric circles, spiral lines, meanders, 
chequers, zigzags or Vandykes, and objects resembling a 
primitive kind of wheel, with four spokes. 3 No human 
figures are depicted on any of these vases, but animal 
forms are found in the rudest and most primitive style of 
art, distinguished by the extreme stiffness of their attitude, 
the length of their proportions, and the absence of all 
anatomical detail. These animals are the horse, 4 the 
goat, 5 swine, 6 storks, waterfowl, and dolphins. 7 They 
are either disposed in compartments, like metopes, but 
separated by diglyphs instead of triglyphs, or else in con- 
tinuous bands or friezes, each being several times 
repeated. Besides these, some few objects of an anomalous 
character are represented, such as wheels 8 of chariots, 
objects resembling the tumboi or mounds placed over the 
dead, stars, 9 and other objects. 10 Comparatively few of 
these vases are known ; but the shapes differ considerably 

1 Steuart, Ancient Monument. 1 ?, fo. pod between them, probably alluding to 
Lond. 1842. the course. 

2 Expedition Scientifique au Mor^e, 5 Ibid. 2558. 

fol. 1843, PI. Ixx, ; Gell, Itinerary, 4to, 6 Stackelberg, Die Graeber. Taf. ix. 

Lond. 1810, PI. vii. p. 28 ; Dodwell, vol. 7 Vase Room, Nos. 2517-58-56-57. 

ii. p. 232. " Ibid. 2514, 2517; Stackelberg, 1. c. 

3 Vase Room, Noa. 250770. 9 Ibid. 2517. 

4 Ibid. 2531. Two horses with a tri- 10 Ibid. 2519-222572. 



from those of the latter styles, although they are evidently 
their prototypes. Several of these vases are amphor*, 
sometimes of a large size, and evidently adapted for 
holding wine at entertainments. Others of this class have 
twisted handles, like those discovered at Nola, Among 
those with two handles, many having flat, shallow bodies, 
sometimes on a tall foot, are of the class of cups destined 
for symposia or entertainments, and are the prototypes of 
those called kylikes, or skyphi. Some others of the same 
shape have a flat cover, surmounted by two modelled 
figures of horses, and are the first instances of what is 
probably a kind of pyxis or box, a vase subsequently 
found in a more elegant shape amidst the sepulchres of 
Nola and the Basilicata. These have been called, on 
very slender grounds, lekance 
or tureens. Various jugs or 
cenocJioce are found, some with 
round handles, which evidently 
ministered the dark, sparkling 
wine at the festive entertain- 
ments, sometimes of proportions 
truly heroic ; as well as smaller 
vessels of this class of the shape 
called olpe. Other vases in the 
British Museum are of the shape 
of the askos, or skin to hold 
liquids. 1 

A vase, figured by Stackelberg, 
represents a little jug on the top of the cover of a two- 
handled jar, like some of the vases of later style. 

1 Vase Room, No. 2583. 

No. 122. (Enochoe of the earliest 
style. B. M., No. 2531. 


' The collection in the British Museum, perhaps the 
richest in vases of this class, contains several specimens of 
very large dimensions, which came from the collections 
of Lord Elgin, as well as some smaller pieces of this 
ware, either the ornaments of vases, or else the toys 
of children. Among them are horses, probably from 
the covers of the pyxides, parts of chariots, 1 and a 
Bceotian buckler. 2 Some of the covers are perforated 
with holes, two on each side, like the Egyptian, by means 
of which they appear to have been tied on in place of 
locks. -One small vase, having a cover with a tall stud, 
is a true pyxis, and was undoubtedly of the class used for 
the toilet. There are no vases of the shape subsequently 
known as crateres, at this period, that vase being repre- 
sented by certain large amphora9. 

There is every reason to believe that these vases are of 
the highest antiquity. Three figured in Stackelberg's work, 
were found in tombs near the Dipylon gate of the Hiera 
Hodos, or Sacred Way to Eleusis. Mr. Burgon dis- 
covered others in tombs on the south side of the 
Acropolis, within the precincts of the city, and under 
circumstances which showed that they had not been 
touched for centuries. The absence of all human figures, 
and of all inscriptions, the stiff style of the figures, and 
their analogies with oriental art, render it probable that 
some of them may be as old as the heroic ages. None 
can be more recent than the 7th century B. c. 

It has been supposed indeed that they are of Phrenician 
origin ; but none of the emblems found upon them are 
peculiarly Asiatic. They are primitive Ionic Greek. 

1 Vase Room, No. 2583. 2 Ibid. 2584. 



These vases, it is also evident from Herodotus, 1 were used 
in religious rites. 


The next style has been designated by various 
names, as Carthaginian, Corinthian, Egyptian, Phceni- 
cian, and Doric. 2 It is, however, better to comprise 

No. 123. Two-handled Vase with Lions. From Athens. Brit. Mus. No. 2589. 

all these varieties in the general term of Archaic 
Greek. In antiquity this class of vases immediately 
succeeds the early Athenian. The ground varies from a 
pale lemon to a blushing red colour, on which the figures 
have been 'drawn with a brush in a brownish black. 
Some of the earliest vases of this sort resemble the 
Peruvian in their style of decoration. 3 The tints of the 
dark figures, which are monochrome, vary however 

1 Herod, v. 88. 8 See D'Hancarville, Vases Etrusques, 

" For this and the subsequent style, i. PI. 46; ii. 87. 
see Mon. I., xxvi xxvii. 

VOL. i. s 


according to the intensity of the heat to \vhich they have 
been subjected, being frequently of a maroon red, but 
occasionally of a lustrous jet black. The colour is not 
equal in tone throughout, and the figures are spotty. 
The accessories are coloured in opaque crimson, in those 
places where an artist in a picture would have laid a 
shade. 1 The muscles and other details are scratched in. 
The prevalent type of the design is, ornaments arranged 
in bands, or friezes, sometimes as many as four or five 
occurring on one vase, and the rule seems to be to 
repeat the same group ; a practice which reminds us 
of the stamped friezes of the black Etruscan vases, and the 
monotonous bands of the early Athenian ones. The animals 
represented are chiefly lions, panthers, boars, goats, bulls, 
deer, eagles, swans, ducks, owls, and snakes. From the 
ideal world the artist has selected the chimera, gryphon, 
and sphinx. They are placed in groups of two or three 
facing each other, or in continuous rows after one another. 
The field of the scene is literally strewed with flowers of 
many petals, and with smaller objects resembling stones. 
A kind of trefoil lotus is often introduced. Such repre- 
sentations belong evidently to the dawn of art, and are 
derived from oriental sources. 2 It is only on the later 

1 Kramer, Ueber die Herkunft, &c., Intorao i Vasi fittili dipinti, p. 2642 ; 

8vo,Berlin,1837,s.46; Thiersch, Die hel- Gerhard, Rapporto Volcente, p. 1416; 

lenischen bemalten Vasen, s. 71 ; Ger- Walz, Heidelb. Jahrbuch, 1845, p. 385 ; 

hard, Annali, iii. p. 222; Raoul Rochette, Philologus, Schneidewin, 1846, p. 742, 

Annali, 1847, xix. 23640 ; Gerhard, and foil. 

Ueber die Kunst der Phonicier, 4to, 2 Stackelberg, Die Graber, taf. xiv. 

Berlin, 1848, s. 17 40 ; DeWitte,Cab. 8, 9; Raoul Rochette, Journal des Sa- 

Durand, p. 280; Gerhard, Berlin. Ant. vans, 1835, p. 214; 1836, p. 246, and 

Bilder. B. 155177; Due de Luynes, foil.; Gerhard, Ueber die Kunst der 

Annali, 1830, p. 242; 1832, p. 243; Phonicier, taf. vii. No. 1, 2 ; Inghirami, 

Bunsen, Annali, 1 834, p. 46 ; Campanari, Vasi Fittili, cccii. viii. 


vases of this style that figures of men are intermingled 
with those of animals. 1 

The transition from the former style to this was not 
immediate but gradual. 2 An example of a late vase of the 
former style, probably made at the commencement of the 
Archaic Greek period, is a large two-handled bowl, found 
at Athens (cut No. 123). The ground is of a pale fawn, 
the figures of a light maroon colour. The subject is two 
lions of large proportions, standing face to face, their 
tongues lolling out of their mouths, their tails curled 
between their legs. The area is seme, not with flowers, 
but with mseanders, chequers, spirals, and other ornaments 
which appear in the former style. The border above is 
irregular, consisting of dentals, the egg and tongue orna- 
ment, and the wave pattern. The vase is of the earliest 
style of art, and though others of the so-called Corinthian 
style have likewise been discovered at Athens, it evidently 
preceded the introduction of that style. Some vases of- 
the pale stone-coloured clay also exhibit a style of orna- 
ment resembling the primitive one,, the whole vase being 
covered with chequers, mseanders, and plain bands or 
bars. These vases often resemble those of barbarous 
nations, and the principal shape is a tall skyphos, with 
handles. An example will be seen in cut No. 125, p. 261. 
A great improvement, and indeed distinction in style, 
was the use of incised lines cut through the colour to 
relieve the monochrome. 

One remarkable characteristic of these archaic designs 

1 Micali, Storia, xcv. ; R. Rochette, bung d. Vasensammlung zu Munchen, 
Annali, 1847, p. 262. 8vo. Munch., Pref. s. cxlv.,have classed 

2 Some authors, as M. Jalm, Beschrei- both styles together. 

s 2 



is the abundance of flowers, which resemble those scattered 
over the richly-embroidered robes of figures in the Nimrud 
bas-reliefs. It has been supposed that the subjects are 

No. 124. (Enoch oe, showing animals and flowers. 

borrowed from the rich tapestries and embroideries with 
which the Asiatic Greeks had become acquainted, and 
which were adopted by the vase painters with certain 
modifications. This introduction of floral ornaments on 
the ground of friezes or mural paintings, was rarely em- 
ployed either in Egyptian or Assyrian art. But it might 
have been employed by the toreutai or inlayers, who 
probably enriched the back-grounds of their works on 
chests and boxes in this manner. 

If the vase ornaments were copied from those works, 
the yellow, the maroon and the brown colours may be 



considered to represent different substances. Some writers 
indeed have suggested that the flowers indicate the earth 
over which the animals are passing. To bear out such an 
explanation, we must suppose that the point of sight was 
almost on the ground ; and the Egyptian and Assyrian 
drawing was certainly distinguished by this absence of 
an horizon. In this style some discern the absence 
of grace and richness, and the work of an unskilled 
hand in a period of high antiquity ; others, on the 
contrary, perceive indications of the feeble treatment of 
the copyist. 1 

No. 125. Group of Vases of archaic style, exhibiting the principal shapes. 

Certain shapes prevail in this style. One of the most 
remarkable is the arybattos, which is comparatively rare 
among vases with black figures. We also find the 

1 Kramer, s. 4849 ; Gerhard, Berl. ant. Bildwerk. s. 177. 



alabastron ; and, in place of the usual cenochoe, a peculiar 
kind of jug, supposed by archaeologists to be the olpe. 
The deep cup, called the kantharos, 
is absent ; but in its place, that to 
which the term kothon has been erro- 
neously applied, the Archaic pyxis or 
Apulian stamnos, the kelebe, or crater, 
with columnar handles, is seen for the 
first time. Among the forms are the 
amphora, the pinax or platter, as in 
vases with black figures ; a vase 
shaped like the kalathos, the pyxis, 
or box, in which ladies kept their 
knitting materials, and children their 
NO. 126. Arybaiios, lions and toys, and the supposed lekane or 


tureen. The amphora, the askos, and 
the cenochoe are generally ornamented with human figures, 
and must consequently have been made at the later period 
of this style. As some of these shapes are not found in the 
later styles of pottery, but continued to be made in bronze, 
it would appear that the fictile art had attained a con- 
siderable development at the time of their manufacture. 
Like the porcelain of China, they seem to have formed the 
more recherche ornaments of the tables of the great and 
wealthy. 1 

Several vases of this style have been found at Corinth, 
in tombs a considerable depth below the soil : others at 
Athens, Melos, and Corcyra. Most of them have only 
rows of animal forms, but some lecythi found at Athens 

Tliiersch, Diegriech. bemalt. Vasen, s. 71 ; Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., i. pp. 1415. 



have winged male and female figures, terminating in 
snakes, supposed to represent Typhoeus l and Echidna. The 
most celebrated of these vases is undoubtedly that called 
the Dodwell Vase, 2 which was discovered in a sepulchre at 
Mertese, in the vicinity of Corinth. It is a kind of pyxis 
or box. Round the body are two friezes of animals with 
the field seme* with flowers. On the cover is a representa- 
tion of the hunting of a boar, as will be seen from the 

No. 127. Cover of Vase, with Boar-hunt. 

accompanying engraving. The incidents depicted are 
different from anything recorded of the hunt of the 
boar of Calydon. The boar has killed the hero Chilon 
who lies under its feet. Thersandros attacks the animal 
with a spear in front, while Pakon discharges an arrow 
at it. Another hero named Andrutas, armed with a 
shield, hurls a lance. Behind him are three unarmed and 

1 Lenormant and De Wittc, &lite ill 2 Now at Munich, Arch. Zeit. 1852, 
xxxi. xxxii., xxxii. A, xxxii. B. s. 228. 


draped figures called Sakis, Andromachos, and Ankatias, 
besides " the king of men," Agamemnon. 1 . From the form 
of the letters, it has been conjectured that this vase is as 
old as the L. Olympiad, B.C. 5SO, 2 or even older ; and it 
may be considered as fixing an epoch for the age of these 
vases. Those with animal forms were probably much earlier. 
The letters, in fact, exactly resemble those found on the 
coins of cities of Magna Gra3cia ; and as the age of these 
cities is well known, especially that of Sybaris, which was 
destroyed B.C. 510, and as the style of the figures on the 
vases resembles that of the figures on the coins, it is pro- 
bable that the former are at least as old as the latter, if not 
even earlier. Some other cups hi this style, but with 
less interesting subjects, have been discovered. The 
subjects of the jugs and lecythi are races and com- 
bats. To the later period of this style belong the vase 
in the Hamilton Collection, found at Capua, with the sub- 
ject of the hunting of the boar of Calydon ; 3 another dis- 
covered at Nola, on which are represented quadrigse and 
warriors ; 4 and others, found at Cervetri, having for their 
subjects Achilles killing Memnon, 5 and incidents of the 
Troica, of the war against Thebes and the expedition 
of Theseus. 6 Figures of deities with recurved wings, 
adaptations from the Arama3an Pantheon, supposed to 
represent the gods or the giants, are often seen on 
these vases. 7 Some are also found having sphinxes 

1 Dodwell's Tour, yoL ii. p. 196 ; Se- 4 Gerhard u. Panofka, Neapela Ant. 
roux d'Agincourt, Recueil, pL xxxvi. ; Bildw. p. 324. 

Boeckh, Corp. Inscr. Graec. L n. 7, p. 13 ; 5 Gerhard, Berlins neuerworbene an- 

Kramer, Herkunft, s. 51, and foil. tike Denkmaler, 8. 3, taf. 1. 

2 Miiller, Handbuch, s. 75. 2; Creuzer, 6 Jahn, Vasensammlung, s. cxivii. 
Briefe, s. 123. 7 Gerhard, Berl. ant. Bild. s. 179, 

3 D'Hancarville, Antiq., i. pL 14. 480, s. 184, 541, 542. 



and lotus flowers, subjects of Egyptian origin. 1 Labordo 
has published two remarkable vases of this style, which he 
considers not to be antique, but later imitations. One, 
an amphora, has round it a frieze of dolphins, painted 
blue and red, the area seme with blue flowers, blue and 

No. 128. Animals, from the Wall Paintings of VeiL 

red zones, and the egg and tongue ornament ; 2 the other, 
of a peculiar shape, is ornamented with stars and branches 
of trees in compartments and zones. 3 

The origin of these vases has been a disputed point ever 
since their discovery. Some writers, from the appearance 
of the lotus and other oriental flowers, are inclined to 
attribute to them an Egyptian origin, whilst others, from the 
representation of the Egyptian symbol of life, or Astarte, 

1 Gerhard, BerL ant. Bild. s. 193, 
n. 612. 

2 Vases de Lamberg., ii. pi. xlvii. 
no. 40. 

3 Ibid, xlvii. no. 41. 



on vases from Thera and Cuma, assert that they are 
imitations of Phoenician works of art. The prevailing 
opinion, however, is that they are the produce of Corin- 
thian and other Doric potteries. 1 All the principal 
museums of Europe have vases of this style in their 
collections, although they are few in number compared to 
those belonging to the other periods of the ceramic art. 

Some of the coloured vases found at Caere probably afford 
specimens of the earliest attempts to apply coloured figures 
to the decoration of vases. The body of them is of the usual 

No. 129. Men and 

from the Wall Paintings at VeiL 

brown paste, resembling the black Estruscan ware, with 
a slight glaze or polish on its surface, on which the figures 
have been traced, 2 or painted in fresco, in white, red and 

1 Ann. 1847, six. p. 237. 

2 See Micali, Mon, Incd., iv. v. 


blue colours. The treatment of the figures is more Egyp- 
tian than that of the so-called Egyptian style, resembling 
the reliefs on the Etruscan vases, and the wall paintings 
of the Etruscan sepulchres. Some of the subjects have no 
particular story connected with them, but consist of 
chariots, warriors, marine monsters, and other animals ; 
although among them is found a representation of Theseus 
killing the Minotaur, an Attic myth, which it is difficult to 
conceive could have exercised the skill of an Etruscan 
artist. 1 

Besides Greece and the Isles, the sepulchres of Italy 
have produced many vases of this style, which of course 
are only found in those of the older cities. The 
Necropolis of Vulci, and that of Cervetri or Caere, in 
Northern Italy, have produced the greatest quantity ; 
but some have also been found in the tombs of 

There is a considerable difference of style observable in 
the vases of this yellow ware which come from different 
localities. Those from Corinth have figures of small size, 
but rigidly drawn, while the area is completely filled with 
flowers, and modelled heads or other ornaments are often 
introduced into the body of the vase. Those from Vulci 
have figures of larger size, more coarsely drawn, while 
those from Nola and Southern Italy, supposed by some 
to be imitations of the earlier vases, have small figures 
drawn with much precision and softness, and of a more 
developed style of art. The style of the human figures on 
these vases, the length of hair, the massive limbs, and 
the general attitudes resemble Hellenic art, as developed 

1 Micali, Mon. Ined., iv. 


in the frieze of the Harpy tomb, the bas relief of the Villa 
Albani, the .old Selinuntine metopes, and the incised 
coins of Caulonia and Poseidonia. Although the in- 
scriptions belong to the Doric alphabet, no further 
light is thrown by them on the age of these vases. 1 

Many of a modified style of art have also been discovered 
in the cemeteries of Nola, and some in Sicily. One of the 
most remarkable is a vase of the shape called holmos, 
probably a crater, found in 1835, at Cervetri. It is 
ornamented with friezes of animals, the hunt of the boar 
of Calydon, the monomachia of Achilles and Memnon, 
and the contest for the body of Patroclus, 2 a subject also 
found on a jug of the same class in the British Museum. 3 
Another remarkable amphora of this ware of the very 
earliest style is in the British Museum. It is from Mr 
Blayd's collection, and was obtained at Civita Vecchia. 
The clay is of a pale red ; but the body is covered with 
a coating of a pale cream colour. On it are seven friezes 
painted in maroon, two round the neck and five round the 
body of the vase. These are decorated with representa- 
tions of quails or rock partridges, combats of warriors, 
lions devouring bulls, and centaurs. In the linear character 
of the figures, and the elementary mode of treatment, this 
vase resembles the early ones from Athens, which have 
been already described. But the most renowned of all 
these vases is the cup of the Due de Luynes, with the 
subject of Arcesilaus seated in his palace, attended by the 
different officers of his stores, and watching the weighing 
of the silphium. Not only the figures, but even the 

1 Jahn, Vasensammlung zu Miin- 2 Mus. Etr. Vat. xcii. 1, 1 ; xciv. 2. 
chen, a. cxlviii. 3 Cot. Vas. no. 421. R. Rochette, 1. c. 


balance, have their names. 1 The style of drawing, the 
angularity of the limbs, the peaked noses, the rigidity of 
attitude, and the smile playing on the features, connect 
this vase with those of a later style and mode of treatment. 
Many vases of this later style exhibit nearly similar 
peculiarities, such as the partial or total disappearance 
of animal friezes, the abandonment of the use of the 
flowers seme in the field, the greater range of subjects, 
and above all the appearance of the Attic alphabet and 
language in the inscriptions, all co-ordinate with a later 
style, the rise of Athens in political importance, and the 
greater development of its export trade. The figures 
painted on the vases no longer resemble the earliest 
efforts of Greek art, but rather those of the temples of 
Pallas Athene, or of Zeus Panhellenicus at JEgina. 2 The 
cup with Arcesilaus, admitted by all to be imitative, cannot 
possibly be later than the 3rd century B.C., or 01. LXXX. 


The slow manner in which an art emancipates itself 
from the conventional thraldom of its origin, is evident 
from the progress of painted vases. The potter, not con- 
tent with producing small vases having a pale ground, by 
degrees introduced a red tint of a pale salmon colour (the 
rubrica), adopted human figures for his subject in place 
of the animal forms before employed, and rendered the 
latter subsidiary to the main design. He still continued 

1 Annali, v. 60 ; Monument!, p. 1, xlvii. 

2 Jabn, Vasensammlung, s. cxlix. 


to arrange the subjects in zones or friezes ; but the draw- 
ing is a slight improvement upon that of the cup of 
Arcesilaus just described. The forms are tall and thin, 
the muscles angular, the beards and noses long and 
pointed, the expression of the faces grotesque, the atti- 
tudes stiff and conventional. The figures are now quite 
black, except that the flesh of the females is coloured red 
or white. The flowers seme have disappeared ; but the 
air is often symbolised by a bird, the water by fishes ; l 
whilst flowers, intended sometimes for the hyacinth, 
springing from the edges of the vase, indicate the earth. 
The extreme purity of the design, and the unequal manner 
in which the subjects are treated, have led to the conclu- 
sion that the style is imitative, and not original. The 
subjects are from the older poems, and suffice to mark the 
taste of the day. They comprise Perseus and the Medusa ; 
Hercules killing the threefold Gorgon ; the monomachia of 
Achilles and Memnon ; Ulysses destroying the eye of 
Polyphemus ; the fight for the body of Patroclus, and 
exercises of the Stadium. These vases are clearly a 
development of the Corinthian or Egyptian style, and 
can hardly be allowed to be of Ionic origin, 2 as the yellow 
vases are of Doric. The prevalent shapes are the tall 
amphora, with cylindrical and not banded handles ; two 
handled vases with a cover, called pelike; the jug or 
cenochoe ; the circular apple-shaped lecythus, or oil-flask ; 
and the long slender bottle called the alabastron. 

1 On a vase of this style, representing by Micali, Mon. In. tav. xlii. 

the hunting of the Calydonian boar, 2 Thiersch, Die Hellenische bemal- 

there are on the area three birds, on ten Vasen, s. 79; Monum. dell. Inst. 

the exergue three fishes. It is engraved i. 51. 


[Vol. I., p. 270. 


Vases of this kind are fewer in number than those of 
the preceding and following classes, and are generally 
accompanied with inscriptions. The principal examples 
of the style are hydrice and Bacchic amphorse, and their 
subjects are derived from the earliest Greek myths, 1 such 
as the Gigantomachia, Amazonomachia, and the hunt of 
the boar of Calydon ; from the Heracleid, as the destruc- 
tion of Geryon and the family of lole ; from the Achilleid, 
the lament for Troilus, and the victory of the wrestler 
Hipposthenes, 01. xxx., BC. 659, are also found. To these 
vases M. Gerhard has applied the designation of Tyrrhene- 
Egyptian. The most remarkable known vases of this class 
are the Panathenaic amphora discovered by Mr. Burgon, 
and the amphora discovered by M. Francois at Chiusi, 
now at Florence. The inscriptions of both these vases are 
Attic, and the letters those which were in use till 01. 
LXXX., or B. c. 460. 2 The art is J^ginetic. The distinction 
of the sexes shows the school of the painter Eumarus. 

The vases of the early style called Doric, are supposed 
to have been exported from the Doric part of Greece, 
principally from Corinth ; whilst those with black figures 
of the Archaic Greek style are regarded as products of the 
Ionic states, and to have been chiefly procured from 
Athens. Their age might be conjectured from the repre- 
sentations on them of the Pentathlon, which was intro- 
duced into the games of Greece in the 55th Olympiad ; 
and of the race of youths, which was adopted in the 65th. 
The 70th Olympiad, or about B.C. 500, was the age in 
which they were chiefly manufactured. 3 

1 Kramer, s. 61. 3 Annali, 1834, p. 7172. 

- Jahn, Vasensammlung, s. clvii. 



The next class, which after all is only a further 
improvement, has been called the old style, and is dis- 
tinguished by the improved tone of the black colour 
employed ; the grounds, figures, and accessories being of 
a uniform monochrome, varying from a jet black to a 
blackish green, and rarely of a light brown tint. When 
imperfectly baked the vase is of a light red colour, and some- 
times of an olive green. The faces of the females are 
white, to indicate superior delicacy of complexion, and the 
pupils of their eyes, which are more elongated than those 
of the male figures, are red. The eyes of the men are 
engraved, and of a form inclining to oval, the pupils 
circular, as if seen from the front, with two dots ; those 
of the women are generally long and oval-shaped, with 
red pupils, also circular. The eyes of the women are 
sometimes made like those of men, especially on those 
vases on which the women are coloured black upon a white 
ground. 1 On the Fra^ois vase, the elbows of the men and 
women are drawn of a different shape. It has been 
supposed that the figures are imitations of shadows on a 
wall ; but they may have been copied from inlaid work. 
They resemble those just described. The forms are rather 
full and muscular, the noses long, the eyes oblique and in 
profile, the pupil as if seen in front, the extremities long 
and not carefully finished, the outlines rigid, the attitudes 
a-plomb, the knees and elbows rectangular, the draperies 
stiff, and describing perpendicular, angular, and precise 

1 Jahn, Vasensammlung, s. clix. 


oval lines. The figures are generally in profile, full faces 
being very rare. 

No. 130. Scene of Water-drawing from a Hydria. 

An attempt at perspective is sometimes made in paint- 
ings with black figures. On a liydria in the British 
Museum, the scene of which is the usual one, drawing 
water at the fountain of Oallirhoe, the sacred spring is 
represented as rising in a building with four Doric columns. 
Two of them are in front, for two of the females stand 
behind, and are partly eclipsed by them, whilst the other 
two columns are represented as in the centre of the build- 
ing, but are really at the back, because the female figures 
stand before them. 1 

1 Cat. Vas. No. 481. 



Although the vases of this class much resemble the 
works of the JEginetan school, considerable difference of 
opinion prevails as to their age ; for \vhile by some per- 
sons they are considered to be of the period to "which at 
first sight it is usual to refer them, according to others 
they are imitations in an Archaic style, 1 as is shown by 
the superiority of their composition and expression, and 
by some of the details. The markings of the muscles and 

No. 131. JEneaa bearing off An chises. 

inner lines of the figures are incised with great care. The 
figures are depicted upon an orange ground, generally of 
a very warm tone, being that of the natural colour of the 
clay heightened by the addition of the rubrica or ruddle 
of Dibutades. White is often introduced to relieve the 

1 Kramer, 1. c. s. 79. 



monotony of the other colours. It indicates the beard 
and hair of very old men ; the colour of horses, which are 
often alternately white and black ; the emblems of shields ; 
the embroidery of garments, which are sometimes entirely 
of this colour. The beard and the nipples of male figures, 
the eyes of women, striking parts of the attire as fillets, 
crests of helmets, borders and embroidery of garments, 
manes and other parts of animals, are coloured of a 
crimson red. 1 These vases are chiefly amphorae of the 
various kinds. Hydrice, calpides, cenochoe, olpce, cylices, 
crateres, especially those with columnar handles, which are 
supposed to be the description of vase called kelebe, are 
found only rarely at Yulci, although they often occur 
elsewhere. The lekythos, also so common in the graves 
of Greece, and especially at Athens, 2 is rarely found at 

No. 132. Imbrex ol the Old Style 

Vulci. Some visible differences in style are to be noted ; 
the drawing on the vases with black figures from Nola 
being of a softer style, while those of Athens are remark- 
able for ease and carelessness. 

See Jahn, Vasensammlung, s. clviiL 

2 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole. p. 20. 




The vases of this class discovered at Vulci have been 
subdivided into the rude Tyrrhenian, chiefly consisting of 
amphorse of moderate size, and distinguished like those 
called Phoenician l by the physiognomy of their figures, as 
the oblique eyes, pointed noses and chins ; and, secondly, 
vases of an extreme antiquity of style, rendered still more 
evident by the absence of inner markings. It is to this 
latter class that M. Gerhard refers certain cups, especially 
those with deep bodies, tall stems, and subjects of small 
figures dispersed in narrow friezes round the body, as 
well as those with figures without attributes or an easily 
intelligible meaning. One of these cups, which bears the 
name of the potter Nicosthenes, shows what M. Gerhard 
means by this style, which is clearly only one of the types 
of Greek art, by no means limited to the soil of Italy. 

Some vases of this class are figured by Micali, and are 
preserved in the Museo Gregoriano and in the British 
Museum. The naked figures are tall, with thick bodies and 
small limbs and extremities ; the foreheads recede, the 
noses are long, the beards trim ; the draperies are particu- 
larly d-plomb, with an architectural rigidity ; the chitons, 
or inner drapery, sack-like ; and the peploi, or upper gar- 
ments, which perhaps represent the ampechonion, fall 
in flat plaits. These are studded with stars and other 
embroideries, and display analogies with Assyrian and 
Aramaic art. The subjects, from the absence of typical 
points, are not capable of being divined. 2 These vases 

1 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole. p. 22 ; Berlin. Storia, tav. Ixxv. Ixxviii. 

Ant. Bildw. p. 201, no. 634 ; Micali, 2 Mus. Etr., p. ii. xzx. 


must be classed amongst the oldest found at Vulci. The 
figures on them very much resemble in style the bronze 
idols and mural paintings of the Etruscans, and are clearly 
of a very old period, since a diligent and mechanical care- 
fulness in the finish is by no means incompatible with the 
earliest development of art. The affected style, and the 
coarse style, in which the figures have no inner markings, 
are considered by M. Bunsen as belonging to this school. 1 

Some inquirers have regarded these vases as the pro- 
ducts of a school not Hellenic, from the difference of their 
colour and glaze, the peculiar shape of the amphorae to 
which they are almost limited, the appearance of winged 
figures and monstrous animals, the absence of inscriptions 
and distinctive emblems, and the abnormal treatment of the 
few Hellenic myths which can be recognised amidst their 
unintelligible subjects and compositions. 2 They are, how- 
ever, distinct from other vases with black figures, proved 
to be of Italian fabric, being in all respects superior to 
them, and are evidently the product of some Hellenic 
pottery. They have been principally found at Vulci. 

It is not to be supposed that the art of vase painting 
boldly leapt from one style to another. On the contrary, 
the changes were of a gradual nature, and the transitions 
almost imperceptible, though easily seen now, when the 
products of centuries of art are before us. Many, for 
example, of the vases with black figures have either red 
figures disposed on some portions of them, 3 or the acces- 

1 An. 1834, p. 74. 3 Brondstedt, Trans. R. Soc., Lit. ii. 

2 Jahn, Vasensammlung, s. clxxii., p. 133 ; Stackelberg, Die Graber. Due 
clxxiii. ; Micali, Storia, tav. 77; Ger- de Luynes, Ann, 1832, p. 145; Kramer, 
hard, Auser. Vasen. 117, 118, 3, 4; & 80; Panofka. Mus. Bartoli, p. 10. 
Micali, Mon. In. 47, 4, 5, 6. 


series are treated in red upon a black ground ; from which 
it has been inferred that both the black and the red figures 
were contemporaneous, and that the ancient styles were 
conventionally retained till a late period. Generally the 
inscriptions on these vases are of a very early form, and 
previous to the introduction of the long vowels and double 
letters. The black figures were, however, often continued 
later, for they appear on the vases of the Basilicata and 
on the Panathenaic vases of Gyrene. The attitudes of 
the figures are hard and rude. Contemporaneous with, 
and similar to these, are certain vases with black figures 
upon a white or cream-coloured ground. On these the 
effect is produced by covering the red back-grounds with 
a white coat, or engobe, as M. Brongniart calls it, of pipe- 
clay. 1 They were made by the same process as the others, 
the coating or engobe being subsequently added, and then 
polished. These vases are a development or combination 
of the Arcesilaus cup already described. On some of 
them the figures are painted with great care and finish, 
on others in a more hasty manner. Vases of all shapes 
are found in this style, but they are always of small 
dimensions. They are found in Italy and Sicily, and are 
contemporaneous with the preceding. 2 


As long as the vase painters continued to copy the 
stiff and hieratic forms, which carry back the imagination 
to the school of the Daedalids, the black figure was suffi- 

1 See for vases of this style, Gerhard, - Jahn, Vasensammlung, s. clxxiii. 
Auswahl., vL liv. 


[Vol. I., p. 279. 


cient. The careful mapping out of the hair and of the 
muscles, the decorations and all the details of shadow in 
painting and of unequal surface in sculpture, were more 
easily expressed by this method. But it is evident that 
these stiff lines were quite inadequate to express those 
softer contours, which melted, as it were, into one another 
and which marked the more refined grace and freedom of 
the rapidly advancing schools of sculpture and painting. 
By changing the colour of the figures to the lucid red or 
orange of the back-ground, the artist was enabled to draw 
lines of a tone or tint scarcely darker than the clay 
itself, but still sufficient to express ah 1 the finer anatomical 
details ; while the more important outlines still continued 
to be marked with a black line finely drawn. The acces- 
sories in the earlier vases of this class continue l to be 
crimson. The style is essentially the same, the forms 
precise, the eyes in profile, the attitudes rather rigid, the 
draperies rectilinear. Inscriptions rarely occur. The 
shapes of the vases themselves are nearly identical with 
those of vases with black figures. Technically, the 
change was produced by tracing the figures on the clay 
with a fine point, and then working in the whole ground 
in black. The inner markings and lines representing the 
hair, which in the other style were incised, in this are 
traced with a pencil in lines of a light-brown sienna 
colour, which in some instances are perceptible only in 
the strongest light. The outline of the figures is always 
surrounded with a thicker line of the black glaze, about 
one-eighth of an inch broad. It has been supposed that 

1 Kramer, s. 97101. 


the back-ground was painted in by an ordinary workman. 
Some specimens exist in which it has never been laid on. 
The artists seem to have worked from slight sketches, and 
according to their individual feelings and ideas ; and as 
there are hardly two vases exactly alike, it is evident that 
no system of copying was adopted. The accessories, such 
as the fillets of the hair, are crimson on the earlier, and 
white in the later specimens. 

No. 133. Cylix, with Gorgon and eyes. 

The figures, on the earliest vases of this style, so closely 
resemble the black figures, that some have supposed that 
the two styles co-existed, which indeed appears to be the 
case in some examples. Some of the vase-painters, indeed, 
as Pheidippos and Epictetus, painted in both styles. The 
early painters of the red vases endeavoured to imitate as 
much as possible the drawings of vases with black figures. 
On cups with black figures the large eyes are often painted, 
and then, by the force of imitation, are repeated on cups 
with red figures. 1 The general contour of form is rather 
slender, but not so much so as that observed in the school 
of Lysippus. The foreheads are low, the noses prominent, 

1 Jahn, Vasensammlung, s. clxxvi. 


the eyes long, the chins sharp, the legs short and thick, 
and the folds of the garments stiff and rectilinear. 1 The 
female figures are not distinguished in this style either 
by their colour, or by the shape of their eyes, in both 
which respects they are the same as the men, but by their 

No. 131. Interior of a Cylix, Peleus and Thetis. From Vulci. 

costume and form. The white hair of old men is indicated 
by white lines on the black ground, fair hair by brown 
lines on a red ground, white curly hair by raised little 
knobs, which recall the bostrucJioi or clustering locks. The 
figures are generally small, but some of grandiose pro- 
portions occur even in this style, 2 which is called by some 

1 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole. p. 28. - Jabn, Vasensammlung', s. clxxxiL 


writers the " strong style," as it still possesses strength 
and continuity of outline, unimpassioned countenances, 
the expression being conveyed by the attitudes, while 
the treatment of the limbs 2 connects the finest work of 
this sort with the Dsedalian school. The age of these 
vases is placed between the L. and LXXX. Olympiads. 
Recent discoveries have shown that vases of this style 
are as old as the Parthenon, destroyed by the Persians, 
01. LXXV., B.C. 480, and certainly prior to the age of 
Pheidias. 3 The vases with the historical subjects of 
Alcseus, 01. XLII., B.C. 612; Anacreon, 01. LV., B.C. 560; 
and Croesus, 01. LVIII., B.c. 548, are in this style.* The 
alphabet resembles that which appears in the Athenian 
inscriptions of 01. LXXXVI., B.C. 436, but the language is 
both Attic and Doric. 5 

The drawing on the vases found at Vulci resembled in 
its general peculiarities that of the vases of Greece and 
Nola ; the figures are in the purest Greek style, and are 
drawn upon the flat portions of the cylices and cups, and 
on the convex portions of other vases. The principal 
outlines are finished with wonderful spirit and truth, 
while in some parts and details, especially in the extre- 
mities, great carelessness is visible. The general effect is 
much improved, not only by the fineness of the clay, 
which in the vases of the earliest and best period is of a 
bright orange red, but also by the brilliancy of the black 
and greenish-black glaze. The ornaments, which are of 
larger size than on the black vases, are of the same red 

1 Kramer, s. 101 102. 3 John, Vasensammlung, s. clxxiv. 

2 Thiersch, Die griechsch. bemalt. clxxv. ; Allg. Monatsschr, 1852, p. 356. 
Vasen, s. 81 ; Rossi in Millingen, Vases 4 Jahn, 1. c. s. clxxxviii 

de Coghill, p. viil s j,^ ] 4 C- s< c i xxxv ii. 


[Vol. I., p. 283. 


colour, and the accessories are rarely inserted in white, 
or, on the vases of the earliest period, in crimson. 


A further development of this style, and the highest 
point to which the art attained, is the fabric called the 
" fine style." In this the figures are still red, and the 
black grounds are occasionally very dark and lustrous. 2 
The ornaments are in white, and so are the letters. The 
figures have lost that hardness which at first characterised 
them ; the eyes are no longer represented oblique and in 
profile ; the extremities are finished with greater care, 
the chin and nose are more rounded, and have lost the 
extreme elongation of the earlier school. 3 The limbs are 
fuller and thicker, the faces noble, the hair of the head 
and beard treated with greater breadth and mass, as in 
the style of the painter Zeuxis, who gave more flesh to his 
figures, in order to make them appear of greater breadth 
and more grandiose, adopting the ideas of Homer, who 
represents even his females of large proportions. 4 

The great charm of these designs is the beauty of the 
composition, and the more perfect proportion of the 
figures. The head is an oval, three-quarters of which are 
comprised, from the chin to the ear, thus affording a guide 
to its proportions, which are far superior to those of the 
previous figures. The disproportionate shape of the limbs 

1 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole. p. 2628. ant. Denkm., s. 111. 

2 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole. p. 24. 4 Quintilian, Inst. Or.xii.10; Kramer, 

3 Kramer, s. Ill ; Gerhard, neuerw. 101. 

STYLE. 285 

disappears, and the countenance assumes its natural form 
and expression. The folds of the drapery, too, are freer, 
and the attitudes have lost their ancient rigidity. It is the 
outgrowth of the life and freedom of an ideal proportion, 
united with careful composition. 1 The figures are gene- 
rally large, and arranged in groups of two or three on 
each side, occupying about two-thirds of the height of the 
vase. Some exceptions, however, occur, such as a single 
small figure on the neck of a stamnos in the Berlin 
Museum. 2 One side of the vase, which appears to 
have been intended to stand against a wall, or at all 
events not to be so prominently seen as the other, is not 
finished with the same care. Figures in full face are less 
uncommon than on the earlier vases. The age of these vases 
is fixed by the appearance of the long vowels, the changed 
form of the aspirate, and the presence of the double or 
aspirated letters, introduced into the public acts after 
the archonship of Euclid, Olympiad xciv., B.C. 403. The 
change of costume agrees with these criteria, as the Carian 
instead of the Corinthian helmet, and the Argolic for the 
Boeotian buckler. From the composition of the designs 
on this and on the former class of vases being superior to 
the drawing, it has been conjectured that they are copies 
from the works of the first masters of antiquity. As 
scarcely any two are alike, it has been supposed that they 
are sketches made from memory, adapted to the convex 
surfaces on which they were delineated, and on which it 
was exceedingly difficult to draw. And as the vase 
painters considered themselves artists although their 
profession never attained a high position in the history of 

1 Kramer, s. 1015. 3 Berl. Ant. Bild., 1651. 


art they departed considerably from the originals from 
which they drew their inspiration. 1 The varnish is excel- 
lent in tone and colour, and the red accessories throughout 
are replaced by white used with discretion. 

The principal shapes in this style are the hydria with 
a globular body, or kalpis ; the amphora with elongated 
egg-shaped body and tall neck, and having either flat 
banded handles, or else those with a double twist ; the diota, 
or supposed pelike ; the cup with two horizontal handles, 
the supposed skyphos ; the jug with round mouth, or 
olpe ; the oil-jug, or lecytlms ; the vase with circular body, 
or aryballos ; the shallow cup on a tall stem, or cylw ; 
the elegant cup with a cover, or supposed lekane the 
hydria, the kyathos, the karkhesion, or cup with spiral 
handles ; the pinax, or dish with a tall foot ; the diota or 
stamnos ; the crater with large open mouth ; a campana 
of the Neapolitan antiquaries, the supposed oxylapha ; 
some rhyta, or drinking cups ; and others in the shape of 
heads. 2 

An cenochoe, in the British Museum, may be taken as 
an illustration of the vases of this style. The subject 
depicted on it is the Hyperborean Apollo riding upon i 
gryphon. The crown of the god, and the berries of the 
laurel are gilded, which mode of ornament occurs very 
rarely upon the vases of Vulci. This vase was formerly 
in the Canino collection. It may be classed with the latest 
vases of the fine style, much resembling in its art the 
large craters or oxybapha found in the tombs of Apulia. 
A still finer specimen of this style, excessively grandiose 

1 Cf. Millingen, Vases de Coghill, 2 Gerhard, Rapp. VuL, p. 256 ; 
preface, p. xil Kramer, s. 116 129. 



in its treatment, is the Nolan amphora with the subject of 
the poet Musseus, with a female named Meletosa, and the 
muse Terpsichore. Sicily has also produced many vases 
of this style. 

The proportions of the figures, the style of the draperies, 
the pose of the figures, and their arrangement in com- 
position, bear great resemblance to the sculptures of the 
Parthenon, to those of the Temple of Phigaleia, the 
balustrade of the temple of Victory, and other works ac- 
knowledged to be of the finest period of Greek art. All that 

No. 136. Last night of Troy .(Eneas Cassandra. Vase in the Museum at Naples. 

is told of the style of painting of Polygnotus, Parrhasius, 
and Zeuxis, may be traced in the designs of these vases ; l 
while the later ones, in the isolation of the figures upon 

1 Cf. Neapel. ant. Bildw., torn. viii. pi. xx. xxiv.; Vas. de Luc. Bonaparte, 
s. 369 ; Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon., livr. L no. 542, 543. 


large plain surfaces, and the elongation of forms, approach 
the known canon of Lysippus, and blend into the imme- 
diately subsequent style, which just preceded the final 
decadence of the art of painting vases. 

The subjects on this class of vases are nearly the same 
as those of the so-called strong style, but perhaps a 
greater proportion is derived from the Dionysiaca. 
Among them, however, are found incidents from the 
Gigantomachia, the Perseid, the exploits of Bacchus and 
Hercules, the Theseid, from the Iliad and Odyssey, 
and a few from the tragedians, together with triclinia 
and athletic scenes. 

The numerous vases of this style found at St. Agata 
dei Goti has given the name of this site to the style. It 
is the next advance in art towards that exhibited in the 
still later sepulchres of Apulia, In all these styles there 
is much negligence of execution. Heads and limbs of 
figures often intrude on the panels of ornaments, an 
instance of which occurs in a vase of late style represent- 
ing a singular scene. In this the feet of one of the 
figures are so intermingled with the ornament below, as 
scarcely to be distinguished from it. 1 


It is by no means necessary to suppose that one style 
of fabric ceased immediately on the introduction of 
another and improved one ; on the contrary, it probably 
continued till so entirely superseded that the fabric 

1 Cab. Pourt. xxii. 


became obsolete. Hence the transition from the " fine " 
style of the earlier vases to a subsequent one, which may 
be termed florid analogous to the state of art in the 
time of Pyrrhus. The most striking examples of this style 
have been found in Apulia, at Ruvo and Athens. The 
figures are neither so rigid as in the " strong," nor so full 
and fleshy as in the " fine " style, but intermediate, being 
tall and graceful with small heads, like the canon of 
Lysippus. 1 The finish of the hair, which is produced by 
thin lines, is most careful and minute ; the attitudes are 
graceful and breathe an air of refinement and voluptuous- 
ness amounting to affectation. A predilection for rounded 
forms is most marked. The figures are richly clad with 
head-gear, and embroidered dresses, the folds of which 
are sketched in with the greatest freedom. The orna- 
ments are large arabesques abundantly used ; while 
numerous objects are introduced into the field to show 
where the scene took place. A kind of perspective here 
first appears, groups being arranged in rows. The ground 
is indicated by stones or small plants. The glaze is pale 
and white ; blue, green, yellow, red, and gilding appear in 
the accessories. The most remarkable specimen of this 
class is the Hamilton vase, with the subject of the Rape of 
the Leucippides. Many magnificent vases of the same 
class are found, consisting of large craters, amphora, and 
hydria. Among the smaller ones are an exquisite 
lecytlius formerly in Mr. Rogers's collection, and another 
in the British Museum, both having allegorical subjects. 2 
On these vases gold is introduced as an accessory in 

1 Kramer, s. 129. Calls this "reicher - Kramer, s. 129131. 


the more important parts. On a little vase found at 
Athens, having on it the allegorical subject of Plutus and 
Chrysos, a tripod, the wings of the horses, some collars 
and other parts are gilded. 1 On another found at Ruvo, 
representing the Judgment of Paris, the wings of the 
Erotes, the collars and bracelets of the goddesses, and the 
caduceus of Hermes are gilded. The personal ornaments 
of female figures 2 are ordinarily so adorned on the best of 
them ; and on others, very appropriately, the apples of 
the Hesperides. 3 

One of the distinguishing marks of this style, which 
cannot be denied to have great merit, is the use of 
arabesque ornaments on the necks of the vases, consisting 
of heads of females, 4 often with tresses, or youthful heads 
with rams' horns 5 rising from a flower, and having on each 
side architecture and arabesque foliage, often a winged 
figure of Nike, 6 Aurora, or a bacchante ; 7 or else the per- 
petual Eros (or Love) lightly trips on the flowers. 8 


It would appear that the polychrome vases which have 
a fine black glaze on parts, such as the neck, handles, and 
feet, were contemporary with the preceding. They are 
principally lecythi, but a few cylices, cenochoe, and craters 
of this style have been found. The whole of the body of 
the vase is coated with a thin layer of lime (leucoma 

1 Bull. 1836, p. 166 ; Lenormant 4 G. Auser., i. v. ; D'Hanc. ii. 39 ; 
and De Witte, xcvii. ; Stackelberg, Tischb. iv. (ii.) 14. 

taf. ixx. 3 G. A. ii. 

2 Cf. for example, the vase of Anesi- 6 G. A. A. i. 
dora. 7 G. A. 6, 7. 

3 On the Meidias vase. 8 Q. A. 6, 7. G. M. iii. 

u 2 


tectorium) brought to a remarkably fine surface. Over this 
has been laid a thin siliceous glaze. On the earliest and 
most elaborate of these vases the figures are drawn in 
outline in a fine glazed black and sienna-brown colour. 1 
These may be ranked as pencil sketches, and for purity and 
beauty of outline, are perhaps unrivalled, as may be seen 
on the fine vase of the Vatican, representing the birth of 
Bacchus. At a later time, however, the coating and the 
outlines are more commonly unglazed, and the figures 
drawn in black or vermilion. So feeble are these pen- 
cillings that some have supposed that they were drawn by 
females ; but it appears that they are the first sketches, 
and were painted over with opaque colours : for traces of 
these still remain on many, although for the most part 
they have scaled off through the effects of time. The 
draperies were coloured blue, purple, vermilion, or green. 
Gold was sparingly employed. The acroteria of tombs 
were coloured blue and green. 2 Even shades and half- 
tones were employed, which appear on monochrome vases 
of the latest period. In the treatment of the hair, the full 
faces, the style and attitude, they are like the vases pre- 
viously described, and the coins of Magna Gra3cia and 
Sicily of the same period. The subject is always funereal, 
generally that incident in the Orestiad, which unfolds the 
dramas of ^Eschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, or Chry- 
sothemis at the tomb of Agamemnon. Hermes conduct- 
ing a shade to the boat of Charon is not uncommon. 
Nike, or Victory, warriors, and figures lying upon biers, 

1 Tkiersch, Die Hellenisch. Bemalt. tiquities, 1851, p. 240; Stackelberg. 
Vas., taf. iii iv. Die Graber, s. 37. 

2 Semper. Museum of Classical An- 


are also found ; all subjects of funereal import. A 
remarkable vase of this style found by Mr. Burgon in a 
tomb near the Piraeus, resembles in shape the glass 
ossuaria of the Hornans. It is entirely coated with white, 
and has round the neck a laurel wreath coloured blue. 
In it are the ashes of the dead, the obolos or (naulos) for 
its fare, still adhering to the jaw, and a few gilt terra- 
cotta ornaments. Outside, modelled in terra-cotta and. 
gilt, are the fore parts of three gryphons, resembling the 
ornaments called prokossoi by Herodotus. It is impos- 
sible that these external paintings, as easily erased as a 
charcoal sketch on a white wall, could have been used 
on vases intended for the palaestra, the baths, or temples, 
or for household work. They are evidently the sepul- 
chral lecyihi which were placed in the tomb or on the 
breast of the dead, as mentioned by Aristophanes and his 
scholiasts. Vases of a similar shape are seen in the vase 
pictures placed in the kaneon (KO-VZOV), or basket, containing 
the food and fillets offered to the dead, and others probably 
held the choce (x oat ')> or libations of water and oil. Many still 
retain remains of an alluvial clay, mixed with small fresh- 
water shells, apparently the deposit of the water which they 
once held. Such vases are also represented on the steps 
of tombs on which the stele stood. The consular denarii, 
which have been found with them in certain tombs, fix 
their date at B.C. 200. With them must be classed 
certain lecyihi moulded in the form of Dionysos, seated in 
an arbour formed by the vine, 1 in that of panthers, &c., 
and covered with a coating of white clay, appropriately 

1 Cf. Stackelberg, Griiber, taf. xlix., Cab. Pourtales, p. 91, no. 28. 


coloured with opaque white, pink, and green. They 
are charming little objects, often well executed. Among 
the subjects of them are, a boy seated and playing with a 
dog, 1 a winged Eros seated on a dolphin, 2 Europa seated 
on the bull crossing the sea, Eros lying under roses, 3 and a 
boy playing with a goose. But the most remarkable vase 
of this class is one in the Jena Museum, on which is 
represented Aphrodite in the shell, attended by Eros, her 
doves and a swan. 4 

Vases with polychromic figures on orange back-grounds, 
not coated, are also found. A liydria> from Gnathia, had 
for its subject a seated man, with red ampechonium and 
green tunic, bidding farewell to a female, with a yellow 
chiton and rose-coloured shawl. 5 Another of these poly- 
chrome vases, of the shape called craters, was found in a 
sepulchre at Centuripa (Centorbi), in Sicily, in 1835 ; 
and Sir Woodbine Parish possesses a magnificent specimen 
of this class found at Ruvo. 6 The reverse of this style 
was sometimes adopted, the figures being left black, and 
the entire ground stopped out in white. 7 

A remarkable cylix of this kind has on the inside the 
subject of the adornment of Pandora, drawn in linear 
and grandiose proportions, while on the outside, in red 
figures of the later style of the decadence, are athletes 
conversing. 8 

Some of these vases belong to the period of the strong 

1 Stackelberg, die Graber, taf. 1. 6 Cf. Bull 1833, p. 5. 

2 Jahn. Berichte d. K. S. Gesells- 7 D'Hancarville, i. 36. 
chaftd.Wissenschaften,Febr.l853,8.14. 8 Bullet., 1849, p. 98, found at Nola. 

3 Berlin, Ant Bildw., n. 1685. Gerhard, Festgedanken an Winckelman, 

4 Jahn., L c. B. 15, taf. i. il 4to., Berlin, 1841. 

5 Arch. Zeit., 1847, s. 190. 


style, exhibiting the same technical peculiarities. Such are 
a cylix in the Campana Collection, having inside the subject 
of Theseus stretching Procrustes on his bed, in which the 
curly hair is treated with raised globules ; and other cylices, 
with a Bacchante and Satyr, from Vulci and Ruvo. 1 


The transition from the florid style to that of the deca- 
dence is rapid. The red colour is paler, the glaze often 
of a dull leaden colour, the ornaments are multiplied, and 
large in proportion to the subjects. Although the heads 
and extremities of the figures still retain their slender pro- 
portions, the bodies and limbs are large, and present an 
obesity, such as is seen in the Larths and Lucumons of 
the Etruscan sarcophagi, and in the mural paintings of 
Pompeii. The male figures have an androgynous look. 
The proportions are short. They appear to be copies of 
paintings of the Rhodian school. The costume is most 
florid, consisting of richly-embroidered tunics with borders, 
conical caps, 2 armlets in the shape of serpents, radiated 
head-dresses, sphendones. The figures are no longer few 
and detached, but grouped in masses on the large vases, 
and the composition is essentially pictorial. The females 
are still draped at the commencement of the style, but 
at a later period are seen naked, as in the Coian 
school. White opaque colour is freely introduced for 

1 Jahn, Vasensammlung, s. clxxxiii. the fine or commencement of the 

It may however be doubted if any florid style. 

vases of the strong style have been 2 D'Hancarville, Vases Etrusques, i. 

found at Ruvo. Generally, these white 48. 
vases are of the period of the end of 


the flesh of the females and children, and even males l as 
well as into the attire ; 2 and as the art decays, almost 
entirely supersedes the previous red colour. The pecu- 
liarities of this style have given rise to the conjecture that 
these vases were an inferior article, hastily executed for 
sale. They are rarely found in Greece and Northern 
Italy, but abound in the sepulchres of Southern Italy and 
Sicily. From their common occurrence in the Terra di 
Lavoro and the Basilicata, and at St. Agata dei Goti, 
they are commonly known by the designation of vases of 
the style of the Basilicata, and have even been supposed 
to be the production of the semi-civilised population of 
that country. 3 They have, however, been found at Athens 
and Berenice, or Bengazi, in the Cyrenaica. The 
vases of this style at its best period are later than 
the introduction of the double letters in the Archonship 
of Euclid, Olympiad xciv., B.C. 404, and come down to 
nearly B.C. 200. 4 They differ also in shape from the 
previous class. The crater, or so called oxybaphon, is 
of common occurrence. The Basilicatan amphora is 
quite a modification of the old form. The cenochoe 
also completely changes its character, the body being 
either egg-shaped on a foot, or else squab. The lecyihus 
has a semi-oval body, and the cylix is replaced by the 
supposed lepaste or dish. A kind of open vase, the 
kadiskos, and pinakes, or plates, are also found at this 
period. The subjects likewise exhibit a change in taste 
and feeling. The greater proportion of them is derived 

1 D'Hancarville, i. pi. 65. Passeri, passim ; Gori, Museum Etrus- 

2 Kramer, s. 133137. cum; Caylus, Recueil. t. i., pi. 3040. 

3 Cf. Dempster, Etruria Regalis, pas- 4 Thiersch., s. 8182. 
im: lughirarni. Mon. Etr., s. vi.T. 0. 3; 


from the thiasos of Dionysos, and treated with the highest 
degree of phantasia to which Greek art attained. The Eleu- 
sinian story of Triptolemos, the Heracleid, Gigantomachia, 
Theseid, Odysseid, and Orestiad, the Perseid, the story of 
Pelops and (Enomaus, that of QEdipus, of Procne and 
Philomela, together with subjects from the Tragedies, and 
from the Middle and Low Comedy, are found at the com- 
mencement of the decadence ; but, as it proceeded, the 
choice of subjects became restricted to a few, although 
some, consisting of allegorical representations, were sug- 
gested by the philosophical writers, and by the decay of 
religious feeling. A group, often repeated, is that of a 
female seated upon a rock, holding a basket, fillet, and 
bunch of grapes, and approached by a flying figure of 
Eros, holding similar objects. In other instances, females 
are represented at musical entertainments ; a youth, 
leaning upon a stick, addresses the principal one, while 
Eros hovers in the air ; or a youth and females hold a 
bird, supposed to be the iynx, in their hands, and repre- 
sent the meeting of Adonis and Venus. A common 
subject is Eros holding grapes, and flying alone through 
the air. 

The appearance of H for the aspirate in the scratched 
inscriptions, chiefly found upon these vases, shows them 
to be coeval with the coins of Heraclea. The appearance 
of an epigram extracted from the Peplos of Aristotle, 
shows them also to be later than that collection. 1 

Some of the latest in style are certain craters, found at 
Orbitello and Volterra, on which the figures are drawn in 

1 Millingen, Anc. Un. Mon. i. 3(5; 1698,25; Jalm, Vasensammlung, cxxiv. 
Mus. Borbon., is. 28; Eustath. Od. A. cxxxiii. 


the coarsest manner, with outlines of most exaggerated 
proportions and childish design. 1 Blue and red acces- 
sories, such as draperies, wings, and parts of figures, 2 are 
introduced, and male figures begin to be coloured like the 

The frequency of Bacchanalian subjects on the last vases 
of this class, is by some writers connected with the pre- 
valence of the Bacchanalian rites and worship in Cam- 
pania, as indicated by a decree of the Senate 3 for their 
suppression, A. u. c. 546 = B. c. 207. The arts at this 
period were at the lowest ebb, and the later vases exhibit 
grotesque figures in barbarian costume, surcharged with 
elaborated ornaments, and drawn in the coarsest style. 


The mode of painting opaque figures in imitation of the 
red figures of the strong and fine styles has been already 
described. The process, indeed, is as old as the vases 
with black figures, and one of the amphorae of the potter 
Nicosthenes has a female accompanied by a dog so painted 
on each side of the neck. White figures re-appear on the 
vases of the decadence, but the process is then different. 
The whole of the figure is painted in. opaque white on the 
black ground, and the details expressed by yellow, brown, 
or light scarlet lines delicately drawn over the white 

1 Cf. Inghirami, Vasi Fittili, cxxvii., 1834, p. 78. Livius, xxxix. 8. Kramer, 
cxxx., czxxi. s. 44, 136-7. Bottiger, Excurs iiber die 

2 See the figure of Eros, D'Haucar- italisch-grechische Bacchanalien-feier, 
ville, ii. 35. in his Ideen zur Archaologie der 

3 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole. p. 101 . Anna!. Mahlerei, p. 173, u. foil 


The last vases of this kind are those entirely glazed 
black, with opaque polychrome or white figures. Their 
paste is paler than that of the vases of the later Apulian 
style, their glaze inferior, and of a more leaden hue. 1 The 
drawing is more carefully executed than that of the last 
class, but is feeble in conception, and in the worst taste, con- 
sisting of female heads rising out of scrolls of foliage, 
wreaths of myrtle, laurel, or ivy, tied with fillets, to which 
are occasionally suspended the masks of the comic or tragic 
drama, heads of Aphrodite, and her dove. One, however, in 
Mr. Blayd's collection, has the subject of a youthful hero, 
or hunter, executed in very good style. The monotony 
of the white figures was relieved by drawing the details 
upon them in lines of a light yellowish brown. Some of 
these vases are still to be considered of a certain merit as 
regards their execution ; but the style rapidly decays, and 
in some specimens made when the Romans were masters 
of Campania, such as the phialte, bearing the Roman 
inscriptions Heri pocolom, Yolcani pocolom, 2 Belonai and 
Acetiai pocolom, Saiiturni pocolom, Salutis pocolom, 
LavernaD pocolom, the colour is coarsely laid on, and the 
art of the very worst taste. 

At different periods, the Etruscans and other races in 
Italy attempted to produce vases similar to those of the 
best Greek style, but they never succeeded. Their process, 
indeed, was like that of the decadence. For the vases with 
black figures, the maker covered the whole vase with a 
paint of ashy-grey or black colour, over which he threw 
a very imperfect glaze. The parts required for the black 

1 The finest collection of this style of vases is said to be that of the Mu.. Borbon. 
- G. T. C. viii V. L. I. p. 34, No. xiv. 


figures of the subject were then traced out, and the painter 
covered the rest of the original black ground with an 
opaque red, apparently produced from triturated fragments 
of Greek vases, or else from clay. The vases with red 
figures were produced by colouring the figures in opaque 
red paint, and cutting lines through for the muscles and 
details to the glaze beneath, in imitation of the black 
lines. The designs on some vases of this style, however, 
have been executed by paring through a black glaze to 
the body of the paste of the vase. Many are executed in 
the Greek manner, and are distinguishable only by the 
paleness of the clay, and by their subjects. Vases pre- 
pared in the manner just described, have, however, been 
found in the excavations at Corinth. That these vases 
ceased to be made during the later days of the Roman re- 
public is evident from the fact of none having as yet been 
found in Herculaneum, Pompeii, or Stabise, cities in 
Southern Italy pre-eminently Roman ; while numerous 
examples have been discovered in the towns of Capua, 
Nola, and other sites, superior in many respects to those 
found in the isles of Greece. 1 

When chased vases of gold and silver came into use, 
and almost superseded painted ones, the potters could no 
longer afford to employ skilful artists, and only manu- 
factured pieces of a small size, which bear evident marks 
of the influence of the metallic upon the fictile vases. The 
latter, as well as their ornaments, were now generally made 
in a mould ; the bodies were reeded, and moulded orna- 
ments, either from a die or modelled, consisting of subjects 
in bas-relief, emblemata, were placed below the handles of 

1 D'HancarvUle, ii. p. 92, 94. 


jugs, along the rims of cups, and inside the phialce, or 
saucers. The upper parts of the asJcidia, or little oil-feeders 
(or perhaps lecytlii), are also ornamented with subjects in 
medallions above, of various kinds, some being taken from 
foreign myths. On a phiale of the best moulded style is a 
frieze of very spirited treatment, representing Athene, Ares, 
Hercules, and Artemis, each in a quadriga, driven at full 
speed. At the bottom of another is the fac-simile of a 
Syracusan medallion, not older than the younger Dionysius. 


The manner in which the animal figures are arranged 
on the vases differs considerably according to their styles. 
On the early fawn-coloured ones, the figures are small in 
proportion to the size of the vase, and are disposed in 
rows, facing one way, which are repeated like an orna- 
ment. On the yellow vases the figures, although of a 
larger size, still form continuous friezes ; but they either 
face different ways, or are arranged in groups of threes 
or fives, facing each other. The human figures either all 
face the same way, or are arranged, as in friezes or pedi- 
ments, in two files, facing the centre, where the principal 
action takes place. The accessories, such as flowers, 
occupy the whole field. As the technical details improve 
on the earliest vases with Greek figures, these accessories 
are omitted ; but a peculiar floral ornament, the prototype 
of that called helix, the antefixal ornament, or palmette, 
appears at the handle. On the oldest cylices, or cups, 
the figures are small, and arranged in friezes round the 
outside, having sometimes only one or two figures on each 


side of the handles, whilst at other times they are richly 
filled with them. Inside of the cup is a medallion, con- 
sisting of a single subject, and often of only one figure. 
The external subjects resemble, and are perhaps copied, 
from those on the pronaos and posticum of a temple. On 
the earlier amphorae, the single, double, and triple figures 
suggest that the composition was borrowed from metopes, 
a practice which broke up the subject into particular 
incidents, and attracted the spectator's admiration to the 
details of art, and to the excellence of separate parts. 
Many of the subjects of the Tyrrhenian amphorae and 
liydrice resemble those of mural paintings and sculptured 
pediments. In proportion, however, as the arts improved, 
the number of figures was diminished, while they became 
larger in their proportions, and treated with more care. 
On the cups, the number of figures on each side rarely 
exceeded three, and the same quantity is usually found on 
the amphorae. On the cenochoe the number is one, two, or 
three. When there are three or more figures, their attitudes 
nearly correspond, and sometimes both on the obverse 
and reverse. The hydria has often several figures on 
the front of the body, while on the flat part, or chest, 
is a smaller frieze of figures of very diminished pro- 
portions, sometimes amounting to as many as twelve. 
The back of this sort of vase is plain. On the cup called 
kyathis, the number of figures rarely exceeds three. Single 
figures occur on the plates. As the ornaments on the 
earlier cups resemble the bands of friezes which enriched 
the temples, so on the later ones the form of metopes is 
preferred. The earlier vases with red figures are also 
painted in the same style : but on some of the smaller 


ones, and especially on those of Nola, the abstraction is 
rendered still more complete by representing only a single 
figure, the protagonistic or chief one, upon the side of the 
vase intended to be most seen, whilst the subordinate 
figure is depicted upon the reverse. Many of the smaller 
vases have two figures upon each side, but three figures 
rarely, if ever, occur. On the principal side the figures 
are well and carefully drawn, while the haste and rapidity 
with which they were finished on the other side, shows 
that they were not intended to be much seen. On all 
these vases standing attitudes are preferred to sitting 
ones. 1 On the craters of Lucania, and on Apulian vases, 
which resemble the later style of amphorce and cenochoe, 
the number of figures is often three, or at the most four, 
but the usual number on the reverse is three. The sub- 
jects are generally gymnastic, or taken from scenes of 
private life. The accessories to these scenes, or the manner 
in which the locality is indicated, is in the pure taste of 
the Greeks. For the sea, a few undulating lines, or some- 
times the cymatian moulding is adopted ; for the air a bird 
is only rarely introduced. The gymnasion is indicated 
by a lecythus, or pair of dumb-bells for leapers (halter es), 
suspended in the area ; the school, by a book, a letter, or a 
lyre ; the gyncecceum, by a sash, or girdle, or lecythus. The 
halls, or other principal rooms of buildings, are sometimes 
indicated by a column. The rest of the area is generally 
vacant, and the mind of the spectator, as in the scenes of a 
play, is called upon to supply the deficiency. On those vases, 

1 Bottiger, Vasengem., ii. 46, men- vases comprising thousands of such 
tions having seen hundreds. Laborde, figures. 
Vases de Lamberg, ii. p. 45, mentions 


however, on which the later development of style is visible, 
an important change takes place in the arrangement of the 
figures. There is an attempt to represent the inequalities 
of the ground, which are indicated by dotted lines, and 
by placing the objects on different levels. The figures 
are placed in rows ; lines, similar to those already 
described, represent the earth on which they are treading ; 
and the enamelled mead is seen profusely strewed with 
small flowers. The figures most remote from the 
spectator are sometimes seen in half length. In this 
style the accessories are occasionally treated in a manner 
closely resembling the mural paintings at Pompeii 
and Herculaneum. Rocks, fountains, the labra of 
baths, trees, architectural mouldings, and floral scrolls, 
are profusely introduced, and fill up and enrich the whole 
of the back-ground. 

Such is the disposition of the figures on the amphora 
of the later or Basilicatan style, on which they are often 
piled one above another. On the craters with small side 
handles (oxybapha) of the earlier style, one row of figures 
occupies about two-thirds of the vase. Round the rim, or 
mouth, is generally a laurel wreath, while the figures stand 
on a maeander border. An egg and tongue ornament 
decorates the bases of the handles. 1 When double rows 
of figures are introduced, the subjects are separated by 
a band of the same ornament, and the lips of the vase are 
enriched with rows of helices? 

On the craters with columnar handles (kelebte), the 
subjects are differently arranged. The black ground 
forms a square picture on which the red figures are 

Millingon, Vases de Coghill, pi. xix. Ibid. pi. i. 


traced. The termination of the picture is defined by two 
vertical wreaths of ivy, 1 whilst a horizontal wreath is 
sometimes painted across the outer rim, or else there is a 
frieze of interlaced buds across the neck. 2 A frieze of 
animals in black upon a red ground is frequently painted 
on the outer rim of the lip, the subject of which is a lion 
attacking a boar. 3 The foot is often ornamented with the 
calyx pattern. 4 

On the late vases, with opaque white figures, the 
treatment is architectural, the objects being treated as 
the component parts of buildings, or of mural decora- 
tions. 5 Faces are represented as looking out of windows ; 
masks, festoons of wreaths, and laurel branches appear, 
copied from such objects when hanging upon walls. 
Lastly, the modelled vases are treated in the style of bas- 
reliefs of the Roman school. They are covered with a 
fine black glaze, like that of the Nolan vases, and prin- 
cipally come from Sicily and Salonica. Notwithstanding 
their manifest inferiority to the nobler efforts of Greek 
art, the display of taste in composition and treatment 
seen in these sketches has obtained the admiration of all 
the admirers of the fine arts of antiquity. 6 

The attempts to classify the vases by their place of 
manufacture have been entirely unsuccessful. 7 The early 
ones discovered at Santorino, Melos, Athens, and Mycenae 
show that one style was then universal in Greece. 

1 Millingen, Vases de Coghill, pi. viii. Meyer, Raub.der Cassandra, s. 15. Rossi, 

2 Ibid. pi. x. in Millingen, V. de Coghill, p. ix. Due 

3 Ibid. pi. xviii. de Luynes, Ann. 1832, p. 144. Kramer, 

4 Ibid. pi. xxiv. s. 10, u. f. 

5 Cf. vol. ii., xxxii., xlvi. 7 Kramer, L c., s. 27, De Witte, Cat. 

6 Winckelman, Kunst Geschichte, iii., Dvir., p. ii. 
c. iv., and Bd. I. Ann. 818, s. 448, u. f. 

VOL. I. X 


Vases of the Doric style of Corinth, have also been dis- 
covered at Athens, Nola, Vulci, and elsewhere ; and the 
vases with black figures are widely diffused in Greece, 
Italy, and Sicily. The same is the case with the red 
vases of the early or hard style, which are abundant both 
in Greece and Italy. Those of the so-called Nolan style 
have also been exhumed at Vulci in Magna Graecia, 
at Tarentum in Sicily, at Athens, Corinth, Solygia, and 
Berenice. Vases of the grander style, at one time con- 
sidered Sicilian, have been found in the vicinity of Naples, 
and in Southern Italy. 1 The florid style is common to 
Ruvo and Athens ; the decadence to Apulia, Athens, Vulci, 
Italy, Africa, 2 and the Peloponnese. The decaying styles 
of the Basilicata and of Apulia are difficult to discriminate, 
and appear also on vases from Greece and Greek settle- 
ments out of Italy, as Berenice and Panticapseum. Even 
the style with outlines on a white ground is extant among 
the vases of Vulci, Tarentum, the Locri, and Athens. 3 

The monochrome paintings on ancient vases, which 
exhibit no distinction of sex, cannot be older than 
Hygisenon, Dinias, and Charmades, who painted with 
a single colour ; but unfortunately the age of these artists 
is not known. 4 Those which distinguish the sexes, 
which is the case with nearly all, are later than the 
time of Eumarus, who first made this distinction. 5 
Cimon of CleonsB, who improved on the works of 
Eumarus, advanced the art of painting by introducing 
three-quarter and full faces, by giving expression to 
the features, by marking the articulations of the limbs, the 

1 Kramer, 1. c., s. 29. * Pliny, xxxv. 8, 34. 

z Ibid. a. 33. s Ibid. 

3 Ibid. s. 35. 


veins, and the folds of drapery. His age also is not defined, 
although some have attempted to place it in Olympiad 
LXXX. B.C. 460. Those vases, on which forms, especially of 
females, are seen through the drapery, are later than the 
school of Polygnotus, or Olympiad xc. B.C. 420. Certain 
vases, in the figures of which the ethos, or moral senti- 
ments and feelings, are thrown into the countenances, are 
later than Zeuxis of Heraclea, who lived before Olympiad 
LXXXVIII. 3, B.C. 426 ; and such as exhibit fineness in the 
treatment, especially of the hair, mouth and extremities, 
belong to the school of Parrhasius, Olympiad LXXXIX. 1, 
B.C. 424, while beauty was the forte of Apelles, the con- 
temporary of Alexander the Great, B.C. 356. Parrhasius 
painted obscenities. Aristides of Thebes expressed the 
passions, and was the contemporary of Apelles. Nico- 
machus l was the first who bestowed a bonnet on Ulysses. 
He was another contemporary of Apelles. The grylli, or 
fanciful combinations, were invented by Anticlides, B.C. 356. 

Ardices of Corinth and Telephanes of Sicyon introduced 
more extensive lines in the tracing of the figures ; and 
Cleophantus filled them up with a flat or monochrome 
colour, apparently powdered earthenware, or red colour, 
Olymp. xxx. B.C. 660. Such designs appear on vases oi 
the decadence. 2 

Other criteria have been proposed for determining the 
age of vases, as the appearance of cars with a single yoke, 
invented by Clisthenes, 3 instead of the double one used at 
the time of Sophocles ; and of masks, which were first used 
by Thespis and ^Eschylus. 

1 D'Hancarville, ii. 110, 112. 3 Isidor., xviii. 32. 

2 Pliny, xxxv. c. 3, s. 5. 

x 2 



Glazed vases continued Subjects Carved wooden and metal vases Difficulty 
of the inquiry Sources Various hypotheses Millingen's division of 
subjects Panofka's division Compositions embracing entire myths 
Fran9ois vase Method Gigantomachia Subjects with Zeus Hera 
Athene Poseidon Demeter and Kora Delphic deities, Apollo Artemis 
Hephaiatos Ares Aphrodite Hermes Hestia Dionysos Sileni, 
Nymphs and Satyrs Pan Bacchanals on Lucanian vases Marsyas 
Erotes Charites Muses Hygieia Hestia Ericthonius Cabeiri Atlas 
Prometheus Hades Moirai Erinnyes Hypnos Thanatos The 
Keres Hecate Gorgons Helios Heos Nereus Triton Glaucos 
Pontios Scylla Naiads Personifications. 

IT was not only fictile vases that were decorated with 
subjects ; ancient art adorned every household imple- 
ment and utensil with symbolical representations. There 
are many descriptions in ancient authors of these decora- 
tions on vases of wood and metal, most of which apply to 
subjects in relief ; but the motive was the same both in 
painted and moulded vases. The cup of Nestor was 
ornamented with doves l or with figures of the Pleiads ; 2 
the box-wood cup (kissybion), described by Theocritus, 
represented a female standing between two youths, a 
fisherman casting his net, a boy guarding vines and 
knitting a grasshopper-trap, while two foxes plunder the 
grapes and devour the contents of his wallet, the whole 
surrounded with an acanthus border and an ivy wreath. 3 

1 Homer, Iliad, xi. 635. 3 Theocritus, Idyll., i. 26. 

Athenseus, xi. 492, C. 


In the Anacreontica a kypellon, or beaker, is described 
which had a vine and its branches outside, and on the 
inside Bacchus, Cupid, and Bathyllus. 1 Another described 
by the same author was ornamented with figures of 
Bacchus, Venus, Cupid, and the Graces. 2 The cup, or 
skyphos, of Hercules was said to be adorned with the 
taking of Troy, and certain illegible letters. 3 Some cups, 
or skypJii, from Agrigentum, deposited in the temple of 
Bacchus at Rhodes, were ornamented with Centaurs and 
Bacchants, or with the battles of the Centaurs and 
Lapitha?. The cup of King Pterelas had the car of the 
Sun sculptured on it. 4 That of Adrastus, the celebrated 
Argive king, had on one side Perseus killing Medusa, on 
the other Ganymedes borne off by the eagle of Jupiter. 5 
Pliny 6 mentions cups on which were Centaurs and 
BacchaB, Sileni and Cupids, hunts and battles, and Diomedes 
and Ulysses carrying off the Palladium. That of Kufus 
had Helle, the sister of Phrixus, flying on the ram. 7 On 
another was Orpheus enchanting the woods. 8 The Epi- 
cureans are said to have drunk out of cups ornamented 
with the portrait of their master. 9 At a later period are 
mentioned a patera of amber decorated with the portrait 
of the Emperor Alexander inside, and having on the 
outside his history in small figures ; 10 and a glass cup with 
bunches of grapes in relief, which became purple when 
the wine was poured in. 11 Gallienus, in a letter which he 
addressed to Claudius Gothicus, sent him a charger orna- 

1 Od., xvii. 6 Lib. xxxiii., c. 12, s. 55. 

2 Ibid, xviii. ? Martial, viij. 51 ; Juv., i. 76 

3 Athenseus, p. 493, C. 8 Virgil, Eel., iii. 46. 

4 Plaut., Amphitryo, Act. I., sc. I., 9 Cicero, de Fin. v. 1 . 

v - 266 - 10 Trebell. Pollio, Vita.Quietu 

s Statius, Thebais, i. 542, vi. 534. n Achilles Tatius, lib. ii. 


mented with ivy-berries in relief, a dish adorned with 
vine-leaves, and a silver patera with ivy. 1 Nonnus 
speaks of cups of gold and silver adorned with ivy, and 
given as rewards to vaulters. The writer of an epigram 
in the Anthology, mentioning a cyathus on which an Eros 
was represented, exclaims, "Let wine alone suffice to 
inflame the heart, do not add fire to fire." 2 

No portion of the history of the fictile art is more 
difficult to arrange than that of the subjects which the 
painters selected for the decoration of vases. They 
embrace a great part of ancient mythology, though not 
perhaps that portion which is most familiar to the classical 
student. Many subjects were taken from sources which 
had become obsolete in the flourishing period of Greek 
literature, or from myths and poems which, though 
inferior to the great works of antiquity in intellectual 
style and vigour, yet offered to the painter incidents for 
his pencil. These must be sought for in the scattered 
fragments of Greek literature preserved in the scholiasts, 
in the writers on mythology, in works of an Encyclo- 
psediacal kind, or, finally, in the compilations of the later 
Byzantine school. The attention paid of late to collect, 
assort, and criticise these remains, has much diminished 
the labour of the interpretation of -art, the most difficult 
branch of archaeology. It is, however, only since the 
discovery of a considerable number of inscribed vases 
that these investigations have attained any approach to 
accuracy ; for the labours of the earlier European writers 
on the subject are hypothetical and unsound, except in 

1 Trebell. Pollio, Vita Claud., c. 17. 3 AnthoL, iii. 10. Jacobs. 


the interpretation of the most obvious subjects. Up to 
the present hour, indeed, the identification not only of 
particular figures, but even of considerable compositions, 
remains hypothetical. In cases in which we are guided 
by names, personages the least expected appear in 
prominent positions; and compositions often represent 
myths, of which not even the outlines have reached the 
present day. Modern explanations are based upon a few 
great traditional schools of art, and take no account of 
the universal diffusion of the fine arts throughout Greece 
and her colonies, and of the dislike which the Greeks had 
of those exact copies which mechanism has introduced 
into modern art. It was from this feeling that the same 
idea was never treated in the same manner in all its 
details, and a varied richness, like that of nature itself, was 
spread over and adorned a very limited choice of subjects. 
When vases were first discovered in Southern Italy, the 
subjects were supposed to be scenes of the Eleusinian 
and Dionysiac mysteries ; and this school of interpretation 
has still some followers. But the most microscopical 
criticism cannot separate in these designs the mystic from 
the hieratic or the actual. Other critics supposed the 
subjects to be Pelasgic or Etruscan. 1 At a later period 
attempts have been made to connect the subjects with the 
names of the vase makers and painters, or of other per- 
sons mentioned on them by the potters ; or to show that 
they alluded to the use of the vase : as, for instance, that 
Dionysos appeared upon the amphora for holding wine 

1 Cf. Museum litrusque de Lucien lenischen bemalten Vasen, 4to., Mu- 
Bonaparte, Prince de Canino, 4to., nich, 1844, s. 3. 
Viterbe, 1829 ; Thiersch, iiber die Hel- 


at entertainments ; scenes of water-drawing upon hydriae ; 
the Heracleid upon lekyilii., the vases of the palaestra ; 
and the Oresteiad on those destined for sepulchres. Even 
this method, however, cannot be entirely followed out. 

According to Passeri, the subjects of the paintings 
referred to marriages, nuptial fetes, and the secret scenes 
of mysteries. 1 Italinsky, on the contrary, referred them 
to the history of the Greek republic. 2 D'Hancarville 
passes over the subjects in silence ; 3 and it was not till 
the labours of Winckelman 4 had commenced, and were 
continued by Lanzi, 5 Visconti, 6 and Millingen, 7 that a 
correct idea of the nature of the subjects began to be 
entertained. But the opinion of their mystic value still 
continued to haunt the learned. 8 

According to Millingen, on the vases of the oldest 
period Dionysiac scenes are most frequently represented ; 
those of the period of the fine arts in Greece have the 
ancient traditions and mythology in all their purity; 
those of a later sera have subjects taken from the 
Tragedians ; and those of the last period exhibit new 
ceremonies and superstitions, mixed up with the ancient 
and simple religion of the Greeks. 9 

Millingen 10 divides the subjects of vases into seven 
classes : 

I. Those relating to the gods, the Gigantomachia, the amours 
of the gods, and the sacrifices made to them. 

1 Picturae Etrusc., fo. Rom. 1767, 8vo. Nap. 1801. 

Pref. p. xvi. 6 jjus. Pio. Clem. iv. p. 311. 

2 Laborde, Vases deLamberg.,Introd., 7 Vases Grecs., 2 vols. 

p. Hi. 8 Laborde, Introd., p. vi. viii. 

3 Antiq. Etr. Grec. Rom., 4 vols. fo. 9 Millingen, Vases Grecs, p. vii. 

* Mon. Antiq., In., t. i. 10 Vases Grecs, Introd., p. v. 

* Dei Vasi dipinti dissertazioni tre. 


II. Those relating to the Heroic age, the arrival of Cadmus in 

Greece, the Heracleid, the Theseid, the two wars of Thebes, 
the Amazonomachia, the Argonautica, the war of Troy, and 
the Nostoi or return of the Greeks, the heroic cycle. 

III. Subjects relating to Dionysos or Bacchus, the Satyrs and 

Sileni, the orgies and fetes of the gods. 

IV. Subjects of civil life, marriages, amours, repasts, sacrifices, 

chases, military dances, scenes of hospitality, and of the 
V. Subjects relative to the funeral ceremonies, particularly 

offerings at the sepulchres. 
VI. Subjects relating to the gymnasium, youths occupied in 

different exercises. 
VII. Subjects relating to the Mysteries. 1 

To these may be added : 

VIII. Subjects of animals. 
IX. Ornaments. 
X. Masks and inanimate objects. 

M. Panofka divides the subjects thus : 

I. Those showing either the use of the vase, or the occasion on 

which it was given. 
II. Those alluding to a previous use or occasion. 

III. Vases with both these subjects, one on each side. 

IV. Vases with allegorical subjects on each side. 

Thus a vase with two wrestlers on one side, and Eryx 
on the other, shows it at once to be a prize vase of the 
first class. On a nuptial vase of the second class will be 
Menelaus and Helen, Hermes and Herse, &c. Prize vases, 
he considers, were enriched with the actions of Perseus, 
Hercules, and Theseus, while nuptial vases had a greater 
range of subjects, and sepulchral vases one more limited. 

In the present and following Chapters will be given a 
precis of the subject, following the order adopted by Miiller 

1 Millingen, Vases Grecs, p. vii. 


and Gerhard. As this order is not that of the vases in 
their succession as to art, it will be necessary to allude 
cursorily to their precedence as to age. The great mass 
of the subjects are Greek, the only exceptions being a few 
Etruscan ones occurring on the local pottery of Etruria, 
and a peculiar class, apparently local, on the vases of the 
later style found in the ancient Lucania and Apulia. It 
was only upon vases of the largest size, destined for pro- 
minent and important positions, that the artist could 
exercise his skill by producing an entire subject ; of which 
the great vase of Florence, containing the Achilleis, or 
the adventures of Achilles, is the most striking example. 
The greater number of vases have only portions selected 
from these larger compositions. Thus, the often repeated 
subjects of the return of Vulcan to Olympus, and the 
marriage of Peleus and Thetis, belonged to the Patroclia, 
and the discovery of Ariadne at Naxos to the Argo- 
nautica. Most of the subjects are parts of some whole, 
which, however, it is often difficult, if not impossible, to 

The vase found near Chiusi, now in the Museum at 
Florence, to which the name of the Francois Vase has been 
justly given, from its discoverer, M. Francois, illustrates 
these remarks. This vase measures 27 inches in height, and 
about as much in diameter. On it is a whole composition 
the work of the artist Ergotimos which recalls to mind 
the decorations of some ancient lesche ; whilst its shape, 
that of a crater with columnar handles, was moulded by 
the potter Clitias. 1 The subjects, eleven in number, are 

1 Braun, Le dipinture di Clizia sopra e publicato da Alessandro Francis, 
vaso Chiusino d'Ergotimo, scoperto MOD. 4to, Roma, 1849; iv., liv. 


arrayed round it in six horizontal bands. Eight are heroic, 
and the whole composition is illustrated with 115 inscrip- 
tions explaining the names of the persons, and even of the 
objects. The first subject is the hunt of the boar of 
Calydon, in which Peleus plays a conspicuous part ; the 
second, that of the return of Theseus to Crete, his mar- 
riage and dance with Ariadne ; the third, the Battle of 
the Centaurs and the Lapitha3 ; the fourth, the Marriage 
of Peleus and Thetis ; the fifth, Achilles killing Troilos, 
and the flight of Polyxene ; the sixth, the return of Yulcan 
to Heaven, and the capture of Juno upon the golden 
throne ; the seventh is a frieze of animals ; the eighth, 
the battles of the Pigmies and Cranes ; the ninth, Demons ; 
the tenth, Ajax bearing off the dead body of Achilles ; 
the eleventh, the funeral games in honour of Patroclus. 
Bacchus holding the famous golden amphora which he 
gave to Thetis, and in which the ashes of Achilles were 
placed, is also seen. The analogy of this vase with the 
chest of Cypselus, the throne of Bathycles, and similar 
ancient works of art, is evident. 

It is impossible to indicate all the subjects of the myriads 
of vases that are known, or to present them in all the 
points of view in which they are capable of being regarded. 
The different interpretations given of the same subject by 
the eminent archaeologists and scholars who have studied 
these remains, also embarrass the inquiry ; and hence our 
labours must after all be regarded only as a sketch which 
the student can fill up, but which will convey to the 
general reader a summary of the matter. 

Iviii. ; Ann. xx. 1849, p. 299; Arch. 1850,258; Dennis, ii. p. 115. 

Zeit., 1846, s. 321, 322; 1845, s. 123; 



Much ingenuity has been exerted to discover whether 
the subjects were original productions of the vase-painters 
or copies. That in general they were original is the more 
probable view ; but copies may occasionally have been 
produced. 1 

One of the oldest 2 and most popular subjects in Greece 
was the GiGANTOMACHiA, 3 which is found represented as a 
whole upon many vases, while others contain individual 

1 Kramer, die Herkunft., s. 16. 

2 In order to abridge the copious 
references necessary in this portion of 
the work the following abbreviations 
have been adopted. The works con- 
sulted were principally those with 
plates ; others are noticed only subor- 

A. Annali dell' Instituto Archseolo- 

A. Z. Archaeolgische Zeitung (Ger- 

B. Brongniart, Traite" Ce'ramique, and 
Muse"e de Sevres. 

B. A. B. Berlins Antiken Bildwerke. 
B. A. N. Bulletino Archeologico-Napo- 

B. M. British Museum Catalogue. 
BULL. Bulletini dell' Instituto Ar- 


C. C. Catalogue Canino. 
C. D. Catalogue Durand. 

C. F. Collezione FeolL 

D'H. D'Hancarville, Vases Grecques. 

D. L. Due de Luynes. 

D. M. Dubois Maisonneuve, Vases 

G. A. P. Gerhard, Apulischen Vasen- 

G. A. V. Gerhard, Auserlesene Vasen- 

G. E. V. Gerhard, Etruskische Vasen- 

G. T. C. Gerhard, Trinkschalen. 

G. V. M. Gerhard, Vases de Mysteres. 

L. D. Lenonnant and De Witte, 

Fjlite des Monumens CeYamogra- 

I. M. E. Inghirami, Monumenti Etrus- 

M. Monumenti Dell' Instituto Arch- 

M. A. I. Monumenti Antichi Inediti, 
posseduti da R. Barone, con brevi diluci- 
dazioni di Giulio Minervini. 

M. A, U. M. Millingen, Ancient 
Unedited Monuments. 

M. Bl. Panofka, Muse"e Blacas. 

M. G. Museo Gregoriano (Museum 
Etruscum Vaticanum). 

M. I. Micali, Storia d'ltalia. 

M. M. I. Micali, Monumenti Inediti. 

M. P. Panofka, Musfee Pourtales. 

M. B. Museo Borbonico. 

P. Passeri, Pict. Et. (Vases Hiltrusques.) 

R. R. Raoul Rochette, Monuments In- 

St. Stackelberg, die Graeber der Hel- 

T. Tischbein, Vases Grecs. 

V. D. C. Millingen, Vases de Coghill. 

V. F. Inghirami, Vasi Fittili. 

V. G. Millingen, Vases Grecs. 

V. L. Laborde, Vases de Lamberg. 

3 Bull., 1838, p. 55; C. D., 12; B. 
A. N., ii. tav. vi. ; A. Z., 1844, s. 262; 
A. Z., 1852, s. 232 ; Bull., 1843, p. 97, 98 ; 

A. Z., 1843, 202; G. A. V., Ixi. Ixii.; Bull, 
1850, p. 125 ; D. L., xix. A.B. ; M. A. I., 
xxi. ; L. D., L iii. iv. ; A. Z., 1844, s. 377 ; 

B. A. B., 1002, 1623 ; 584, 605, 659, 680; 
D. L., xix. ; M. M. L, xxvii. 


incidents from it. Zeus, Poseidon, Hercules, Ares, Athene, 
Apollo, and Artemis, appear on the scene. 1 Pallas, 2 Her- 
cules, and Dionysos 3 are of frequent occurrence. As this 
subject is connected with the Titans, and the antecedent 
cosmogony, it may take the precedence in the mythic 
series. Of the nature of giants are the Aloids, 4 but these 
are found in connection with the adventures of Apollo and 


ZEUS, the father of the gods, the great thunderer, 
seldom appears alone, or in myths peculiarly referring 
to him, but is chiefly seen in scenes from the Heracleid, 
the Trojan War, or the tragedians. On the black vases, 
however, and on those of the finest style with red figures, 
he is often represented giving birth to Athene. The 
moment selected by the artists is either that which pre- 
cedes the leaping of the goddess all armed from his head, 
or when she has just issued from it, or is presented on his 
lap to the astonished deities of Olympus. 5 Amongst the 
gods assembled round him even Hercules 6 may be seen. 
Among his amorous adventures depicted on the vases are 
the rape of Europa, 7 the seduction of Io, 8 the rape of 

1 G. A. V., xvii.; M. G, ii. vii. 1. c.; V. F., Ixxvi. ; P., clii.; C. D., 20, 21 ; 
G. A. V., v. ; T., i. 31 ; G. A. V., Ixi. IxiL j C. C., 6 ; B. A. B., 586 ; M. I., Ixxx. 
M. G., ii. 7, 1, B.,xliv. IA.; G. T. C., Ixxxi. 

ii. iii. xi. xii. ; M. M. I., xxxvii. 7 C. F., 2; M. G., ii. xl. 1 A. xli. 2 A.; 

2 M. G., ii. xli. 1 A ; G. A. V., vi. D. M., ii. ; G. A. V., xc. ; V. G., xxv. ; 

3 G. A. V., Ixxxv. ; G. A. V., Ixiv. Bull., 1844, i. a. v. ; G. A. V., xc. ; P., 
Ixv. ; G. A. V., Ixiii. ; Bull., 1847, p. 102. i. ii. iv. v. ; D'H., ii. 45 ; C. D., 4 ; L. D., 

4 M. L, xcvi. ; D. L. vii. xxvii. xxviii. ; B. A. B., 801, 1023 ; 

5 G. A. V., i. iv; M. G., ii. xxxix. ; A. Z., 1852, 248. 

Creu/er, Gall. Myth., Iv. ; V. L., Ixxxiii. 8 A. Z., 1848, s. 218 ; L. D., i., xxv. 

6 G. A. V., ii. iv. v. 2 ; C. F., 65 ; xxvL ; V. D. C., xlvi. Panof ka, Argoa 
M. G., ii. xlviii. 2, 6 ; D. M., iii. xxv. ; Panoptes, taf. iv. ; A. Z., 1852, 235. 


^Egina or Thaleia, 1 his metamorphosis into a swan, and 
the seduction of Antiope, 2 probably confounded with that 
of Leda ; the golden shower and Danae ; 3 the rape of 
Ganymede, 4 the destruction of Semele, 5 and the carrying 
off of lacchos 6 in his bosom, 7 whom he delivers to the 
Thyades. 8 He is also seen in many scenes difficult to 
interpret, but probably derived from the incidents of the 
Trojan war. He appears with his brothers Poseidon and 
Hades, each holding a thunderbolt, 9 or attended by various 
deities in council ; 10 with Hera and Ganymede, 11 or Hebe ; 12 
with Hera and Nike ; 13 with Hera holding out the unknown 
child Diosphos ; 14 and with Apollo and Aphrodite, 15 or 
Artemis. 16 He is probably to be discovered in certain 
representations of triclinia, 17 and in some processions 
supposed to represent either the return of Hera to heaven, 18 
or the apotheosis of Hercules. 19 But his most con- 
spicuous adventures are in the Gigantomachia. 20 Scenes 
where he is represented listening to the rivals Thetis and 
Heos must be referred to the Troica. 21 

The goddess HERA rarely appears, and when she does 

1 Melchiori, Att. d. Acad. Rom. di 10 A. Z., 1852, 232, 233, 229 ; M. I., 
Arch., 4to., Rom. 1838; M. G., ii. Ixxxv. 

xix. xx. ; G. A., vi. ; L. D. i., xvL xviii. ; n V. F., ccxlxciii ; D. L. I., cxxvii. 
M. M. I., xl. ; T., i. 26. 12 M. P., 1 ; L. D., i., xx. xxi. ; M. B., 

2 B. A. K, p. 25 ; M. B., vi. xxi. ; v. xxi. ; A. Z., 1846, 340. 

St., xvii. See Penelope, T., v. (1) 13 M. R, vi. xxii. ; St., xvii. ; B. A. B., 

62. 898 ; L. D., xiv. xv. 

* Welcker, Danae, 8vo. Bonn. 1852. " M. A. I., 1. 

4 V. L., ii. s. vi. ; G. T. C. xi. xii. ; 1S M. M. I., L xxxvii. 

P. clvi. ; L. D., xviii. ii. lii. ; R A. N., 16 M. G., ii. xxix. 1 b, ii. 1 ; V. F., cix. 

v. 16 ; A. Z., 1853, 400. ccc. ; L. D., xxii. 

6 C. D., 3. 17 y. F., clxxvii. 

6 B. A. B., 902 ; A. Z., 1848, s. 218. 1S A. Z., 1852, 233, 250 ; M. Bl., xix. 

7 A. Z., 1851, 310, xxvii. M. M. L, xxxvii. 

8 D. L., xxviii. a> Q A. V., ccxxxvii. ; V. F., xlvii. 

9 A. Z., 1851, 310, xxvii. ; M., v. D. L., xix. ; L. D., i., i iii. 
xxxv. ; L. D., xxiv. ; M. Bl., xix. B. A. N., I p. 16. 


is generally intermingled with other deities in a subordi- 
nate position. In some rare representations she is seen 
in her flight from Zeus, who is turned into a cuckoo, 1 or 
in the company of Nike, 2 or of another female. 3 Some of 
the older vases, perhaps, show her marriage with Zeus, 4 
or caressed before Ganymede. She is present at the 
punishment of Ixion, 5 and the attack of the Aloi'ds, and 
is seen consulting Prometheus. 6 In one instance she may 
be regarded as the foundress of the Olympian games ; 7 in 
another, she suckles the infant Hercules. Sometimes her 
portrait alone is seen. 8 

Far more important is the part played by the goddess 
ATHENE, the great female deity of the Ionic race, whose 
wonderful birth from the head of Zeus connects her with 
this part of the mythology. 9 In the Gigantomachia she 
always appears ; but many vases have episodes selected 
from that extensive composition, in which Pallas Athene, 
generally on foot, but sometimes in her quadriga, 10 is seen 
transfixing with her lance the giant Enceladus, 11 while in 
one instance she tears off the arm of the giant Acratus. 12 
But, what is more remarkable, she is seen twice repeated 
in certain Gigantomachise. 13 She appears in company with 

1 L. D. , xxix. A. Ixv. Ixv. A. Ixvi. Ixxiv. Ixxv. D. 

2 L. D., i., xxx. iii. xxxvL ; A., 10 Gerhard, R. V., p. 35 ; V. L., xlviii. ; 
xxxix. ; T., iv. (ii.) 16, 17. C. D., 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 ; L. D., viii. 

3 L. D., i., xxxi. xxxiv. xi ; L. D., xxxix ; C. C., 8 ; B. A. B., 

4 A. Z., 1848, 217 ; B. A. N., i. 5. 605 ; A. Z., 1853, 402; St., xiil ; M. I., 

5 M. P., vii. xci. 

6 M. B., i., x., xxxv.; L. D,, i., xxxii. ; u G. A.V., vi. Ixxxiv. : P., clii. ; C. 
M. Bl., iv. xx. Gerhard, Winckelmans- C., 10 ; B. A. B., 1002 ; A. Z., 1856, 
Feste, A. Z., 1846, 287. 202. 

7 L. D., i. xii. w L. D., Ixxxviii. 

8 L. D., i. xxix. 13 De Witte, Ac. Brux., viii. 1 ; Ger- 

9 Forchhammer die Geburt der hard, Zwei. Minerven, 4to, Berlin, 1848; 
Athene, 4to, Kiel, 1841 ; L. D., i., liv. L. D., xc. ; A. Z., 1846, 303. 


the Delphic deities, or with Hermes, Hephaistos, and 
Poseidon, 1 with whom her contention for Attica, or Troe- 
zene, once forms the subject of a vase. 2 Her presence at 
the birth of Erichthonius connects her with the Attic legend 
of Hephaistos or Vulcan. 3 The Attic tradition of her sup- 
posed protection of Erechtheus 4 is more rarely found. As 
the vanquisher of the Giants, or else in accordance with an 
incident selected from the Heracleid, she mounts her 
quadriga, 5 or is seen in company with Nike, her charioteer, 
who ministers to her a libation. 6 Her connection with 
Dionysos is lyrical. She is sometimes seen amidst Sileni, 7 
or between Hermes and Dionysos himself, 8 or she plays on 
the lyre to the wine-god, 9 or sometimes alone, as Minerva 
Musica. 10 In this connection with Dionysos she is repre- 
sented as discovering the use of the pipes or double flute, 11 
for which she contends with Marsyas, or throws them to 
him, 12 or else listens to their melody, as inventress of the 
peculiar tune taken from the hissing of the Gorgon's 
snake. 13 In one instance the goddess, as the inventress 
of letters, is seen writing, and is supposed to be teaching 
their use to Palamedes. 14 As the patroness of the arts of 
peace, Eirene stands before her, 15 and on some vases she 
holds out her hand to her. 16 Her head alone, 17 taken from 
a composition, is once found. Generally the companion 

1 M. G., ii. xxxviii. ; L. D., xxvi. ; C. C., 8 C. P., 74. 

66 ; A. Z., 1846, 234, xxxix. 9 G. A. V., xxxvii. ; Bull. 1838, p. 9 

2 L. D., Ixxviii. ; D. L., ii. 10 B. A. B., 1633 j A. Z., 1852, 245. 

3 M., i., x.-xii. ; V. F., Ixxiii. " V. L., ii. 

4 B. A. B., 1632. 12 L. D., i. Ixxii. 
6 V. F., ccvi; B. A. B., 766 ; A. Z., 1S L. D., i. Ixxiv. 

1852 ; St., xv. 14 M. P., vi. ; L. D., Ixxvii. 

6 L. D., Ixvii. Ixix. Ixx. Ixxii. 22, 15 T., iv. (ii.) 11. 
180 ; C. F., 71, 72 ; T., 11, 14. 16 G. T: C., xiii 

7 B. A. B., 667. 17 D'H., iv. 92. 


of heroes and the Mentor of princes, she protects Hera- 
cles, 1 whom she is supposed to marry, whose exploits she 
always aids, sometimes in her chariot, 2 and whom she 
finally introduces to Olympus. She is present also with 
various deities in scenes derived from tragical or other 
subjects, as with Eros, 3 Zeus, 4 Hebe, 5 and females, 6 and 
either with Ares or a favourite hero, 7 perhaps Achilles or 
Diomedes. As Nauplia, she holds the aplustre, 8 and 
pursues Arachne 9 or Pandrosos. 10 She is also represented 
in company with a female, supposed to be Penelope and 
a crane. 11 

The scenes where Athene is beheld mingling with the 
heroes of the Trojan war are too numerous to be specified; 
the chief of them shows her present at a game of dice or 
draughts played by Ajax and Achilles. Such scenes as 
sacrifices of a bull, or where she accepts other offerings, 12 
rather represent her image than the goddess herself. 13 Her 
archaic DaBdalian statue is seen on the Panathenaic vases, 
standing, as patroness of the games, between columns sur- 
mounted by cocks, vases, or discs, 14 and accompanied by a 
crane 15 or deer. 16 The Phidian Athene, of chryselephantine 
workmanship, has been once painted. 

The earth-shaker POSEIDON, the sea-god, appears as a 
subordinate in many scenes, and as protagonist in others. 
He is present at the birth of Athene, and an active par- 

1 De Witte, Ac. Brux., viii. 1. B. M. 

2 C. F., 75 ; V. L., i. xcii. ; St., xiii. ; I0 L. D., i. Ixxi. 
B. A. B., 1632. n T., iv. (il) 4. 

3 B. A. B., 1664. 12 B. A. B., 626. 

4 L. D., i. Ixxxii. 13 G. E. V., iii. iv. 

5 L. D., i. Ixxx. 14 M. G., ii. xlil 13, xliii. 2 a, b; 

6 L. D., i. Ixxix. V. F., ccii. cciii. 
^ A. Z., 1852, 289. > 5 G. E. V., i. 
8 C. D., 26 ; L. D., i. Ixxv. 16 C. C., 9. 

VOL. I. Y 


ticipator in the Gigantomachia, in which he hurls the island 
of Cos at Ephialtes or Polybotes, 1 and transfixes him with 
his trident. He appears grouped with many deities, 2 as 
Aphrodite, Hermes, and Dionysos ; 3 or as mounting his 
chariot with Aphrodite ; 4 also with Athene, Hermes, Hera, 5 
and the Erotes ; 6 and allied with Dionysos. 7 In scenes 
from the Heracleid he frequently assists the hero when he 
fishes, 8 or is represented as reconciled to the demigod, 9 
with whom he had quarrelled at Pylos. In most of the 
assemblies of the Olympic gods he makes his appearance ; 
he is present at the marriage-feast of Peleus and Thetis, 
crosses the sea in his chariot of two winged horses, 10 or else 
on the Cretan bull. 11 He pursues Amymone, 12 ^Ethra, 13 
Amphitrite, 14 or Herse. 15 When he stands before a youth, 16 
in presence of Eros, holding a fish, the scene perhaps refers 
to Pelops ; 17 and the same remark may apply when the 
youth holds a crown. 18 He comes to the rescue of the 
Gorgons at the death of Medusa ; 19 aids Hera at Pylos ; 
receives Theseus ; 20 and assists heroes in many scenes 
taken from the Troica. 21 Sometimes he is seen alone, 22 and 

I M.G., ii. IvL 1 A ; V.L., L xii. xliii.; iv. xiv. ; M. G., ii. xi. 2 A ; B. A. N., iii. 
0. C., 65, 128 ; D. L., xx. ; L. D., i, 51, i. 13, 56, iii. 51, Tav. iiL ; D. M., ii. 
iii. iv. v. vi., xi. xiL ; M. A. U. M., viL xx. ; V. L., xxv. ; V. F., xliv. ; G. E. V., 
ix. ; C. P., 5, 6. xxx. ; C. C., 64 ; L. D., iii. xviiL xxx. 

a C. C., 66, 71 ; D. L., xxiiL a G. A. V., xi. xii. Ixv. ; L. D., iiL v. 

3 L. D., iii. xvi " G. A. V., xi.; C. F., 10, 11. 

4 L. D., iii. xv. 1S Bull, 1839, p. 9. 

5 L. D., iii. xiii. xxxvi. A. 16 L. D., iiL, iii. 

6 L. D., iii. xi. l ? L. D., iii., vi. viii. 

7 Abh. K. Ak. Wiss. Berl., 1845; 1S L. D., iiL ix. 
L. D., iiL iv. D. M., ii. xx. 

8 L. D., iiL xiv. 20 NouV- An>( 1836) 139; M>j f ^ 

9 L. D., iL vi. B. liii. ; D. L., xxi. xxiiL 
10 C. F., 9 ; G. A. V., xlviii. ; C. C., 63. 21 Q. A . y., cxxxviiL 

II G. A. V., xlviii. 22 D'K, iii. 51. 
12 T., v. (L) 42 ; G. A. V., vi. ; M., 


on vases having tragic subjects looks on as an Olympic 


The Eleusinian deities DEMETEE and KORA are gene- 
rally found together, either in scenes representing the 
rape of Persephone or Kora, her return to earth, 1 
accompanied by Hermes, Dionysos, and Apollo, or else 
in the often-repeated story of Triptolemos, whom the 
goddesses seethe in the caldron, 2 or present with corn, the 
plough, 3 and a winged car, in the presence of Hermes and 
Celeus 4 (or Plutus), and the Eumolpids. 5 Sometimes they 
appear unrolling the laws of the Thesmophoria3 before 
Zeus and Hecate. 6 


The number of vases decorated with subjects repre- 
senting the different occupations and adventures of the 
DELPHIC DEITIES is very considerable ; there are certainly 
as many as those with Athene, and they are probably 

1 M. G., ii. xiv. 3, 3 a; A. Z., 1849, s. * G. A. V., xliv. ; D. M., ii. xxxi. ; 
165 ; A. Z., 1852, s. 246 ; C. F, 63 ; St., B. A. N., L 6, t. ii. ; G. T. C., A. B., D'H., 
xii. ; G. A. V., xl. IxxiiL; B. A. B., 716 ; iii. 128 ; A. Z., 1852, s. 246 ; C. M., 
B. A. B., 990, 591, 611, 653. 15. 

2 L. D., iii. xlv. ; G. A.V., lix. 6 T., iv. viii. xix. ; M. P., xvi. ; C. C., 

3 M. G.,ii. iv. 2 a,ii., xl. 2 a; G. A.V., 18, 19, 20. Cf. alsoL. D., iii. xlvi. xlix 
Ixxv.; M., i. iv.; V. F., clxii.; T., xlix. A. ; A., 1829, s. 261 ; T., iv. (ii.)8, 
iv. xxxv. xxxviii. ; V. L., xxxi. xl. 9 a ; L. D., iii. xlvii. 1. Ii. Iii. liii. liv. Iv. 
Ixiii. : L. V., i. 1, vii. ; Visconti, Vasi Ivi. Ivii. Ivii. A. Iviii. lix. Ixi. Ixii. Ixiii. 
Nov. en Magn. Grec. B. A. N., i. p. 5, Ixiv. Ixv. Ixvi. Ixvii. Ixviii. ; A. Z., 1849, 
Tav. i. p. 35 ; Tav. ii. p. 15; E. Bt., p. 187* ; C. M., 15 ; T., v. (i.) 38b; A. Z., 
16. 1846,8.350; B.A.B.,896; M.A.U.M., 

4 G. A. V., xlixlii. xliii..; M. G., ii. xxiv. ; A. Z., 1852, s. 248; T., i. viii. 
Ixxvi. 2 b. ; G. A. V., xlv. ; C. D., 66, ix. 

67 ; B. A. N., iii. 51. 


only inferior in number to those with Dionysos and 
Heracles. The twins are seen nursed by their mother 
at Delos, 1 and generally accompanied by Hermes and 
Dionysos ; 2 and the youthful Apollo shoots the serpent 
Typhon while in his mother's arms. 3 Both contend in the 
great Gigantomachia, 4 destroy the Alo'ids, and rescue 
Leto from the impious attacks of Tityus. 5 APOLLO is 
grouped with several other deities, but most frequently 
with Leto and Artemis. 6 He appears at the omphalos 
of Delphi, 7 or with his sister Artemis ; 8 he mounts his 
quadriga, attended by Leto and Artemis, probably on 
his return to heaven after his banishment. 9 At other 
times he is surrounded by females, who represent the 
Pierian quire, 10 the Horse, or the Charites, and his sister 
and mother ; or he is placed between Artemis, and Nike* n 
and Ares. In the company of Zeus, of Hera, Hermes, 12 
and Aphrodite, 13 of Maia, Poseidon, and Amymone, 14 or 
with Ares and Hermes, 15 Iris, Hera, Eirene, 16 and 

1 T., iii. 4 ; D'H.,i. 109 ; C. D., 5-7, 9 G. A. V., xxi. Ixxv.; L. D., ii. xi. 
1013 ; C. C., 65 ; B. A. B., 837, 900 ; 1. 1. A. ; C. D., 14. 

M. L, Ixxxv. ; C. F., 1214. 10 G. A. V., xxxiti. xxxiv. Ixxiii. 

2 T., iii iv. ; M. G. ii. xxxix. 1, 2 ; cxcviii. ; L. D., ii. xxix. ; M. P., xxxiv. ; 
G. A. V., Iv. ; V. F., lix. ; C. C., 1, 2 ; L. D., ii. Ixxvii. Ixxxviii. ; St., ram. ; 
L. D., 11, i. ii. ; A. Z., 1848, 219. M. I., xci. 12; B., 1849, 21; M. B., 

3 L. D., ii. i. A. iv. ; G. T. C., xvii. xviii. xxviii. ; P. C., 

4 A. Z., 1847, 18*. 11 ; C. C., 4, 5 ; L. D., ii. Ixxxiii. 

5 G. A. V., xxii.; A., 1830, Tav. H. ; " V. G.,xxix.; L.D.,ii. xxxv.; St.,xx. 
M., ii., xviii. ; V. F., xlv. xlvi. ; D. L., 12 L. D., ii. xxxvi. b. ; G. A. V., xxL 
vi ; G. T. C. C. ; C. D., 18 ; L. D., Ixxv. ; L. D., ii. xxxvi. A. xli. 1. A. ; C. 
ii. Iv. Ivii. lix. D., 14. 

6 L. D. ( ii. xxxiii. ; M. A. U. M., 13 L. D., iii. xli. 

xxxv. ; M. I., Ixxxiv. ; G. A. V., vL " G. A. V., xiii. xxxv. ; L. D., ii., 

xxviii. ; L. D., ii. xxiii. b. xxiv. xxvL xxx. xxxi. c. xxxvi. ; T. iv. (ii.) 3. 

xxvii. ; T., i. 24. ls D. M., L xlvL ; L. D., ii. IxxvL A. 

7 L. D., ii. iii. vi. A. Ixxxviii. A. 

8 G. A, V., xxiii ; M., L Ivii. ; V. F. 16 L. D., ii. xlvii.; B. C. D., V. F. 
cccxiv. ; L. D., ii. x. xiii. xL Ii. cclxxxii. cclxxxii. 


Athene, 1 he only appears as subordinate in certain grand 
compositions. His banishment from heaven, and his 
tending the herds of Admetus, must be recognised on 
many vases in which he is represented tending cattle,' 2 
either in company with Hermes, Dionysos, and Athene, 
or alone with a bull. 3 He is also seen detecting the theft 
of Hermes, receiving the lyre from that god, 4 and in 
company with him and a satyr. 5 Subsequent to his 
employment as Nomios, is his return to heaven, 6 while 
his crossing the sea, seated on his tripod as Enolmios, to 
reach his oracle at Delphi, 7 is followed by his contest with 
Heracles for the tripod. 8 In many scenes, Apollo is 
accompanied by a deer, probably the hind Arge, 9 or by a 
swan, 10 perhaps in allusion to his character as Nomios. 
His contest with Marsyas n for musical supremacy was a 
favourite subject of later works of art, to which, perhaps, 
may be referred his interviews with Hermes. 12 Instances 
of his pursuing the various females of whom he was 
enamoured, as Daphne, 13 or Boline, are sometimes, though 
rarely, found ; as likewise his flight to Gyrene on a swan. 14 

1 A. Z., 1848, 219 ; L. D., ii xxxvii. 8 M., L ix. 

A.; T. iv. (ii.) 13. 9 G. A. V., xxvi xxvii ; M. P., xxix. ; 

2 D. M., L 109 ; L. D., ii. liv. Ixxxiv. L. D., ii. iii. xxxi xxxvi. ; D. L., xxvi. ; 
xxxviii. xxviii. A. ; M. B., xxiv. T., iii v. 

3 G. A. V., xiv. xvi. xxvi. ; L. D., 10 L. D., ii. xxxix. 

ii. liii. Ixxxvii. ; M. G., ii. xxxiii. 2 a ; u V. C., iv. v. ; M. ii. xxxviii. ; V. F., 

V. L., ii. xix. xx. ; V. F., ccxviii ; C. C. cxcvi. cccxxv. xxviii. cccxxxii 

17. ; B. A. B., 1642. cccxxxvii. ; L. D., ii. Ixi Ixviii. Ixxi. ; 

4 V. C., xxxviL ; C. C. 17 ; A. 1835, A. P., civ. 

s L. D., ii. xlv. 12 L. D., ii. xxvi. ; G. A. V., xxix. 

6 C. D., 17 ; C. F., 1723 ; T. v., (i) xxx. ; L. D., ii. xxv. ; B. A. N., v. 87, 
45, 46. ii. 5. 

7 M. L, xlvi ; R. R., Ixxiii. ; L. D., 13 M., iii xii ; C. D., 8 ; L. D. xx. 
ii. xlvi.; St. xix. xx. Gerhard, Licht- xxiii 

gottheiten, L 3 ; M. L, xcix. ; T., 14 L. D., ii xxxix. xlii. ; T., ii 12. 


As Hyperboreos, he is mounted on a gryphon ; T as 
Smintheus, he is seen as a mouse. 2 He pursues Hyacin- 
thus 3 and Idas, 4 and often appears in the Oresteia, as 
well as in scenes supposed to represent Calisto and 
Linus, 5 Cassandra, 6 and other females. 7 He is generally 
depicted, however, as a lyrist, 8 sometimes in his chariot, 9 
or surrounded by the Muses. 10 His statue is sometimes 
seen, like that of Athene, placed between the columns of 
the palaestra. 11 

ARTEMIS, the sister of Apollo, chiefly appears in his 
company, and in scenes in which he engages, as in the 
Gigantomachia with the Aloids, 12 whom she transfixes 
with her arrows, or with the Niobids. 13 Sometimes 
she is joined with Hecate, 14 or holds torches with 
Apollo and Iris, 15 or receives a libation from certain 
females, 16 or is in the company of Kora ; 17 but she is 
often alone, 18 sometimes driving a chariot drawn by two 
deer, 19 or by panthers, 20 or riding on a stag. 21 As Elaphe- 
bolos, or the stag-destroyer, she is represented killing 
that animal, 22 or punishing the imprudent Actseon. 23 

1 L. D., ii v. xliv. be. I. s. vi. T. M., 5. 

* L. D., ii. civ. ; T., ii. 17. u C. D., 19. 

3 M. G., ii. lii. 2 ; L. D., ii. xvii " D. L., xxvi ; L. D. ii xviii. 

4 A., 1832, 393. u D. L., xxv. ; L. D., ii. xlviii 

6 L. D., ii. xiv. 16 V. F., bav. 

L. D., ii xxi. '7 B. A. B., 1634. 

7 L. D., ii xxiii. is v. R, clxx. ; D. L., xxiv. ; A. Z., 

8 A. Z., 1852, 247; B. A. B., 983; 1846,345. 

L. D., ii. xv. xii. xvi; M. L, xci 19 L. D., ii. ix.; 

xcii; C. D., 5-7; M. BL, iv. ; T. i V. L., ii. xxvi xxvii ; C. D., 15. 

xxvii ; M. G., i. xvi 1. 1 a. L. D., ii. xliii 

9 L. D., ii L lix. ; V. L., ii. xxxi; 21 L. D., ii xcii 

St. xlii 2* L. D., ii xcix. -ciii iii. ciii. A. ciii B. ; 

10 M. G.. ii. xv. M. I. c. ; A., 1831, Tav. D.; M. A. I. 

u P. clxxxi xix. 
12 M. ii xviii. ; D. L., vii. ; L. Iviii. a L. D., ii xci. 


She is also seen with Callisto, or other females of her 
choir, 1 or attended by her nymphs, 2 or with Endymion, 
or the hind Arge. 3 In the Heracleid, she protects the 
stag of Mount Cerynitis, and aids Apollo to protect his 
tripod ; while in subjects derived from the stage, or 
Tragic Muse, she is a subordinate spectatress of the 
incidents represented. 

HEPHAISTOS is less important in art, and is scarcely to 
be found except in great compositions, and never as the 
protagonist, or principal character, of the scene. He 
strikes with his pelekys the forehead of Zeus, and brings 
to light the concealed Athene. In the Gigantomachia he 
burns with his hot irons the giant Gration. 4 Returning 
from beyond the bounds of Ocean, he is received by 
Thetis, 5 and ascends to heaven at the instigation of 
Dionysos, after having entrapped his mother on the golden 
throne ; and, in the ancient Comedy, splinters a lance with 
Ares over her while she is thus detained. 6 He is some- 
times represented returning to Olympus riding on a mule 
or seated in a winged car, like that of Triptolemus, having 
with him his hammer and pelekys, and the golden cup, or 
vine, which he made for Zeus. 7 At the Lemnian forges he 
labours at the armour either of the gods or of Achilles. 8 
Sometimes, though rarely, he is seen with Aphrodite. 9 
This god is particularly Attic, and is connected by certain 

1 L. D., ii. Ixxxviii ; B., Ixxxix. c. xli. xlix.; C. C., 49, 50, 51; M. 

2 L. D., ii. xc. xcv. xcvi; T., iii. B., iii. liil; C. M., 3; A. Z., 1852,240, 
33. 246. 

3 L. D., ii. vii. ^ P. cliil ; G. A. V., Ivii. ; L. D., L 

4 D. L., xix ; G. C., xi. A. B. xxxviii. 

5 See Franfois vase, supra. 8 D'H., i. 112; Christie, Etr. Vases, 

6 V. D. C., vii. ; T., iii. 9, iv. 38 pi. 5x. 49 ; L. D., i. H. ; G. C., xii. xiii. ; 
G. A. V., Iviii. ; D. L., xxxiii, ; L. D.,i. 9 L. D., i. xxxix. 


myths with Athene, the representations of whom on 
objects of the ceramic art have already been detailed. 

ARES, another of the Olympian deities, in the few 
instances in which he appears on vases, is generally in a 
subordinate position ; such as a spectator of the birth of 
Athene, taking part in the Gigantomachia, aiding his son 
Cycnus against Heracles, engaged in his contest with 
Athene, 1 deploring the loss of his beloved Aphrodite, or 
detected in her arms by Poseidon and the other gods 
of Olympus. 2 His type is scarcely to be distinguished 
from that of mortal heroes. His chariot is driven by 
Deinos and Phobos ; 3 but on later vases Nike acts as his 
charioteer. 4 

APHRODITE, 5 the mistress of Ares before she was the 
wife of Hephaistos, is never a protagonist on the vases. 
Once she is seen in the society of Ares ; 6 often with a 
youth supposed to be Adonis. 7 She is the constant com- 
panion of the Olympic gods, and enters into many scenes 
derived from the Troica ; as the attiring of Helen, the 
rescue of ^Eneas, and the preservation of Helen from the 
wrath of Menelaos. On later vases, she is often seen at 
the bath 8 or the toilet. 9 A charming composition repre- 
sents her embracing Eros ; 10 in others, she is seen 
caressing a dove or swan. 11 She wears a tutulus, 12 crosses 

1 L. D., i. vii. ; A. Z., 1843, 351. 8 D'H., ii. 89 ; T., iii. 50. 

2 B. A. B., 1632. C. D., 41, 42, 43 ; C. C., 11. I. s. 

3 V. C., ix. v. ; T., xix. xxiv. ; M. P., xxviii. xxix. 

4 V. C., xxi. ; I. s. v. ; T., xxxviii. 10 D. M., i. Ixv. ; P. i. xiv. ; M., iv. 
6 A. Z., 1848, 201 ; L. D. 11. xxxix. ; M. B., vii. viii. ; A. Z., 1848, 

6 T. iii. 40. 3, 342. 

7 V. M., xi.; D'H., iil 74; A. Z., " M. A. U. M., xiii ; P., i. xvii. ; 
1848, 229; T., iv. 39; M., iv. xv. P., cxxxiu cxxxiv. ; D'H., iv. 81. 

xviii. xxiii. xxiv. ; St. xliv. ; C. M., 12 T., iii. 23, 30. 
8 ; A., 1845, M. N. 


the sea, borne by two Erotes, 1 and accompanied by 
dolphins ; or is mounted on a swan ; 2 or in a chariot, 
drawn by the Erotes, 3 is seen caressing a hare. 4 

HERMES, the messenger of the gods, is a common subject 
on vases of all epochs, but chiefly as a subordinate agent 
as in scenes of the Gigantomachia, 5 the Heracleid, the 
Perseid, and in those derived from the Troica, 6 and from 
the Tragic drama. Among the many incidents of his 
career, he is exhibited as stealing the oxen of Admetus, 
and taking refuge in his cradle, where he is discovered 
by Apollo, to the amazement of his mother Maia ; 7 as 
inventing the lyre, which he exchanges with Apollo, 8 and 
as passing over the sea with it ; 9 as carrying a ram. 
probably that of Tantalus ; 10 as sacrificing a white goat, 11 
perhaps in connection with the story of Penelope. 12 He is 
also seen tending flocks, 13 once with his mother Maia ; 14 
conveying Dionysos to the Nymphs of Nysa, 15 in company 
with Sileni, 16 and deer, and in many Dionysiac orgies; 17 or 
with Hecate, 18 or Athene, 19 making libations; 20 or roasting 
the tortoise, 21 with Hephaistos; 22 or among the assembled 

1 M. A. U. M., xiii. 1636 ; V. F., clii. ; B. A. B., 1003. 

2 V. C., xxL ; V. L., p. 30. xxxviL ll L. D., iii. Ixxxviii. 

L s. v. ; T., xxxviii. ; St., xxviiL 12 L. D., iii. Ixxxiii. xcix. ci. 

3 G. C. v.; V. F., cccxxiv. 13 L. D., iii. Ixxxiii. 

4 V. F., cxviiL ; M., iv. xxiv. 14 L. D., iiL Ixxxv. 

5 L. D., iiL, xcviL ; C. D., 32. 15 M., i. xviii. ; T., iiL 8. 

6 G. A. V., xxxi. j A. Z., 1847, 20. 16 B. A. N., iii. 73 ; G. E. V., v. 

7 M. G., ii. IxxxiiL 12 ; L. D. iii. vii. 
Ixxxvi.; A. Z., 1844, xx. 321. v V. L., xlix. 

8 C. D., 64 ; L. D., iii. Ixxxix. Bull., 18 St. xxxviii. 
1843, p. 69. 19 A. Z., 1852, 238. 

9 M. iv. xxxiiL xxxiv. w L. D., iii. Ixxiii. 

10 Panofka, Die Heilgotti. Abh., Berl. 21 L. D., iii. IxxvL xc. 

Akad., 4to., 1845, Taf., i. 7; M., i. A. Z., 1848, 220. 
xxxv. ; L. D., iii. Ixxxvii. ; B. A. B., 


Sileni. 1 He is depicted ravishing Herse ; 2 slaying 
Argo Panoptes ; 3 and rescuing lo. He is also inter- 
mingled with Sphinxes. 4 Sometimes he is seen alone, 5 
and winged. 6 As Agonios, presiding over the games, 
he is painted on prize vases. 7 Once he appears with 
the Dioscuri. 8 Sacrifices are offered to his ithyphallic 
terminal figure. 9 

HESTIA rarely appears, and only in groups of other gods. 
At the fatal marriage feast of Peleus, she is joined with 
Hermes. 10 


So numerous are the vases upon which the subject of 
DIONYSOS and his train is depicted, that it is impossible 
to detail them all. Sometimes he is presented under the 
form of lacchos, 11 but generally as Dionysos, the jovial god 
of wine, and the most appropriate of the whole circle of 
deities to appear on vases dedicated to his service. 12 
Generally, however, he is intermingled with his cohort, 
and rarely appears alone. 13 His wonderful birth is repre- 
sented, especially his being sewed into the thigh of Jupiter, 
and his subsequent delivery by Hermes to Silenus, to be 

1 M. G., iL xix. 2 a ; L. D., iii. xc. IviiL 

3 T., iv. 41 ; B. A. B., 910; L. D., 8 L. D., iii. xcvi. 

iii. xciii. xcv. 9 L. D., iii. Ixxviii. Ixxxii. 

3 G. A. V., cxvi. ; Abh. Ak. Wias., 10 G. A. V., xvL ; V. F., cccc. ; A. Z., 
BerL,4to.,1838, iii.iv.; A.Z.,1847,iL17; 1847, 18. vi. 

L. D., iiL xciv. xcv.xcvii. xcix. u A. Z., 1848, 220. 

4 L. D., iii. IxxviL Millin., v. ii. 13 ; M. G., iL IviL 228 ; 
* M. B., xxv. ; P. C., Ixxxvi. ; L. D., D. L., xvi. ; D'H., iv. 75 ; A. Z., 1847, 

iii. xlviii. vii. ; C. C. 2148. 

6 M. I., Ixxxv. is V. F., ccxliii. ccx. 

7 G. A. V., IxvL xviii ; M. G., ii. 


brought up by the Nysean nymphs, 1 or even anomalously 
to the care of Ariadne. 2 

Perhaps of all the incidents represented, the most fre- 
quent, graceful, and interesting, is the discovery of the 
abandoned Ariadne at Naxos, which forms a part of the 

On the older vases, 3 this incident is depicted in 
the most passionless way ; but on those of a later style, 
Dionysos is introduced by Aphrodite and Eros to Ariadne, 4 
who throws herself into his arms in the most voluptuous 
and graceful manner. 5 Sometimes they are seen in a 
chariot, drawn by stags, 6 or attended by Nike ; 7 at others, 
the wine-god pursues Ariadne, who shuns his approach. 8 
His exploits in the Gigantomachia, 9 and his presence at 
the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, at which he brings 
back Hephaistos to Olympus, form the subjects of some 
fine vases. 10 He is himself introduced to heaven ; he is 
present at the birth of Athene, and joined with Apollo 

1 V. F., Ixv. 65 ; C. P., 27 ; M. G., M., 16, 22, 27, 31 ; A, Z., 1849, 161, 
ii. xxvi. 1 1 a; V. F., ccclxxxiv. ; xvi. ; L. D., xlvii. ; A. Z., 1846, xxxix. 
M. P., xxxii; D'H., iii. 105; M. B., 8, 1853, 401; C. D., 95, 116; St. xxi.; 
viil xxix. ; A. Z., 1852, 329. M. I., Ixxxvi. 

2 M. A, U. M., xxv. ; T., v. (i.) 49 ; 6 B., 1843, 64. 

M., ii. xvii. 1 B. A. N., iv. Tav. i. 2 ; St. xiv. 

3 Creuzer. GalL Taf., 4; G. A. V., x. xvi.; B. A. B., 621, 625, 635, 844; 
xxiii. xxv. xxxiv. ; M. G., ii. xl. 2 a, xlv. M. A. U. M., xxxiv. ; T., iv. 36. 

2 a, xxvii. 2 c. ; R, 1847, 206 ; V. F., 8 M. G., ii iii. a. ; T., xxxiii. 1 a, 

cxliv. clxvi ccvii ; P. C., xxviiL ; R. R., Ii. 1 a ; Creuzer. Gall. Ath. Dram, 

xliv. A ; V. F., cxxiv. clxxxvi. cxxiii. ; 7 ; V. F., Ixxxvi. Ixxxviii. ; D. L., 

V. M., vi. xxix. 

4 D. L., xxix. 9 B., 1844, 133 ; V. L. L, Ivi.; V. F., 

5 D. M., i. xxxvii. ii. liiL ; T., ii. Iv. cxviL; D'H., ii. 82, iv. 122; D. L., 
iv. 13 ; V. F., cclvi. ; P., clxix. clxxii. xix. ; P., cli. 

clxxix. clxxxii. clxxiv. ccxcii. 10 V. L. L, Ixx. Ixxiii. ; P., cciii. 

ccxciii. cccxcv. ; M. B., iii. xix. xx. ; ccvii. ccxix. ; M. B., vi. xxi ; B. L., 

M. P., xviiL ; L, a. v. xliv. ; T., v. (1) 21 17. 
26; T., iii. 53, 54; T., ii. 45, 46; C. 


Nomios and the Delphic deities. Sometimes he is seen 
hi a triclinium ; l other scenes, in which Semele 2 appears, 
perhaps refer to his apotheosis. In some instances, he 
is seen in groups of deities, as Hermes and Poseidon ; 3 
Hermes and Athene ; 4 Athene and Apollo ; 5 or with 
Artemis ; 6 or with Hermes, Apollo, and Herakles, 7 and 
often with Hermes alone, 8 probably in scenes connected 
with other myths. In the scenes with Eros, already 
mentioned, Dionysos is probably to be considered as the 
lover of Ariadne. 9 The following are the most remarkable 
representations of the incidents of his career : his appear- 
ance in the ship with the Tyrrhenian pirates, who are 
changed into dolphins ; 10 his type as Dionysos pelekys, 
holding an axe, and mounted on a winged car ; n his 
reception by Icarius ; 12 his presentation of the vine ; 13 and 
his delivery of the wine to QEnopion. He mounts his 
quadriga, attended by Ariadne, 14 Hecate, 15 and others ; is 
drawn by gryphons ; 16 rides on a panther ; 17 on the mule 
Eraton ; 18 on a camel, as the subduer of India ; 19 on a bull ; 20 
on a ram, in company with Hermes, mounted on the same 

1 T., i. 46, ii. 51 ; G. A. V., cxiii. ; 12 C.D.,119; M. I., Ixxxviii. ; M. M. I., 
V. C., li. ; M. G., L 1 ; M. G., ii. Ixxxix. xliv. 1 ; C. F., 43. 

5 a, 5 b ; V. C., xxvi. ; V. F., IviiL 13 G. A., L ; P., cciv. 

cclxxii ; P., cxliii. ccvii. ccxix. ccxxi ; 14 V. L., v. ; M. B., xiii. xv. ; M. G., 

D'H., ii. 54, iii. 62, iv. 52, 90. ii. iii. 4 a, vi. 2 b ; G. A. V., lii. liv. 

2 A. Z., 1848, 220. xcviii. cxli. ; C. F., 44 ; T., i. 32 ; P., 

3 G. A. V., xlviil ; B. A. B., 1601. civ. ; V. L., Lxxvi. Lxxviii. 

4 G. A. V., cviii. 1S P., cclxxiii. 

8 M. G., ii. xxiL 16 P., clx. L li. 1 a, lii. 2. 

6 G. A. V., xxxv. * T., ii. 43 ; V. F., xlviii. ; Millin., v. 

' G. A. V., IxviL cxli. ; M. G., ii., i. 60. 
Ixvi. 6 a, Creuzer. Gall. v. 18 T., ii. 42. 

8 V. G., xxxviii. ; G. A. V., xlii. Ivi. 19 A. Z., 1844, 388, xxiv.; C. D., 96, 

P., cliv. 97; A., 1832, 99 ; M., i 1. ; A., v. 99 ; 

10 B. A. B., 806 ; G. A. V., xlix. V. L., L Ixiv. 

11 V. L., lii. ; G. A, V., xli. ; D. L., G. A. V., xlvii. 
xxxiii. xxxiv. 


animal ; * or is seen carried by Sileni. 2 His presentation of 
the golden amphora to Thetis belongs to the arguments of 
the Epic cycle, while his apotheosis is probably indicated 
on those vases on which he is seen mounting his chariot. 
His supposed destruction and re-composition in the boiling 
cauldron is, perhaps, a representation of the mode in 
which immortality was conferred on Achilles rather than 
a portion of the Dionysiac myth. 3 The war with the 
Amazons and Indians is sometimes the subject of a 
vase. 4 

On the older class of vases Dionysos is seen attended 
by his troop of satyrs and nymphs. 5 On the CaBre vase, 
the so-called satyrs appear to be Sileni. In these pictures 
he often holds the vine, and the keras, or drinking 
horn, 6 or else the kantharos, out of which he drinks, 7 
and has at his side a lion, his goat, 8 or a bull, 9 to which 
are added a fawn and owl. 10 The panther, so common an 
adjunct of the wine-god in later works of art, is rarely 
seen on vases. 11 Dionysos is also found depicted in an 
orgasm, tearing a kid to pieces. 12 In these compositions 
he stands between Sileni with the askos, or wine-skin, 13 or 
between nymphs and Sileni; 14 or between two nymphs ; 15 

1 A. Z., 1846, 286. 9 C. F., 4. 

2 M. G., ii. iii. 3 a ; B., 1854, 34. 10 P., civ. 

3 G. A. V., ccvi. " V. F., Ivi. 

4 B., 1834, 241. 12 M. Bl., xiii. 

5 C. D., 6895; A. Z., 1848, 219; 13 G. A. V., xxxviii. 

T. iii. 9. " M. M. I., xliv. 4 ; M. G., ii. Ixi. 2 a; 

6 M. G., ii. xxxii. 1 a, xxxiv. 1 a, viii. V. F., cclxiv. cclxviii. ; D'H., i. 404, 
la; G.A. V., xxxvi. xlix. xcviii. clxxiii. ; 119, iii. 68 76, 115, iv. 113; M. B., 
V. C., xxiv. ; M. i. x. ; A., 1837. B. viii. xxviii. ; T., ii. (v.) 22, 33 ; T., 

? V. F., cclxxxvi. v. 37. 

8 G. A. V., xxii. ; M. G., ii. xxxv. ; K G. A. V., cxiii. ; V. F., cclii. ; D. L., 

G. A. V., ix. xxxviii.; V. D. C., xxi. ; iii. v. ; L. B. A. B., 699. 
Millin., v. xxiii. xl. ii. xxi. vi. cxiii. 


or sometimes with only one ; l or between two Sileni, 2 or 
amidst groups 3 engaged in the vintage. 4 

Sileni, nymphs, 5 and satyrs, engaged in various actions 
connected with the Dionysiac thiasos, are frequently 
reproduced in isolated groups from the greater com- 
positions. Representations of amorous pursuits are com- 
mon, and sometimes a boy, perhaps the youthful Dionysos, 
mingles in them. 6 Many scenes of fun and frolic are dis- 
played among these elves of the ancient world. They 
are beheld sporting with the mule, the deer, 7 the goat, 8 
the panther, and other animals belonging to the wine- 
god, as well as engaged in a variety of games, such as 
the seesaw ; or, they are seen amusing themselves by 
catching foxes, the pests of the vine, in a trap ; 9 or 
gathering grapes to make the vintage ; 10 or holding 
the keras. 11 As pedagogues they administer a sound 
flogging to a youth. 12 They also appear armed like 
Amazons, 13 or fallen from chariots, 14 or even engaged 
in palaestric exercises, 15 and hurling the diskos. Nor 
are the actions of the nymphs less varied. They 
hold panthers, 16 goats, and serpents ; play with the 

1 P., choc. 100, iv. 7883100, 107, 32 ; A. Z., 

8 V. D. C., xxxvii. ; V. L., ii. xxviii 1848, 248 ; T., L 16 ; C. F., xxx., xxxi. ; 

xlv. ; V. F., ccix. ccxxxi. ; D'H., ii. T., (v.) ii. 34, 35. 

41, iv. 2029 ; St., xxv. St., xxvi. 

3 V. C. xli. ; V. L., ii. xxx. ; T., (v.) 7 Q. A. V., cxcvi. 

ii. 27, 29, 39. s Q. A> y., Iv., IxviiL 

4 M. G., ii. xlvi. la. a G. T. C., x. ; M. P. xxix. 

5 M. G., ii. xviiL Ixxii. 2 a, 26, Ixxix. "> G. A. V., xv. ; M. G., xxiv. 
2 a, 2 b ; V. C., xvL i. xviii. xxxix. ; G. A. V., clxxix. 

G. A. V., Ixxix. Ixxx. cxliL cliv. clx 12 M. G. ii. Ixxx. 1 a. 

xxxiv. ; D. L., xxxii. xxxiiL ; G. E. V., 13 G. A. V., Ii ; M. P. ix. 
viiL ; G. T. C., v. ; P., clix. ccxi " V. C. lix. 
ccxii. ccxxiii. ccxxxvL ccxxxvii. cclii. is St., xxiv. 
cclv. cclxxvii; D'H., ii. 41, 90, 97, 16 V. F., cclix. 


ass or mule Eraton ; and frisk about in numerous < 

In the scenes depicted on the older vases, the monotony 
of the subjects, and comparatively slight variety of 
details, show that they were selected from one or two 
original compositions of great renown, of rigid and archaic 
execution, and principally relating to the discovery of 
Ariadne at Naxos, her marriage, or the Bacchic triumph. 
The attendants of the god are rarely named, and it is not 
until the decline of the old rigid school of art that 
the Dionysiac myths begin to show not only several new 
incidents, but also to reveal the appellations of the 
principal nymphs, maenads, satyrs, and Sileni. It is 
on such vases that the word " Naxians " is applied to 
the discovery of Ariadne, 1 and that the god appears as the 
inventor of comedy. 2 In these scenes the wine-god appears 
accompanied by the Silenus Simos, and the nymphs 
Dione and Thyone ; 3 with the Sileni, Komos and 
Hedyoinos, and the nymphs Opora, (Enone, los, and the 
goddess Eirene 4 crowned by Himeros ; with the Silenus 
Kamos or Comos, and the nymphs Euoia and Thaleia, 
the last perhaps the Muse of that name, listening to the 
piping of Pothos or '" desire ; " 5 with Kamos and the 
nymphs Euoia and Galene, 6 whose name, " the Calm,'' 
rather resembles that of a Nereid ; with Simos and 
Komos, and the nymph Koiros ; 7 with Kissos and 
Choronike 8 or Phanope. 

1 V. F., xcix. ; G. T. C., v. ; M. A. U. 4 V. L., i. 65; D. M., Introd. xxii. 

M., xxx. xxxi. 2 T., i. 44. 5 T. ii. 44 ; I. M. E., v. 26. 

3 See Jahn. Dionysos und sein R V. G., -KIT. ; B. A. N., iv. iii. 4. 

Thiasos, Vasenbilder, 4to., Hamb., 7 M. B., ii. xiv. 

1839, who has collected the following 8 G. T. C., vi. ; P. ccx. 
incidents ; P., ccxlv. 


In isolated compositions the Sileni Hedyoinos and 
Komos often pursue nymphs. 1 In one of the pictures most 
filled with figures, Dionysos is surrounded by Silenos, 
Simos, Eudaimos; the nymphs Opora, Euoia, and Thy one; 
the Erotes, Eros, Himeros and Pothos ; 2 and the boy 
Sikinnos. Silenos is sometimes his only companion ; 3 
while in many thiasi, the god himself is not present, 
but only his cohort of Sileni and nymphs, as Simos and 
Myro, Anties and Eio, Thanon and Molpe, Hypceios and 
Clyto, Dorcis and Xanthe, and Abaties and Chora. 4 

The nymph Xanthe is seen between the Sileni, Hippos 
and Simos; the Silenos Smis is seen pursuing Eio and 
another, Molpe follows Phoebe, Dorcis, and Nais, the 
Satyrs, Podis, and Doro, 5 the Sileni, Chorrepous and 
Kissos, are found with the nymph Phanope. 6 

But, returning to the more important compositions, one 
may be cited representing Dionysos accompanied by 
Komos, Ariadne, and Tragoedia, 7 or Thaleia, another 
muse, 8 and Methe ; 9 or by the Silenos Hedymeles, who 
pipes on the flute, 10 and Dithyrambos who plays on the 
lyre, or by Komos and Pa3an. n 

Dionysos is also found with Eumolpus and lacchos ; 12 
with Semele, as already mentioned, 13 Gelos, and Thyone; or 
with Briacchos and Erophylle; 14 or with Nymphaia. 15 The 

1 D M., xxxiii. vi. i. 64. Savants, 1826, p. 89 ; C. F. ; T. L 34, 

2 Schulz. B., 1830, 122; P. ccxiii. 36. 

ccxviii ; V. C. xxiv. 8 V. F. xxxviii. 

3 B., 1831, 38. 9 G. T. C. x. 

4 Mus. Etr., 802; T. xx. ; Rapp. Vole., 10 A., 1829, K 
185, n. 748. u A. Z. 1852, 401. 

5 C. D. 145. w Bull, 1829, 75. 

6 Cat. Scelt. Ant. Etr., Gerh., R. V., 13 C. D., 85. 

185, No. 748. Mus. Etr., 1005. 

7 C. D., 114; R. R; Journal des C. C., 42. 


names attached to the personages give the following 
additional incidents of his cohort. Komos 1 playing on 
the double flute, an action also performed by Hedymeles 
and Briacchos ; Gelos or "laughter," singing to the lyre ; 2 
Scopas, and Hybris ; 3 Simos sporting with the mule 
Eraton ; 4 and the often-repeated subject of Tyrbas 
pursuing Oragie. 5 Simos is seen with a maenad and 
Thyone ; 6 a ma3nad with the Sileni Marsyas, Soteles, 
Pothos ; 7 Thaleia with other Sileni; 8 (Enos "wine," 
another of the crew, is united with Komos. 9 Among 
the more remarkable incidents connected with other 
myths, are Hermes with the Sileni, Oreimachos and Oro- 
crates ; 10 the appearance of these in the myths of 
Hercules, in the Perseid, and in dramatic scenes ; and 
their war with the Amazons and surprise by the 
Gryphons. 11 Detached incidents respecting the nymphs 
or maenads, accompanied with their names, are un- 
common, yet are occasionally found, as Lilaia playing 
the crotala. 12 A few isolated nymphs or monads are 
also represented in the decorations of the smaller vases 
as holding a lion or panther, 13 seated on a bull, 14 or with 
thyrsi and snakes. 15 

PAN, the great Arcadian god, who is not introduced 
into the early works of art, is seen in the later pictures of 
the Dionysiaca in connection with the Satyric chorus, 16 or 

i C. D., 87. 10 B., 1835, 181 ; B. A. B., 1601. 

8 C. D. 85; B. A.B.,699; D'H.,ii. 65. " G. A. V., cliii. iv. ; V. G. iii. ; 

3 C. C., 96. P. cclxx. 

< C. C. 59. 12 Bull, 1847, 114. 

8 M., ii. xxxvii. 13 M. G. ii. xxvii. 

6 C. C., 43. 14 G. A. V., cxlix. 

7 Jahn. 1. c. 24. 15 G. A. V. ccxxxiiL 

8 P. cxlix. clviii. 16 Walpole, Travels, ii. PI. 8 ; M. A. 

9 B. A. B., 848. U. M., i. PI. A. 


else in dramatic scenes. 1 He is distinguished by his goats- 
hoofs and horns, and is accompanied by the nymphs and 
naiads, and among them probably by Echo ; 2 or he is 
seen with Aphrodite and Pothos, 3 or Eros, 4 and in other 
subjects. 5 

On later vases, 6 executed during the decline of the art, 
especially when it had obtained more license, the orgies of 
the Dionysiac thiasoi are displayed in their greatest 
freedom it may be added, in their greatest beauty. 
Dionysos and his followers are seen under the intoxicating 
influence of wine ; the satyrs and the nymphs dance, chase 
one another, and throw themselves into extraordinary 
attitudes to the sound of the tympanum or tambourin, the 
double flute, or the harp, and often by torch-light. 
Some imitate the tours de force of the jugglers and 
dancing women ; others fly about with torches, or the 
branches of trees to which are suspended oscilla ; others 
again, hold thyrsi, bunches of grapes, apples, wine-skins, 
vases like buckets, or with handles, canistra, or baskets, 
with fruit, bandlets, branches of myrtle, rhyta, phalli, masks, 
and eggs. The Bacchantes often wear the nebris, or the 
slight Coan vests, and are intermingled with the Erotes 
or Loves. Sometimes the Sileni attend on the nymphs, 
holding their parasols ; on the latest vases of all, the 
nymphs are naked. In the decline, as at the earlier 
period, of art, it is difficult, nay, often impossible, to 
separate the real from the mythical ; and hence on the 

1 Lenormant, Cur Plato Aristopha- 3 A. Z., 1848, 219. 

nem, &c. 4to., Paris, 1838 ; Campaua 4 M. P., xxxiL; D'H. iL 58. 

Ac., Roma, 1830; T. ii. 40, 33, v., 1527, 5 T., i. 40, iL 43. 

28 ; V. G., ii. ; M. B., viiL xxvii. 6 T., (v.) i. 12-15, 25, 29-31, 34. 

2 M. B. xxiii. ; P. cxxv. 


Lucanian vases many of the subjects are treated in a 
manner more resembling the actions of private life, than 
those of mythic import. 1 To these vases some writers have 
given, and continue to apply, the term " mystical," 
supposing them to be representations of the mysteries ; 
or refer them to the actual orgies performed by the con- 
temporary worshippers of Dionysos in Southern Italy, the 
abomination of whose practices at last called forth the 
decree of the Senate which suppressed them. But 
although it cannot be denied that after the' time of 
Alexander the Great, the idealism of ancient art was 
superseded by the desire of representing the present 
rather than the past, yet it is not easy to point out any vase 
to which an interpretation purely historical can be given. 2 
The adventures of the Silenus Marsyas form the subject- 
matter of a considerable number of vases, and connect the 
cycle of Dionysos with that of the Delphic deities. They 
appear only on vases of the later period. The charming 
scene in which he instructs Olympus is known from its 
reproduction by the chisel. 3 His fatal contest with 

1 Millin, in D. M., p. xiii.; M. P., Ixxxi.-iii. ; M. M. I, xxxv. ; D'H., i. 40, 

xxix. ; G. T. C., xiv. V. L., i. xlviL Ixvii. ii. 2 ; P. I., xiii. xxxvi. xlvi. xcix. ciii. 

Ixxix. Ixxx. ii., xlii.-xliv. i.; Supp., i. iii.; cxix. cxx. cxxi. cxxii. cxxvii. cii. cxxviii. 

S. V. T., iii. xiv. ; S., xxxviii. ; V. P., cxxix. cxxx. cxl. cxlii. cxliiL cxlvii. 

Ixvii. -Ixviii. Ixii. ; V. F., viii. ix. xl. clxvi. clxxxvi. clxxxviii. ccxxi. ccxxvi. 

xli. xlii. lii. Iv. xcix. cix. cxiL cxxvii. ccxxix. ccxxxii. ccxxxiii. ccxxxiv. ; V. 

cxxi. cxlv. cxlvi. clxxxv. cxcvii. cxcix. ; d. P. i. xxxiv. xxxx. ; V. L., ii. xxx. ; 

C. C., xii. cxlvii. cxlviii. cxlix. cl. cliy. Supp., ii. v. ; T., v. 94, ii. 45, 49, 50, 56, 

clxx. clxxvi. ccxxvi. ccxliii. cclxx. ccxci. iii. 11, 14, 15, 18, 20, 113; T., v. (i.) 48 ; 

cccxviii. cccxxiii. cccxxxvi. xxix. cclxxi. T., i. 30, 37, 38, 44, 45, 49, 51 ; St., 

ccliv. ; M. Bl., xiv. ; B. A. B., 590, 601, xxiv. ; T., iii. 41, 46, 49, give some of 

616, 619, 710, 1603, 1612; G. T. C., the many representations, 

xvi.; A. Z., 1843, 340, 1847, 25, 1851, " A. 1845, c. 

248, 1852, 275; B. A. K, i. 26, 92, v. 3 T.i. 33, iii. 12; T., v.(i.) 44; Creuzer 

24, iii. 113 ; C. C., 5000 ; C. D., 68, and Gall. B., 1851, 101; P., xxxiv.; M. A. I. 

foil.; C. P., 25, 34; G. A., iv. c.; xvii. 
M. B., iii. xxix. vi., vi. ; M. L, Ixxvii. 



Apollo is often repeated, and in many ways. On some 
vases Apollo listens to the concert of the msenads, 1 or 
sings before an assembly of the gods, at which Marsyas 
is present ; 2 or the unfortunate Silenos holds the flutes, 
ready to sing, and seated at the foot of the fatal tree, 
while Apollo stands before him with three Muses, judges 
of the contest ; 3 or after having played the lyre before 
the msenads, proposes to play the flute. 4 Even Athene 
is present at the contest, and listens to the flute she has 
abandoned ; 5 whilst, last sad scene of all, Apollo flays his 
unhappy rival. 6 


Mention has been already made of the appearance of 
the EROTBS, or Loves, in the scenes of the Dionysiac 7 
orgies. On the earlier vases of the black style Eros never 
appears ; but on several vases of the later style, he is con- 
stantly either introduced into the subjects, or treated as 
protagonist. Thus he figures in all the scenes of which 
the passion of Love 8 is the exponent, and especially in 
those derived from the Satyric drama ; but his chief 
appearance is of course in the character of the servant or 
minister of Aphrodite, near whom he stands, or to whom 
he ministers. An elegant vase, formerly in the possession 
of Mr. Rogers, and of the later style of art, represents 
Aphrodite and the graces, Cleopatra, Eunomia, Paidia, 
and Peitho, plaiting a cage for Eros, 9 a subject which is 

1 T., iii. 5; D'H., ii. 68, iv. 62; 6 Vide supra. Cf. P., 6, box. 
B. A. K, iii. 77, v. 28. 7 D'H. iii. 68, 71. 

2 D. M., L vL sy. G. xxvi.; L 40, ii. 45, iii. 62 ; M. 

3 T., iii. xii. A. I., xv. 

4 D'H., iv. 64. St., xxix. 
8 T., (iv.) vi. ; P., ccxxxv. ccxliv. 

EROTES. 341 

repeated on another vase, 1 while on a third he is seen 
adjusting the sandals of his mother. 2 His appearance 
amidst three females suggests that they are the Graces. 3 
Sometimes he is represented sacrificing. 4 The Erotes, or 
Pothos, Eros and Himeros, are constantly seen on vases 5 
of the earlier style of the red figures, sometimes crossing 
the sea and holding fillets. 6 Eros is also seen holding 
a torch or a crown, 7 flute-playing to Peitho, 8 see-sawing 
with the females Archedie and Harpalina, 9 as well as in 
many scenes difficult of explanation. 10 An Eros repre- 
sented shooting one of his arrows at a female breast, in a 
style truly Anacreontic, is in all probability a modern 
forgery. 11 On the vases of Lucania and Southern Italy 
the form of Eros assumes a local type. It is more adult 
in size, and more soft and feminine in character ; the 
hair particularly is attired in female fashion ; spiral 
armlets encircle the left leg ; he holds a crown, garlands, 
phialce, a bunch of grapes, a mirror, a fan, and a pyxis 
or box, or skiadiske. 12 He is also seen pursuing a hare, 13 
playing at hoop, 14 or with a deer, 15 holding plants and 
apples, 16 boxes 17 and bandlets, 18 offering a youth a hare, 19 
with a dove 20 or swan, 21 mounted on the shoulders of 

1 St., xxx. 12 Millin. Mon. Introd., xiii. ; V. L., 

2 St., xxxi. L xii. ii. xlii. I. ; S. V. T., xx.-xxiii. ; 

3 St., xxxi. V. M., iii. ; P. xlvi. xciv.; D'H., iL 79, 

4 St., xxxv. ill 45, iv. 38 ; B. A. B., 713 ; B. A. N., 

5 D. L., xv. ii. iv. 

6 M. L, 9. 13 C. D., 46. 

7 D. M., L 22; Rapp. Vole., 40, n. 14 C. D., 47; R. R. xlix. 
260. 15 C. D., 50. 

8 T., iL 44 ; M. G. ii. Ixxviii. la. 16 C. D., 51. 

9 V. F., ccxcviil V C. D., 55, 57. 
10 D. L., xv. ; P., xlvii. xlviii. Ixvii.; C. D., 58. 

D'H., iii. 113, 126, 128, 130; T., ii. M. B., v. xx. ; R. R., xiv 

32. M B. A. N., iv. p. 55. 

11 T., iii. 39. 21 A. Z., 1852, s. 248. 


Pappo-Silenos, 1 with Nike 2 and others, holding a fish to 
Poseidon, 3 pursuing a youth, 4 riding on a stag, 5 mingling 
with the Graces, 6 and attending females at the bath. 7 

The most remarkable circumstance attending him, how- 
ever, is his Dionysiac character, for he seems scarcely to 
be separated from the wine-god. His nature, indeed, is 
generally aerial ; he skims the air above Dionysos and 
Ariadne, 8 or sports with the followers of the god. He 
is mounted on a horse, 9 a stag, 10 or deer, 11 and on a 
dolphin ; 12 is himself harnessed to a chariot ; is drawn 
by gryphons, lions, swans or even capricorns. 13 But he 
is generally in the company of females, 14 youths, 15 or 
athletes, 16 and is frequently seen holding branches and 
torches. 17 

To the train of Aphrodite belong the CHARITES or 
Graces, who are subordinate on some vases to Aphrodite, 18 
especially Peitho, who attends her toilet. 19 The MUSES, who 
are often represented with Apollo, are once seen destroying 
Thamyris. The SIRENS are introduced as accessories upon 
certain vases, principally in connection with the adventure 
of Ulysses. Although ASCLEPIOS seems to be later than 

1 Millin., V. P., i. 14, 22. xlix.-liv. Ixi.-lxvi. Ixxix. Ixxxvii. clxxxv. ; 

2 V. R, cxxvi. D'H,, ii. 35, iv. 71 ; B. A. B., 1628. 

3 Q. A. V., Ixv. ; M. B., vii viii. 1. " T., iii. 24-28. 

4 A. Z., 1848, 324. 1S P., IxxxviL 

6 T., iv. (ii.) 7. ; St. xxviii. 16 M. G.. ii. iv. L 

6 M. A. L, 15. v M. G. ii. Ixxxvii. 

I T., iii. 35. > 8 R. V., 41, n. 285 ; M., i liii. ; V. F., 

8 D. M. L, xxxvii. ; V. L. ii. xxviii. ; c-cxliii. cccliv. ; D. L., xxii. ; V. M., viiL ; 
P., Ixx. ; St., xxvii. B. A. N., iii. 78 ; A. Z., 1848, 247 ; M. 

9 D. M., ii. lix. A. U. M. xxxvii. 

10 T., iv. 7. is Jahn, Peitho., 8vo., Greifswald, 

II P-, xlii. 1856 ; R. R. viii. ; M. B., xxii. : St., 

12 B., 1840, 55. xxxiv. ; M. A. U. M., xxxvii.; A., 1844, 

13 V. L., i. vii.-xiii. xiv. ii. x. ; P., 6, K. C. F., 61. 


the red vases, either of the early or late kind, yet HYGIEIA 
appears in a scene on a most remarkable vase found at 
Ruvo. TELESPHOROS is never seen. HESTIA, whose name 
is one of the old Attic forms of Rhea or Vesta, occurs in 
assemblies of the gods, intermingled with other deities j 1 
while of the telluric gods, ERICHTHONIUS belongs to the 
legend of the Attic Athene, and it has been thought that 
the KABIRI may be recognised. 2 ATLAS belongs to the 
myth of Heracles ; PROMETHEUS, to that of Hera ; 3 and 
the GIANTS, to that of Zeus. 

HADES or PLUTO is rarely the subject of a separate 
picture, although he appears in a subordinate capacity in 
many scenes, such as the birth of Athene, the feast of the 
gods, in the Heracleid, 4 and above all in scenes of the 
lower world. 5 In connection with the Eleusinian myths 
he carries off Persephone. 6 Certain youths riding upon a 
Hippalectryon, and human-headed birds, both male and 
female, may all belong to the nether world. 

The deities of Hades are occasionally painted ; as the 
MOIRAI or Fates ; 7 the ERINNYES or Furies, who in the story 
of Orestes, are sometimes coloured black ; 8 HYPNOS and 
THANATOS, or Sleep and Death, who convey away Sarpe- 
don to Lycia ; 9 the supposed DEMONS of death ; 10 CHARON u 
and the SHADES ; 12 and the KERBS or goddesses of death. 13 

1 A., 1845, B., 56; A. Z., 1846, 253. 287. See also the Francois Vase. B. 

2 G. C., i. A. N., iii. 17, PI. i. fig. 1. 

3 M., ii. xlix. 1. ; Bl., 29; A., 1837, 8 Ibid. No. 288. 
219 ; H., 1. 9 Arch. x. xix. p. 139. 

4 C. D., 201-202, 204 ; C. M., 28 ; T., 10 G. A. V., ccxl. 

iii. 1. " A. Z., 1846, s. 350 ; St., xlvii. ; A., 

5 G. T. C., A. B. ; B. A. N., i. 14 ; M. 1837, p. 256 ; B. A. B., 1622. 
A. U. M., xvi. 4 ; G. C., i. 12 St. xlvii. xlviii. 

6 G. T. C. A. B. ; C. D., 206. 13 C. D., 205. 

7 Gerhard Rapp. Vole., p. 41 No. 


HECATE is seen chiefly in connection with Demeter, 
Persephone, and Apollo. 1 Hades, or Pluto, occurs as a 
subordinate character. The GORGONS belong peculiarly 
to the Perseid. The HOR.E, who are connected with 
Demeter, are found only in subordinate positions. They 
are seen accompanying the gods to the marriage-feast 
of Peleus and Thetis, and are present with them in 
Olympus. 2 

The solar god HELIOS appears in several compositions 
connected with the Heracleid. 3 He, in his chariot of two 
winged horses, is seen attacked by Hercules at the 
Hesperides, to which the hero had floated on the sea in 
his cup ; 4 merely revealing his head in the solar disc, 5 or 
else in a chariot with four winged steeds, and having his 
head surrounded with rays, whilst the stars are plunging 
into the sea; 6 in a chariot drawn by four mortal horses, 
and accompanied by Heos 7 holding a torch ; and in a 
boat shaped like a dolphin, intended to represent Tethys. 8 
At other times his head only is seen rising from the sea. 
Athene and Ares cross the sea to him. 9 In these com- 
positions the artist intended, to show that the action took 
place at sunrise. 

HEOS, or Aurora, is more frequently represented. She 
is either driving her chariot, drawn by the winged steeds 

1 A., 1833, PL c. ii. cxi.; T., ii. 27. 

2 A., 1S53, p. 103, 113; Gerhard, 7 Gerhard, 1. c. M.,ii. 30, 31, 32; A. 8, 
Rapp. Vole., p. 41, No. 283. p. 106 ; Millin. Tombeaux de Canosa, 

3 Stackelberg, Die Graeber, xv. 5 ; PL v. ; Passeri, Pict. Etr., iii. 268 : 
V. F., liL WinckelmaDii, MOD., No. xxii. ; Duboia 

4 Gerhard, Ueber die Lichtgottheiten Maisonneuve, PL i. ; L. D., ii. cxiv ; 
K. Wiss. Ak., Berlin, 1840, taf. i. V. F., cccxciv.; D'H., iL 35 ; L. D., ii 

5 M., ii. 55 ; A. 1838, 266, & foil. ; M., cxvL cxvii. 

ii. Iv. L L. D., ii. cxii. A. cxiiL cxv. 8 P., cclxix. 

6 Bl. PL xvii. ; R. R. PI. Ixxiii. ; L. D., L. D., ii. cxv. 


Phaethon and Lampos ; l or rising with them from the 
sea, 2 having on her head a ball ; or preceding Helios in a 
chariot of four horses, and sometimes in the same chariot 
with him. 3 In one instance she is seen flying through the 
air and pouring the dew out of hydrise, 4 one of which 
she holds in each hand. Some of the figures reputed to 
be Nike probably represent this goddess. Her con- 
nection with Cephalus, Tithonus, and Athene will be 
subsequently touched on in connection with the Attic 
myths and the Homerica. 

are connected with the sun-god ; and occur in con- 
nection with Hermes 5 and Sileni. 6 

SELENE, the Moon, another of the solar gods, is 
rarely seen on vases, of any period, and then, generally 
as a mere pictorial accessory. Once she drives her 
chariot 7 through the night, accompanied by her crescent ; 
but more often descends, as Hyperion mounts, the sky. 8 
Once she appears at Olympus as a disc showing only her 
head, 9 and again in the same form as chained to earth 
by two Thracian witches, who invoke her as 111 I1OTNIA 
2EAAN(A) " Oh venerable Moon ! " 10 The Winds also are 

1 T., iii. 3; G. A. V., Ixxix. ; Bull, Gal. Myth., xxx. 93. 

1846, 92 ; L. D., ii. cix. cix. A. ; cix. 4 Gerhard, 1. c. Taf. iii. 3, 5 ; M. G., ii. 

B., ex. ; V. F. cclxxvi. ; P., cclxviii. xviii. 2 ; G. T. C. P. cclxxxviiL 

cclxxv. ; C. D., 231, 232 ; M. M. L, * M. A. U. M., vi 

xxxvi. ; T., v. i. 55. 6 V. L., i., Ixxxiv. ; D. L., xxx. 

2 Gerhard, Ueber die Lichtgott- ~ L. D., ii. cxii. ; T., iv. (iL) 12, 13 ; 
heiten, Taf. iv. 3 ; Berlins Ant. Bild., Mus. Blac., xviii. ; C. D., 233 ; M. B., 
No. 1002; G. A. V., i.; Ixxx. ; M. G., v. xxv. : B. A. B., 886; C. D., 230, 
ii. xlix. la.; G. C., viii 235 ; V. P., clxxxvii ; V. F., iv. (ii. 32). 

3 Ibid. Taf. ii. 2. iii. i. ; Millin. 8 Gerhard, 1. c. iv. 8 ; T., iii. 31. 
Tomb, de Canosa, PI. v. ; Passeri, iiL 9 Gerhard, Ueber die Lichtgott. 
cclxix.; Millin. Vases, ii. 37; Gal. Taf. L 2, Ta iL 2, 3. 

Myth., 169, 611 ; Millin. Vases, x. 56; lu Gerhard,!. c.,Taf.iv.8; T.,iii.31(44). 


sometimes represented, as BOREAS and OREiTHYiA, 1 and 
ZEPHYRUS pursuing CHLORis, 2 but chiefly in peculiar 
myths. The constellation PEGASUS appears once with 
the Moon. 3 

Intimately related to the winds are the waves, whose 
various deities form indeed the cohort of Poseidon, but 
are of rarer occurrence on vases than any other subject, 
except that of the gloomy Hades. NEREUS is, however, 
a part of the Heracleid, 4 and TRITON appears in the 
same myth. GLAUCOS PONTIOS belongs to the Argonau- 
tic expedition, and the NEREIDS appear in the Troica. 5 
Sea-monsters are sparingly introduced. SCYLLA, as 
belonging to the Odyssey, is found on later vases 
devouring the companions of Ulysses. The NAIADS 
appear on a very ancient vase, in connection with the 

Some few local deities, intermingled with the prin- 
cipal figures, are introduced on late vases having 
tragic arguments derived from known subjects ; such 
as THEBE in the Cadmeid, the nymph PELEA in the 
Theseid, and ATLAS in the Heracleid. HELLAS is said 
to have been discovered on a vase recently exhumed 
at Capua. The supposed nymph GYRENE occurs on a 
vase representing the myth of Apollo. Such personi- 
fications are, however, the rarest of all, and of the 
latest period. 

1 C. D., 211, 213 ; A. Z., 1845, s. 35, 4 M. Bl., xx. ; L. D. iii. i. ii. iii xxxiii. 
Taf. xxxi. xxxiv. 

2 Bull, 1844, 98; V. F., cxciii. s C. D., 210; L. D., iii xxxvi. B., 
cclxxxi. ; P., L xciii. xciv. ; A. Z., 1845, supposed Nereids spinning. G. A. V., 
Taf. xxxi. vii. ; A, Z., 1847, 18 * is Triton ; B. A. 

J Mon. iv. xxxix. B., 1585. 


A winged figure, known from the inscriptions which 
accompany it, to be NIKE or Victory, 1 has been introduced 
by the vase-painters into the many subjects in which 
victory is the result, or which typify a future strife. As 
Eros denotes the purport of the scene to be amorous 
sentiment, so Victory indicates its heroic tendency. This 
mode of treatment belongs, however, only to the later 
period, and the art at an earlier one did not avail 
itself of such a resource. Nike appears crowning the 
gods, 2 heroes, 3 athletes, and poets, 4 with a wreath or 
fillet. She acts as charioteer to Ares, 5 drives a quadriga, 6 
and flies to meet Heos or the Morn. 7 She is found as 
the companion of Zeus, under circumstances in which 
Iris, his messenger, or Hebe 8 his minister, would be 
expected to be introduced. On many of the later vases 
of the fine style, and especially on those of Nola, the 
goddess alone has been taken by the artist for his 
subject, holding the aerostation or aplustre, 9 erecting 
a trophy, 10 or proffering an ivy-wreath, 11 a branch, 12 or 
a shield. 13 But the most charming compositions are 
those in which the goddess flies through the air, holding 
the cenochoe or jug, the pMale or patera, the tliymia- 
terion or censer used in sacrifices, or sometimes a lyre. 14 
At other times she bears a torch like Hecate, 15 or a 

1 R. V., 40 ; C. D., 214, 230. Rath- ? V. F., ccxxiv. ; G. A. V., viL 

geber, Nik, fo. Gotha, 1851. 8 B. A. B., 835; M. A. U. M., xxix. ; 

J R. V., 40, 267 ; G. A. V., clxxiv.-v. ; L. D., i. xciv. xcv. xcvi. 

P., cliv. 9 T., iv. (ii) 21. 

3 R. V., 40, 268 ; M. G., ii. Ixiii. la; 10 M. I., xcix. 10. 

G. A. V., clxxiv. clxxv. A. 1844, e. " L. D. i. c. ; V. F., ci. 

4 R. V., 269 ; M. G., ii. Ix. 3, 9 ; 12 C. D., i. xcviii. 

D'H., iv. 114 ; T., i. 57, ii. 85. 13 V. F., clxxxviii.; L. D., i. xcviii. 

5 V. F., ccxxiv. " P. ci. ; C. D. i. xcviii. 

6 V. F., ccxv. is P., ci. ; V. L., ii. xxxviL 


sceptre like Hera, or a caduceus like -Eirene or Peace. 1 
She offers up a ram, 2 crowns bulls for sacrifice, 3 and 
stands at a tripod 4 or altar. 5 She rarely holds the 
cantharos or cup. She is seen in interviews with other 
females, 6 and also with a hare as a spectatress or 
assistant at the Dionysiac orgies. She is connected with 

On the later vases IRIS appears ; 7 on the older 
ERIS, or Contention, 8 a remarkable goddess called 
KoNiKOS, 9 or Dust, and LYSSE, or Madness, fulfil the 
mandates of Jove. PHOBOS, or Fear, appears once in 
the strife. 10 

The number of these allegorical figures is considerably 
augmented on vases of the later style, on which are 
seen TELETE, or Initiation ; n EUDAIMONIA, Prosperity ; 12 
EUTYCHIA, Felicity ; KALE, Beauty ; 13 PANDAISIA, Fes- 
tivity ; 14 ALKIS, Strength ; 15 POLYETES, Longevity ; 16 CLY- 
MENE, Splendor; 17 EUCLEIA, Renown; 18 PANNYCHIS, All 
Night ; 19 HARMONIA, Harmony, 20 and APATE, Fraud. 21 At 
last not only PLOUTOS, or Wealth, but also CHRYSOS, or 
Gold, is introduced ; 22 the popular taste delighting in 

1 Gerhard Flugelgestalten, Abh. K., Gerhard Flugelstalten, ii. iii. 

Berlin, Akad., 1840, iiL 6, iv. 3, 4 ; G. K B. A. B., 810, 864. 

A. V., Ixxxii. 13 Rev. Arch., 1855, p. 456. 

z B. A. N., v. 87, ii. 3. " Ibid. ; B. A. N., v. 28. 

3 P.. viL; G. A. V., IxxxL; V. F., 1S Mem. Acad. Pont., 4to., 1845,- A. 

ccelix.-lxi.-lxiii.-lxv. xvii. 1846, 415-417. 

< L. D., i. xci. ; M. P., vi. 16 Creuzer. GalL 8. 

8 L. D., i. xcii. V Rev. Arch., 1. c. 

6 P., ccxvil ccxlL ; L. D., c. 18 Ibid. ; B. A. N., v. 28. 

7 C. C., 68, 69 ; L. D., c. ; G. A. V., 19 B. A. N., v. 28. 
xx. a> Ibid. 

8 Gerhard Flugelgestalten, Taf. ii 6. 21 B. A. N., v. 28. 

9 C. D., 14, 241 ; A. Z., 1852, 246. * B. A. N., iii. 13. 

10 G. R. V., 41, 281. 


seeing actions attributed to mental abstractions and 
material objects, which were made to chase, to gather 
fruit, to fly, repose, &c., like the actions described in the 
picture of Cebes, or the tales narrated in the fable of 
Cupid and Psyche. 


Glazed vases Subjects continued Heroic legends the Heracleid Attic legends 
the Theseid the Cadmeid legend of CEdipus Thebaid Various Theban 
legends Myth of Athamas Legends of Northern Greece Argonautic 
expedition Calydonian boar Cephallenic traditions Bellerophon 
Perseid Pelopeid Dioscuri Centauromachia Minotaur Hyperborean 
legends Phrygian legends Orpheus and Eurydice Troica Ante- 
Homerica Homerica Post-Homerica Unidentified subjects the 
Nostoi Odyssey Telegoniad Oresteiad Semi-mythic period His- 
torical subjects Religious rites Civil life The Palaestra Pentathlon 
Dramatic subjects Banquets War Immoral scenes Temples 
Animals Relation of the subjects to Hellenic literature Homeric poems 
^Ethiopica Cyclic poems Cypria Nostoi Telegonia Hesiod'8 poems 
Thebaid Poems of Stesichorus Epigrams and fables Threni 
Oresteiad Emblems, attributes, costume Expression Scenery or 

HAVING thus detailed the subjects of vases with regard 
to the principal gods who figure on them, we will now 
proceed to consider the heroic legends from which others 
were taken. 

Commencing with the heroic cycle, the most important 
and fertile in events, if not the first in point of time, is 
the HERACLEID, which occurs on vases of all ages, and 
offers an extensive series of exploits of Heracles, from 
his birth to his apotheosis. He is seen carried by 
Hermes, or nursed by Hera, amidst several of the deities 
of Olympus, 1 or strangling the serpents in his cradle. 

1 St. xvii. ; A. Z., 1843, s. 75. 


Throughout his labours, and the parerga, although often 
alone he is sometimes accompanied by his friend lolaos, 
or by Hermes and Athene. He is beheld in the forests 
of Mount Cithseron, 1 where he has descended from his 
chariot, 2 and strangling the lion of Nemea, 3 which he sub- 
sequently flays 4 in the cavern. He is represented destroy- 
ing the Lerna3an hydra, 5 after descending either from his 
chariot 6 or from his horse ; crushing its head with his 
club 7 or burning it with torches, 8 while the scorpion, or 
land-crab endeavours to bite his heel. The subjugation 
of the Cretan bull, 9 which he ties with cords, 10 and the 
capture of the Erymanthian boar, especially the scene of 
bringing it back to Eurystheus, who throws himself in 
trepidation into the pitJios, are often depicted. 11 He is 
also seen receiving the belt from Antiope, 12 and fighting 
with the Amazons. 13 Of rarer occurrence are the taking 
of the stag of Mount Cerynitis, in spite of the protection 

1 For Hercules, see C. C., p. 36 and 8 Roulez. Ac. Brux., vii. 8 ; M., iii. 
foil. xlvi. 

2 B. A. B., 992, 993 ; C. F., 77, 9 T., ii. iv. 24 ; A., 1845, pi. c. ; V. G. 
80, 90, 109 ; M. G., ii. iii. 2, 2 a, ii. xi. ; M. A. I., i. ; G. A. V., xcix. ; T. 
vii. 2 b, xlvi. 1 a, xlvii. 2 a; M. Bl., v. 50; V. L., iL xxi. 1. 57; B., 1834, 
xxvii. p. 241 ; V. F., ccclxiv. ccclxxvi. ; C. 

3 B. A. B., 1640, ccxxxviii. ; C. M., D., 279282; M. B., viii. xiiL; St. 
29 ; M. G., ii. xii. 3 a ; G. A. V., xiv. ; B. A. B. 630, 906 ; A. Z., 1852, s. 
Ixxiv. xciv. cxxxviii. cxxxix. cxcvii. ; 233. 

T., iv. xxiii. ; G. A. V., clxxxiii. cii. ; 10 M. G. ii. xxxviii. 

V. C., pi. xxxiv. 2 ; V. L., L xciii. ; G. E. C. F., 81 ; G. A. V., xcvii. cxxxv. ; 

V., xi. D. ; C. D., 265 -70 ; M. B., xiv. M. G., ii. Ii. 2 a ; V. F., ccxxix. ccxxxi. ; 

xviii. ; M. I., Ixxxix. ; M. G., ii. tav. x. M. P., xii. ; A. Z., 1847, s. 24*; B. A.B., 

2 a; G. A. V., cxcii. 613, 617, 638, 653, 655; A. Z., 1852, 

4 G. A. V., cxxxii. s. 234, boar ; M. L, Ixxxv. 

5 Roulez Ac. Brux., vii. No. 8 ; C. D. 12 V. F., xcviiL ccxli. ; M..B., vi. v. ; 
270. A. Z., 1846, s. 287; B. A. B., 622, 631 ; 

6 Mon., ii. xlvi. ; D. M., ii. Ixxv. ; G. M. A. U. M., xxxix. 

A. V., xcv. 13 V. F., cclvii. ; D., liv. Iv. ; C. D., 

-< G. A. V., cxlviii.; A. Z., 1852, s. 283, 293; St., xiv. ; B. A. B., 27577, 
228 ; M. I., xcix 7. 688. 



of Artemis ; J the destruction of the Stymphalian birds, 2 
either with his club or sling ; the capture of the horses 
of Diomed ; 3 the slaying of Busiris, 4 and of Geryon, 5 who 
is represented as three warriors, and sometimes winged, 6 
or with a triple head ; 7 the driving away of his oxen ; 8 and 
the contest with Eryx in Sicily. 9 In the scene with the 
Hesperides, they are represented guarding the tree, 
assisted by the serpent Ladon, 10 which sometimes has a 
double head. On some vases the Hesperides aid in 
gathering the apples, 11 on others Heracles supports the 
orb of heaven while Atlas seeks the tree. 12 The contest 
with Achelous for the hand of Dejanira is by no means an 
unusual subject on the early vases ; the river-god is 
generally represented as a bull with a human head, 13 as 
described by Sophocles, and even in the type of a fish. 14 
The presentation of his horn to Jupiter is also depicted. 15 
Heracles is also often seen crossing the sea in the golden 
cup ; 16 seizing Nereus, who changes himself into a lion, 
panther, and dolphin ; 17 or engaged in a monomachia 18 with 

1 G. A. v., cL c. 

2 G. A. V., cvi., or pigmy and crane ; 
M. P., viii.; C. D., 278 ; T., ii. 18. 

3 T., ii. 19, 30; B., 1843, 59. 

4 M. G., xxxviii. ; V. 405; R. R, 
xxviii.; G. T. C., viii.; C. D., 306; 
M. B., xii. xxxviii. ; M. I., xc. 

6 G. A. V., civ. cvii. cviii. clvii. > 
B. A. B., 1592; M. G., ii. xcviii. 1 a; 
B.,1834, p. 241; A. Z., 1846, p. 342; 
1852, s. 251; D. L., viii.; A., 1834, 
p. 69, pi. c, ; C. F., 85, 86. 

C. D. 294, 299. 

' G. A. V., cv. ; D. L., viii. 

8 V;G., xxvii.; G. A., x. 

9 G. A. V., cvi. 

10 D'H., L 127, iii., 123 ; B., 1844, p. 
89;'B., 119; V. F., ccxxxviL; D'H, 

ii. 115 ; M. B., xii. xxxvii. 

11 G. A. V., xcviii. ; C. D., 307, 308 ; 

A. Z., 1844, B. 319. 

12 I. S. V. T., xvii.; P., xl. ccxlix. 
ccl. ; D'H., iii. 94 ; B. A. N., i. p. 126; 
iv. tav. iv. 

13 G. C., No. 92; G. E. V., xv. xvi. ; 

B. A. B., 661, 669 ; A. Z., 1852, a. 247 ; 

C. F., xix.; Tr. R. Soc. Lit., iii p. 

14 G. A. V., cxv. 

15 T., iv. 35 (25). 

16 G. A. V., cix. ; M. G., ii. Ixxiv. 
1 b. 

tf V. G., xxviii. ; P. ccv. 

18 G. A. V., cxii.; A. Z., 1843, s, 63; 
C. F., 78, 79 ; G. E. V., xv. xvL ; C. D., 
299, 304 ; B. A. N., i. p. 118 ; B. A. B., 


Triton, 1 an event of which no notice is preserved in ancient 
literature. Not less remarkable are, the supposed contest 
with the Molionides, 2 that with the Ligyres, 3 and the 
death of the giant Alcyoneus, 4 in which either Tkanatos, 
Death, or Hypnos, Sleep, intervenes. The insanity of 
the hero and destruction of the family of lole, 5 his 
delivery by Hermes to the Lydian Omphale, 6 the contest 
of the demi-god with Hera at Pylos, 7 and his discharging 
his arrows at the Sun, are also depicted. 8 The descent to 
Hades, 9 the rescue of Alcestis, and of Theseus and 
Pirithous, 10 the dragging of Cerberus to earth, who is 
depicted with two instead of three heads, 11 and the bringing 
of the silver poplar from Hades, 12 are also represented, and 
are followed by the death of Lyctes. 13 The hero is also 
seen carrying Pluto on his shoulders. 14 Among the repre- 
sentations of his other adventures are his arrival in the 
forests of Pelion, his interview with the centaur Pholus, 15 
and subsequent fight with the centaurs Asbolus, Hyla3us, 
and Petrous, 16 in which he appears as protagonist ; the 

697 ; A. Z., 1852, s. 234; M. A. U. M., " B. A. B., 1636; A. Z., 1852, s. 234; 
xi. ; A. Z., 1853, s. 399 ; C. M., 31. M. G., ii. lii. 2 a; B. A. B., 657; A. Z., 

1 G. A. V., cxi. ; V. G., xxxii. ; A. Z., 1853, s. 399 ; G. A. V., xl. xcvii. cxxix. 

1852, s. 230 ; M. G., ii. xliv. 2 a, b. cxxx. cxxxi. ; V. F., cxxxvi. ; C. D., 65, . 

2 D'H., iv. 50; B., 1843, 78; C. D., 310, 311; A. Z.. 1843, taf. xi. s. 177. 
319; T., iv. (ii.) 2. u D. M., ii. Ixxi. ; Zeus Basileus und 

3 B., 1842, p. 29. Hercules Kallinikos, 4to, Berl. 1847, 

4 T., ii. 20, 1. l,xxxi., ii. 10; M. I., c. ; Winckelmannfeste ; V. F., cviii. ; Si, 
Jahn. Sack Gesell., Nov. 1853; A. Z., xlii. 

1853, s. 237 ; A., 1833, p. 308, pi. o. 13 P., xv. xvi. 

4 Bull., 1846, p. 66 ; G. A. V., cxlv. ; 14 D. M., ii. x. ; P., ii. 104. 

C. F., 88. u G. A. V., cxx. ; T. v. (i.) 51. 

6 G. A., xiv.; C. D., 316, 317, B. A. 16 D. M., i. Ixviii; D'H., ii. 124; B., 
B., 1024 ; V. L., ii. vi. 1845, p. 10 ; M. G., ii. xxxix. Ixxii. 1 a; 

7 -G. A.V., cxxvii. ; Bull., 1831, p. 133. G. A. V., cxix. ; G. E. V., xiii. ; St., xli. ; 

8 St., xv. ; B. A. B., 707. A. Z., 1852, s. 228, 230, 247 ; B. A. 

9 G. A. V., cxxviii. B-, 1588. 
1(1 A. Z., 1844, s. 227. 

VOL. I. A A 


insolence of Nessus to Dejanira, and the death of that 
centaur ; x the supposed contest with Lycaon ; 2 the 
capture of the Kerkopes, or thievish elves of Ephesus ; 3 
the boxing -match with Eryx ; his bathing at the hot- 
springs of Sicily or Thermopylae ; 4 his wrestling-match 
with the Lybian Antaeus ; 5 the death of Cacus ; 6 his 
fishing with his club ; 7 his connection with Glenos, 8 
and with Telephus ; 9 and the sacrifice of a bull. 10 

In the Amazonomachia, 11 or battle with the Amazons, 
Heracles, aided by lolaos, appears on the earlier vases as 
the protagonist in the contest. 12 The single combat with 
Cycnus, 13 in which Heracles is assisted by Minerva and 
Cycnus by Ares, while their father Jupiter intervenes 
between the heroes, is by no means uncommon on the 
earlier vases. His Trojan expedition and adventure with 
Hesione are also represented. 14 We likewise find the con- 
test with Apollo for the tripod at Delphi, 15 in which the 
god, aided by Athene and Artemis, bears off the prize, 

1 A. Z., 1843, 192 ; R. Rochette, 9 V. F., clxxi. 

Me"m. d'Arch. Comp., 4to, Paris, 1848, 10 G. T. C., xv. 

pi. viii. ; M. I., xcv. ; G. A. V., cxvii. ; u M. G., ii. Ixvi. 4 c. ; G. A. V., civ.; 

D'H., iv. 24, 31; M. G., ii. xxviii. 2, D.L., xliv.; G. E. V., xvii. ; P., clxiii.; 

2 a; V. G., xxxiii. ; M. G., ii. Ixxxix. 4 a ; M. I., Ixxxvii. ; T., L 12, iv. 26. 

I., s. x.1-13; P., cxvii. ; V. F., cxix.; " T., i. pi. 12; D'H., iv. 50; C. F., 

C. D., 320, 321. See also B. A. B., 628. 83, 84. 

See subject of Poltya. M G. A. V., cxxi. cxxii. cxxiv. ; M. G., 

3 G. A. V., ex. ; B., 1843, p. 65 ; A. ii. x. 1 b ; M. I., c. ; Bull., 1835, p. 164 : 
Z., 1843, s. 140 ; B., 1830, p. 95 ; Due A. Z., 1852, s. 230, 234 . M. A. U. M., 
de Serra di Falco Illustrazione d'un xxxviiL; A. Z., 1853, s. 402; M. M. L, 
Vaso Fittile, 1830,p. 95 ; V. F., clxxiii. ; xliv. 2. 

iii., 88 ; C. D., 315. " G. A. xi. ; B. A. B, 1018. 

4 Millin.Intr.,p.xiv.; G. A. V., cxxxiv. 15 M. G., iL xxxi. 1 a, Ixxxv. 2 a; 

5 A. Z., 1852, s. 234 ; G. A. V., Ixx. G. A. V., liv. cxxvi. ; G. A. V., cxxv. 2, 
cxiii. cxiv. ; V. G., xxxi. 204; B., 1846, 97; Curtius Heraklea, 

6 M. G., ii. xvi. 2 a. 4to, Berlin, 1852 ; M., i. ix. ; C. D., 313, 

7 Christie, Etr. Vases. PI. xii. 314; St., xv. ; B. A. B., 979; C. M., 

8 B., 1832, 104. 33,34; D. L.,iv.v. 


whilst the Pythia beholds the contest from the shrine ; l 
the rape of Auge ; the birth of Telephus and his 
nurture by the hind ; 2 the reconciliation with Apollo ; 3 
Hercules Musagetes * playing the lyre of Apollo, having 
been instructed by Linus, or sounding the double flute in 
company with Hermes and the faithful lolaos. 5 As a 
subordinate, Hercules assists in the Argonautic expedition ; 
performs the sacrifice at the altar of Chryse, 6 in Lemnos ; 
and mixes in the grand and terrible fight of the gods and 
giants. 7 On many vases he is allied with Bacchus and 
the followers of that god. He is often seen reposing with 
the god of wine ; 8 or else, when overcome by excess, 
robbed 9 of his bow and arrows by the Sileni, whom he 
pursues. At other times he has penetrated to the regions 
of the Hyperboreans, 10 and brings back the golden olive. 
We also find depicted his marriage with lole ; n his inter- 
view with Dejanira, 12 who holds up the young Hyllus ; 13 the 
delivery of the poisoned tunic by Lichas ; u and the immo- 
lation of the hero upon the burning pyre of (Eta, 15 the 
satyrs looking on, while the immortal portion of the demi- 
god ascends to heaven in the car of Jove, 16 driven either 
by his favourite Pallas Athene, or by Nike. On the oldest 

1 A. Z., 1852, s. 240; M. I., Ixxxviii. ; T., iii. 37 ; V. G., xxxv.; B. A. B., 
V. G., xxx. ; B. A. B., 1630, 659 ; A. Z., 1590. 

1852, s. 247; T., v. (i.) 52, 53 ; A. Z., 10 M. G., ii. xiii. 1 a, 1 ; A. Z., 1853, s. 

1852, s. 229, 234 ; C. F. 88. 400. 

2 D'H., iv. xxiv. " B. A. B., 1016. 

3 V. D. C., xi. 12 A. Z., 1848, s. 223. 

4 M. G., ii. xl. 1 a ; G. A. V., Ixviii. 13 G. A, V., cxvi. 

8 ; V. L., ii. vii.; D'H., iii. 31; V. F., " B., 1845, p. 37 ; A. Z., 1852, s. 238. 

ccxc. ; G. T. C., xv. ; A. Z., 1852, s. 234. 15 M., iv. xli. ; B., 1846, 100 ; G. A. V., 

5 M., iv. xi. ; V. L., ii. xiii. xxxi. cc. p. 52, n. 97 ; V. L., xxxiv. ; 

6 V. L., L xxiii. D'H., iv. 59 ; A. Z., 1842, s. 248. 

7 G. A. V., Ixxxiv. ; M., iii. 1, 1 a. 16 D'H., iii. 52. 

8 G. A. V., Iix.-lx., Ixix.-lxx. 

A A 2 



vases he is accompanied in his ascent by Apollo, Dionysos, 
and Hermes, 1 and is generally introduced into Olympus 2 
in a quadriga. This is followed by the marriage of 
Heracles and Athene, 3 or Hebe, 4 and the repose of 
the demigod with his mother Alcmena in Elysium. 5 
Zeus, Athene, and Heracles, 6 form another scene in 

Heracles also appears in scenes of an import difficult to 
interpret. Thus he is seen standing with his protectors 
Hermes and Athene, 7 or with Zeus, 8 holding a bow and 
arrows ; 9 seated on a folding stool, ocladias, under a tree, 10 
or reposing on the ground in presence of Athene, and 
having behind him a vine ; n crowned by NikeV 2 or 
Hermes; 13 receiving a libation from Athene, 14 and attending 
on her chariot ; 15 performing his supposed expiation ; 16 
playing on the lyre, 17 or on the flute ; 18 present amidst 
warriors ; 19 carrying Dionysos ; 20 in a contest with Posei- 
don ; 21 received by Poltys and Erectheus ; 22 and with 

1 M. G., ii. li. 1 b ; G. A. V., cxi. cxxxvi. 
cxxxvii. cxxxix. cxli. ; D. M., iii. xviii.; 
V. G., xxxvi. ; M. G., Ixxxiv. 2 a ; B., 
1845, p. 21; M. G., ii. vii. xviii.; B., 
1844, p. 37 ; C. D., 32732. 

2 G. A. V., cxxviii. cxliii cxlvi. vii. ; 
V. D. C., xxv. ; C. M., 36, 37 ; B., 1844, 
p. 37 ; V. F., ccviii. ccx.-xl-xxii. 
ccxvii. ccxxv. 

3 M. G., ii. xxxvii. liv. 2 a ; G. A. V., 

4 G. A. V., cxxxv. ; V. L., ii. xi. ; P., 

5 G. A., xv. ; B. A. B., 695, 706 ; A. 
Z., 1853, s.402; M. L, Ixxxix. 

6 G. A. V., cxliii. 

' T., L 22, ii. 22; G. A. V., cxli.; 
L S., v. T., xxxv. ; A. Z., 1847, s. 24* ; 
1848, s. 220 ; A. Z., 1852, s. 234, 238. 

8 G. A. V., cxliii. 

9 G. A. V., cliii. 

10 T., iv. (ii.) 22; G. A. V. cxxxiii.; 
A. Z., 1852, s. 234. 

11 B., 1837, p. 53; A., 1834, p. 334; 
G. C., c. ; G. A. V., cxlii. 

12 V. F., Ixi. Ixii. 

13 D. M., iii xlL ; G. C., c. ; L S., 
v.; T., xxxviii.; D'H.,iii. 49; T., ii.21. 

14 Christie PI., xv.; D'H. iii. 49. 

15 C. M. 35; M. G.,ii.ix. 

16 P., cclxxvii. 

V B.A.B.,665; M.I.,xcix.; V.L.,ii.viL 

18 R, 1838, p. 10; M., iv. xi.; V. L., 
ii. xxii. 

19 A. Z., 1846, p. 340 ; V. L., i. xxiv. 

20 P., civ. 

21 C. C., 95. 

22 A. Z., 1846, taf. xxxix., s. 233; 
A. Z., 1853, s. 401. 


Dionysos, Athene, Ares, and Hermes. 1 His decision 
between Virtue and Pleasure, 2 is also supposed to be 
represented. The bust only of the god is sometimes 
seen ; 3 and he is also parodied as a pigmy destroying 
the cranes. 4 He appears in certain scenes as a sub- 
ordinate, in connection with Hermes and Athene, 5 or 
Nike, 6 with Creon, Ismene, Antigone, and Hsemon ; 7 
in an interview with Silenos, 8 or intermingled with 
Bacchantes, 9 accosted by Zeus, 10 and in a symposium with 
Dionysos. 11 

The other myths of the heroic cycle have been classed 
by Miiller according to their local origin, and of these the 
Attic are the first in importance, and the most remarkable 
for their number. Of legends, peculiarly ATHENIAN, the 
adventures of the daughters of Cecrops, such as Herse, 
belong to the myth of Hermes ; the birth of Ericthonius 
to that of Athene ; the rape of Oreithyia by Boreas, to that 
of the Winds. Tereus and Procne occur on very few vases, 
if at all ; and the amour of ^Ethra and Poseidon has been 
mentioned when speaking of that deity. But the adven- 
tures of Theseus, especially the death of the Minotaur, are 
pourtrayed at all epochs of the art, more especially on 
vases of the finest workmanship, apparently the produce 
of the Athenian potteries, and were possibly copied from 
some work of high renown. 

These exploits formed the argument of a cycle of adven- 

1 B. A. B., 676. 7 B., 1836, p. 120. 

2 A., 1832, pi. F. p. 379. 8 B. A. B., 1590. 

3 M. G., ii. Ixvi. 3 a. 9 C. C., 101. 

4 D. M., i. Ixiii. ; T., ii. xviii. 10 B. A. B., 1028. 

5 G. T. C., viii. B. A. B., 676 ; C. Bt., p. 28. For 
C. D., 322 ; A. Z., 1852, ss. 234, 238. many subjects, cf. C. C., pp. 36-57. 


ture, called the THESEIS, modelled upon the Heracleis. 
The whole cycle is not represented, but there is enough 
to show the high antiquity of many portions of the mythos ; 
which, however, are also found mixed up with other 
Athenian traditions of the adventures of Hermes and 
Herse, of Boreas and Oreithyia, of Aurora and Cephalus, 
and of the birth of Ericthonius. The labours of the 
hero often form a series of decorations for cups, which 
follows the order of his march through the isthmus to 
Athens. The first is the subject of jEgeus consulting 
the oracle of Themis. 1 Theseus is then represented 
discovering the sword and belt ; 2 bending the pine-tree, 
and destroying Sinis the pine -bender. 3 Next are de- 
picted his amour with the daughters of Sinis, 4 the 
destruction of the sow or boar of Cromyon, 5 and the 
interference of the Nymph Ph^a ; the wrestling-match 
with Cercyon ; 6 the destruction of the robber Polyphe- 
mon of Damastes, called Procrustes,'' or " the stretcher," 
on his own bed, whom he slays with a pelekys; the 
contest with Sciron, 8 whom he hurls down the rugged 
rocks to the gigantic tortoise at their feet ; the amour 
of the demigod with the daughter of Sciron ; the recog- 
nition of Theseus by the aged Jllgeus 9 and Poseidon; 10 
the capture of the bull of Marathon ; n the departure of 
Theseus to destroy the Minotaur, 12 whom on one vase 

1 Gerhard, Das Orakel der Themis, 6 C. D., 348 ; G. A. V., ccxxxiv. 
4to, Berlin, 1846. ^ V. G., ix. x. ; G. A. V., ccxxxiv. 

2 Bull., 1846, 106. 8 G. A. V., cxxiv. ; M., iii. xlvii. ; P., 

3 G. A. V., clix. ccxxxii. ccxxxiii. ; V. ccxlviii ; T. v. (i), 59. 
F., xlix. cxi; A. Z., 1846, s. 288 ; B. A. M G., ii. Iv. 1 a. 

B., 807 ; T., L 6, it 13. 10 M., i. Iii. ; D. L., xliii. 

4 C. D., 347. V. F., liv. ; C. D., 336. 

5 M. G., ii. xii. 1 a ; G. A. V., clxii. 12 M. G., ii. Ixxxii. 2 a; G. A. V., clxi. 
ccxxxii. ccxxxiv. ; C. C., Ill; C.D., 348. 


Pasiphae is seen nursing, 1 and whom he slays with the aid of 
Ariadne ; 2 his marriage with Ariadne at Delos, 3 and her 
abandonment ; his friendship with Pirithous ; 4 the grand 
Centauromachia at the nuptials of Pirithous, in which the 
Lapiths are aided by Hercules; 5 the death of Ca3neus; 6 the 
expedition to Trrezene to carry off Helen, or Corone ; 7 the 
invasion of Athens by the Scythes, with the Amazons, 
Deinomache, and Philonoe, 8 and victory of the Athe- 
nians ; 9 the hero attacking Hippolyte and Deinomache ; 10 
his entrance into Themiscyra ; n the death of Antiope 
on her abduction by the two friends ; 12 their descent to 
Hades to carry off Proserpine ; their capture by the 
Furies ; 13 and the story of Hippolytus. 14 

Belonging to Attic myths are the rape of CEPHALUS, who 
is borne off by Heos, 15 in presence of Callimachus, 16 and 
sometimes has at his side the dog Lailaps ; 17 the death 
of Procris, 18 and the fate of PnocNE. 19 An often repeated 

1 A. Z., 1847, s. 9* ; B., 1847, 121. C. C., 115; G. A., 4 ; A. Z., s. 235; M. 

* V. L., i. xxx. ; V. F., ccxcvi.-ccxcvii. ; A. U. M., ix. 

C. D., 333, 335, 337, 338, 339, 340 ; T. G. A. V., clxiii. clxiv. clxv. ; M. P., 

v. (i.) 57, 58 ; M. G., ii. viii. 1 b, ix. 1 a.; xxxv. xxxvi. ; M. G., ii. xxiv. 2 a. 

G. E. V., xxiii. ; G. A.V., clxi. ccxxv. ; C. 1J V. F., cccxx. ; A., 1833. ; PL, a. 

C.,pp. 112114; M. G., ii. xlvii. la; 13 C. M., 51; Cf. for many vases of 

Migliarini, Ace. Fior. Mem. del. 4to Fir. the Theseid, C. C., 110-112 ; B. A. N., 

1839, tav. iii. ; D'H., iii. 86 ; D. L., xiii. ; iii. 75 ; A. Z., 1844, taf. xv. 

B. A. B., 674, 688; 1643, c. Bt. 42, " A. Z., 1848, 245 F. ; A. Z., 1853,8.2 ; 
no . 42 44; A. Z., 1852, ss. 237, 238; M., iii. xlvii.; M. G., ii. Ixviii. 1; 

C. M., 42, 44 ; C. F., 81-84 ; T., L 25. G. A. V., clviii. clx. ; V. G., xii. xiii. ; 

3 G. E. V., vi. ; M., iv. Ivi. Ivii. Nouv. Ann., 1836, 139 ; M., i. Hi. liii. ; A. 

4 B., 1845, 202 ; 1850, 16. Z., 1852, taf. 1. 

5 V. L., i. xxv. xxvi. xxvii. ; C. D., ls G. A. V., s. 39, n. 33. 

342, 345, 346 ; C. M., 43. 16 B. A. N., i. tav. i. ; T., iv. 12. 

e G. A. V., clxvii. ; D. L., x. ; A. Z., ? C. F., 14 ; B. A. K, 1844, tav. i. 5; 

1852, s. 250; T., iv., 47. V. D. C., xiv.; R. R., xlii.-xliv. A ; A. 

~i G. A. V., clxviii. ; C. C., 110; M. Z., 1852, s. 340. 

A. U. M. xxx. 18 D. H., ii. 24, 126 ; M. A. U. M., xiv. ; 

8 M. G., ii. xx. 2 a ; G. A. V., clxvi. D. L., xl. 

9 M. P., xxxv. 19 B. A. N., 1845, tav. i., No. 5. 

10 Bull., 1833, p. 151; M., i. Iv.J 


subject is BOREAS bearing off Oreithyia from the altar of 
Athene, under the olive in the Erectheum, while Herse and 
Pandrosos stand astonished. 1 The birth of ERICTHONITJS ; 2 
the water-drawing at the fountain of CALLIRHOE ; 3 ION 
and CREUSA,* and PANDORA, S occur less frequently. 


The vases of later style present a few adventures of the 
Boeotian hero Cadmus, forming the CADMEID. The hero is 
represented killing the dragon of Ares, which guarded the 
fountain of Dirce, in the presence of Harmonia, Aphrodite, 
and satyrs ; 6 or of Poseidon, Demeter, Apollo, Artemis, 
Athene, Nike, Ismene, and Thebe. Athene delivers to 
Cadmus the stone with which he killed the dragon. 7 The 
hero is also seen at the games of Pentheus. 

The adventures of SEMELE belong to the cycle of 

ORION is found on only one vase. 8 

The story of (EDIPUS, commencing with Laius bearing 
off Chrysippus, 9 is found on some vases of the oldest style, 
in which (Edipus is seen discovered by the herdsman 
Euphorbus, 10 and solving the enigma of the Sphinx, 11 

1 G. A. V., clii. 1 ; D. M., ii. v. ; R. R., 6 Millin. Mon. Ant. In., ii. xxvii. ; D. 
xliv. A; A. Z., 1852, s. 240; B. A. B., M., ii. vii.; Bull., 1843, 62; Bull., 1840, 
1602 ; C. C., 1068; V. P., cxxi.; G. E., p. 49; R. R., iv.; V. F., ccxxxix.; G. 
V., xxx. V., c. 

2 M., iii. xxx ; G. A. V., cli. 7 Bull., 1840, pp. 49, 54 ; Bull. 1. c. 

3 R. V., 31, 32 : n. 206 ; V. F., xliii. 127 ; B., 1841, pp. 177, 178 ; A, Z., 1843, 
xliv. cxxii. s. 26. 

4 A. Z., 1852, s. 401, taf. xxvii. ; L. D., c. D., 260. 

iii- xliv. 9 Buii.^ 1340, p. 188; B. A. B., 1010. 

5 Gerhard, Festgedanke an Winckel- 10 Mon., ii. xiv. 

mann, 4to. Berl. 1841 ; C. M. 9 ; L. D., " T., ii. 24, iii. 34; R. V., p. 48, no. 
iii. xliii. xlv. 424 ; M. G., ii. (D. L., xvii.) Ixxx., 1-6 ; 


by stabbing the monster ; * while, upon the latest of all, 
the tragic arguments of Euripides and Sophocles occur, 
such as (Edipus at Colonus; 2 perhaps Eteocles and Poly- 
nices ; 3 his tomb ; the expedition of the Seven against 
Thebes, 4 and the scene with Axiocersa and Manto. 5 

Several subjects are derived from the THEBAIS, and 
principally from the earlier incidents : such as the depar- 
ture of Amphiaraus in his chariot, drawn by the horses 
Callopa 6 and Calliphora, and with his charioteer Baton ; 
his farewell to his wife Eriphyle, 7 the young Adrastus, and 
Alcma3on, 8 a scene which is often repeated ; 9 or else he is 
represented with Tydeus, Adrastus, Deianira, 10 and Eri- 
phyle; 11 especially in the scene in which the last is bribed 
with the necklace. 12 There are also the quarrel of Am- 
phiaraus and Adrastus ; 13 an interview between Antigone 
and Ismene ; 14 the death of Eriphyle ; l5 the meeting of Ad- 
metusand Alcestis; 16 and a figure, supposed to be Dirce. 17 

Another Theban legend, which sometimes appears on 
vases, is the death of Pentheus by the hands of his 
mother. 18 The story of Action 19 must also be regarded 

Bull., 1844, p. 132; Mus.Blac.xii.; ' M., iii. liv. 

C. D., 364, 367; M. M. L, xl/ 10 M. G., ii. xxxiv., 2 a; Bull., 1844, 

1 St., xxxvii. p. 35 ; G. A. V., xii. ccviii. ; M., iii. liv. 

2 A. Z., 1853, s. 400 ; V. G., xxiii. Panofka, Hyp. Rom. Stud. i. s. 186. 

3 G. A., vi. ; St., xvi; B. A. B., 860 ; D'H., ii. 71. 

C. C., 125. 13 C. D., 367 ; T., i. 23. 

4 E. R., xxxv.; P., cclxxix., cclxxx.; 14 B. A. N., iv. tav. vii. xxxiL ; A. Z., 
M. A. L, x. 1845, xxvii. 49. 

5 V. F., cccxv. 1& T., i. 21. 

6 A. Z. 16 M., iii. xl. 

" Annali, 1839, 261, 1843, 206-218. V L. D., iii. Ixix. 

8 Scotti. Illustr. d'un vase Italo- 18 M., i. vi. 

Grace, d. M. Arc. di Taranto, 8vo, 19 V. L., i. ii. xi. ; M., ii. viii ; G. A., 

Napoli. 1811 ; V. G., xx. xxi.; V. F.. vi. ; B. A. B., 1010. 
ccxix. ccxx. 


as Theban. No subjects from the Epigoniad are 

Of the local myths of Helle or Theophane, and the fall 
of Phrixos, that part only is seen which represents Helle 
crossing the sea ; l for what was supposed to be the sacri- 
fice of the ram, 2 appears now to be more probably the 
sacrifice made by (Enomaos previous to his fatal race with 

Of the traditions assigned to northern Greece, the 
Phera3an legend of Alcestis is part of the mythos of the 
Heracleid. One vase only, and that of Etruscan style, 
represents the parting of Admetus and Alcestis. 3 Of the 
legends of Phthiotis, the Achilleid is only an episode of the 
Troica, and so closely connected with those legends, that it 
is preferable to refer it to that head. Of the Aetolian 
traditions, the hunt of the Calydonian boar is described 

The ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION, the great naval epos of 
Greece, which had formed the subject of the strains of 
Orpheus, and of which there is so detailed an account 
in the dry poem of Apollonius Rhodius, occurs only on 
vases of a late age and style, the incidents having 
apparently been derived from such parts of the subject as 
had been dramatised. Hence they are limited to the later 
adventures, such as Jason trying his lance ; Tiphys 
building the Argo ; 4 the sacrifice of Lemnos ; 5 the land- 

1 T., iiL 2, L 1, xxvi ; G. E. V. A. ; * V. G., Ii. ; G. A. V., civ. ; V. G., 
B. A. B., 996. 1.; G. A. V., cliv.; L. D., ii. cv. cvi. cvii. 

2 R. R., xxxiv. xxxv. ; G. A., 6. cviii. ; A. Z., 1845, s. 161, taf. xxxv. 

3 Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of xxxvi.,8. 178 ; D. M., ii. viii.; A. Z., 1846, 
Etruria, Title-page. tat xliv. ; M. A. U. M., xxii. ; M. I., 

< C. D., 875 ; L. D., xxxvii. xcvii. ; C. M., 30 ; T., i. 27. 


ing of the Argonauts on the coast of Mysia ; l Philoctetes 
bitten by the serpent ; 2 the loss of Hylas ; 3 the victory of 
Pollux over Amycus ; the chasing of the Harpies from the 
tables of Phineus 4 by the Boreads ; Jason charming the 
serpent, 5 and swallowed by it ; 6 the Dioscuri, aided by the 
enchantments of Medea, destroying the Cretan giant 
Talos ; 7 Jason's marriage with Medea; 8 the return to the 
court of Pelias with the golden fleece ; 9 the boiling of 
the ram in the presence of Pelias and his daughters ; 10 
the forcible dragging of old Pelias to the caldron ; the 
renewal of Jason's n youth. The death of the children of 
Medea, and her escape in the chariot of winged dragons ; 
with all the tragic incidents which befel the family of 
Creon, are found as the arguments of a CREONTEiA. 12 
The most important and most frequently repeated legend 
is the great hunt of the CALYDONIAN BOAR, which, when 
depicted in its fullest form, has the names of all the 
hunters and dogs, 13 or with that of persons not recorded. 14 
The preparation for the hunt ; 15 the destruction of the 

1 V. F., cccxliv. ; D'H., iv., 41. 1846, taf. xliv. 

z A. Z., 1846, s. 285. 8 A. Z., 1844, s. 256. 

3 B., 1831, 5. 9 V. G., pi. vii. 

4 M., iii. xlix. ; St., xvi. xxxviii. ; 10 M.G., ii. Ixxxiii. 1 a, 1 b; G. A. V., 
M. A. U. M., xv.; M. L, Ixxxii. xcix. civil. 3, 4 ; C. C., 124; A. Z., 1846, s. 

5 V. G., vi. ; M., v. xii. ; D'H., i. 127, 370 ; A. Z., 1846, taf. xl. s. 249. 

128, 129 ; A. Z., 1844, s. 233, attaching " Classical Museum, ii. p. 417 ; A. Z., 

it with Hercules; An., 1848, p. 107; 1846. s. 287. 

M. V., ix.; I., e. v. T., xiL T., xvi. ; 12 A. Z., 1847, taf. iii. s. 3; 1843, taf. 

T., xviii. ; Bull, 1835, p. 183 ; A., 1849, xxviii. s. 49, 50. 

pi. i. ; G. A., x. ; C. D., 256, 257 ; 13 M. G., ii. xc,; V. L., xcii.; M., iii. 

G. A. V., ccxxxv. xliv. ; M., iv. lax. ; G. E. V., ix. ; B. A. 

6 M. G., ii. Ixxxvi. 1 b ; Mon. ii. B., 1022. 

xxxv. ; Genarelli, 1. c. mon. prim. 4to, " D'H., i. 22-24, 91-93 ; M., iii. xliv. 

Rom. 1843, 87; M., i. xxxv. x.; B., 3; L, s. v. ; T., Ivi.-lix. ; G. A.,ix. A., 

1846, p. 87. 2, 5. 

l B. A. N., iii. tav. ii. vi. ; A. Z., M. P., xi. ; A. Z., 1853, s. 402. 


animal ; ' and the carrying of it home ; 2 Peleus 
and Atalanta 3 wrestling for the skin ; Mopsos, Cly tios, 
and other heroes, acting as umpires at the funeral 
rites of Pelias, after the sacrifice of the boar ; 4 the 
ill-starred Meleager and Atalanta, 5 and her supposed 
change into a lioness, 6 are occasionally represented on the 

Of the traditions assigned to Cephallenia that of the epo- 
nymous hero Kephalos, an Attic rather than a Cephallenian 
tradition, is part of the story of Heos, or the Morn ; whilst 
of the Thracian legends that of Lycurgus destroying his 
family, in consequence of insanity inflicted by Dionysos, 
belongs to the arguments of the tragedians, or to the 
adventures of Dionysos. 7 The destruction of Orpheus by 
the Thracian women, 8 and his descent to Hades to 
rescue Eurydice, 9 are a part of the Argonautica ; under 
which will also be found the Corinthian legends of 
Medea. Thamyris, who belongs to another Thracian 
story, is seen playing on the lyre in the company of the 
Muses. 10 

The vase painters have rarely selected the adventures 
of the hero BELLEROPHON, though he was so intimately 
connected with Corinth, the site of the oldest potteries. 
Bellerophon, aided by his son Pisander, 11 destroys the 

1 M. G., ii. xvii. ; Millin., Intr., p. xiv.; 6 B. A. N., iv. tav. iii. 

M. G.,ii. xxix.; G. A. V. xxxv.; M. M. I., < M. B., xiL xxix. ; M., v. xxiii., 

xlii. iv. xvi. ; V. R, Iv.; A. Z., 1846, 253. 

- D. M., i. xviil 8 M. I., v. ; C. D., 258 ; M. G., ii. lx.; 

3 G. A. V., clxxvii.; A. Z., 1852, B. G. A. V., clvi.; B., 1846, 86. 
235 ; M. M. I., xlu V. M., 5. 

4 V. G., clviii. ; Bull., 1843, p. 68, 10 M. G., ii xiii., 2 a. ; M., ii. xxiii. 
1837, pp. 130, 213; Schol. Apollon. T., i. 1,2, 204; M., ii. 1.; C. D., 
Rhod. iii. 9, 2; A. Z., 1853, a. 401. 246, 250. 

5 I., 1, xiii. ; D'H., iv. 128 ; C. D., 252. 


chimeera. On many vases, indeed, the winged Pegasus is 
found, and sometimes more than one ; but on the oldest 
ones, Chimsera with a club, like Hercules ; if, indeed, these 
figures do not represent Heracles and lolaus destroying 
the monster according to another version of the legend. 
On later vases Bellerophon is aided in the same enter- 
prise by the Lycians. 1 The most usual scenes are the 
delivery of the letter to lobates, 2 the spearing of the 
Chimera 3 by Bellerophon mounted upon Pegasus, and 
the death of the perfidious Alphesibcea, 4 who falls from 
the winged steed. In one case he kills a stag, 5 at the 
marriage with Philonoe. 6 

Few Argive representations, except that of the 
Danaids in the under- world, and the rare tradition 
of the mad Preetids 7 at the altar of Artemis, are 
given on vases. To Delphic traditions, besides re- 
presentations of the local deities, must be assigned 
the death of Archemoros, and the origin of the Nemean 
games. 8 The principal incidents of the PERSEID are, 
the golden shower, 9 Acrisius measuring the chest for 
Danae ; 10 Danae with her son opening the chest on their 
arrival at Seriphus; 11 Perseus receiving the winged helmet, 
the harpe, and cibisis from Minerva, 12 or the Naiads ; 13 his 
flight through the air and rencontre with the swan-shaped 

1 G. A., viii. s y p ^ ccc ] xx i. 

2 B., 1851, p. 171 ; M., iv. xxi.; A., 9 A. Z., 1846, s. 285. 

1851, p. 136. 10 A. Z., 1846, B. 286 ; A., 1847, PI. M. 

3 T., i. 1 ; V. F., Ivii. M. B., ii. ( xxx. ; A. Z., 1847, B. 

4 V. F., i. 285. 

5 M. G., ii. xxix. 3 a; B. A. B., 1022., l2 V. F., ccclxvi. ; C. D., 242; C. F., 
630, 614. 95. 

6 B. A. B., 102. 13 M. G., ii. xcii. 

7 V. G., lii. 


GraiaB ; l the death of Medusa, 2 and Pegasus or Chrysaor 3 
bursting out of her neck ; the flight of the other Gorgons 
to Neptune 4 to inform him of the destruction of Medusa ; 
Perseus showing the Gorgon's head to the Satyrs ; 5 his 
arrival at the court of Cepheus ; 6 the rescue of Andro- 
meda, 7 and the return of the hero to Seriphus, and 
destruction of Polydectes. 8 Sometimes the hero's bust 
alone is seen. 9 The Perseid appears as episodical to many 
poems, 10 as the shield of Hercules, the Megalse Ecese, and 
the Theogony. The defeat of the army of Bacchus con- 
nects it with the Dionysiaca. 11 Athene is also represented 
showing Perseus the head of the Gorgon 12 at the Deikterion 
of Samos. 

Of the Pisan or Olympian legends the most 
often represented, but only on the later vases, is the 
PELOPEID, which was so closely interwoven with the 
fate of the family of Agamemnon. Only a few of 
the leading incidents are selected ; such as the boiling 
of the youthful Pelops ; 13 Poseidon bringing Pelops 14 his 
horses ; 15 the hero swearing with (Enomaos at the 
altar of the Zeus of Olympia to the conditions of the 

1 Panofka, Perseus und die Graiae, s M. G., ii. xcii. ; L V. S., v. T., xliii. 
Abhandl. K. Ak. d. Berlin, 4to, 1848, 6 B. M., 801. 

s. 2, 11; M. M. L, xxxvi.; C. D., ? D.M., ii. iiLiv.; R.R.xli.; C. D., 

243. 244, 245; A. Z., 1848, s. 222, 246. 

2 G. A. V., ccxvi ; St. xxxix. ; Mus. 8 Mus. Borb., v. 1L 
Blac., x. xi. xii ; B. A. B., 872 ; 1033; 9 L. D., iii. Ixxii. 
A., 1851/ p. 167, PL N. 0. ; A., 1831, 10 Mus. Blac., xxvi 
p. 154; M. M. L, xliv. 3; V. D. C., V. G., PI. iii. 
xxviiL M A. 1850, p. 53, PI. A. 

3 G. A. V., Ixxxix. is G. A. V., clxxxi. 

4 G. A. V., Ixxxviii. ; M. G., ii. IxvL 14 A. Z., 1845, s. 62 ; A. Z., 1846, B. 
4 b, xxix. 4 a. ; P., ocxcvii. ; D'H., 252. 

iv. 126 ; V. F., Ixxi. ; D. M., ii. iii. K B. A. N., v. p. 57. 


contest ; l the fatal race, and the perfidy and death of 
Myrtilus ; 2 Aphrodite introducing Hippodameia after 
the victory ; and Pelops receiving his title of 
Plexippus. 3 

The Arcadian story of Hippomenes and Atalanta, and 
their metamorphosis into lions is depicted on a single vase. 4 

To the traditions of Amycla3 are to be referred the 
DIOSCUEI, who are sometimes represented on vases, 
although more rarely than might be expected. The 
incidents connected with them are Leda and the swan ; 5 
the departure of Castor ; 6 the brothers with Helen ; 7 the 
twin brothers mounted, 8 or conversing with Helen ; 9 the 
hunt of the Calydonian boar; the rape of the Leucippides; 10 
the quarrel with the Boreads; 11 the death of Castor 12 and of 
Idas, 13 and Nike (or Victory) crowning Pollux after the 
fight with Bebrycus. 14 Sometimes the brothers are seen 
mounted and alone, 15 or as stars led by Heos, or the rosy- 
fingered dawn. They are also represented at Delphi. 16 

1 A., xx. p. Ill, G. ; I. S., V. T., 8 M. G., ii. viii. a, b; C. C., 120; 
xv.; A. Z., 1846, B. 253; A. Z., 1848, A. Z., 1851, s. 34; C. Bl. f p. 44, 
s. 222; A. Z., 1852, s. 164; 1853, taf. No. 45; T., iv. 52; T., v. (L), 71, 
liii.-lv. ; A., 1840, PI. N. 0., p. 173. 81. 

2 B., 1835, p. 198; M., iv. xxx.; 9 V. F., clxxv.; A., 1832, PL G. 

M., v. xxii. 10 v . D. C., i. ; B., 1844, p. 86 ; L S. 

3 A., xxi. p. 145 B. V. T., xi. xiiL; P., cclxxxii. cclxxxiii. ; 

4 B. A. N., iv. t. iii. D'H., i. 130; A. Z., 1845, s. 29. 

5 M. G., ii. xxix. ; V. F., ccxli. ; C. G. A. V., ccxx. 

D., 369-373; A. Z., 1847, s. 19 *; T. 12 G. A. V., cxciv.; Mus. Blac. xxx.; 

iii. 22. G. E. V., D. 

6 M. G., ii. liii., 1 b ; V. G., liii. ; " C. D., 25. 

V. L., i. xxviiL ; M. ii. xxii. ; Mus. M I. S. V. T., xxxii. 

Blac., xxxi. ; St. xi. ; C. F., 96 ; V. F., 15 Mus. Blac., viii. xvi. xxviii. ; V. F., 

ccxxi. ; P., cix. ; D'H., iv. 43; C. F., ccxxviii. 

121 ; C. D., 120; A. Z., 1847, s. 24 *; ' 16 A., 1848 K. ; if not, Orestes and 

A. Z., 1849, 74. Pylades at Delphi; A. Z., 1853, s. 129, 

1 V. L., i. lix. ; I. M., iii. s. v. T., xli. ; taf. lix. 
C. M., 45 ; T., v. (1) 56. 


To the legends of Northern Greece belongs the fight 
with the Centaurs, and it is treated in two different 
manners on the vases. In the older CENTAUROMACHIA 
Hercules l appears as protagonist, and the whole story 
must probably be referred to the interview with 
Pholus. On the later vases the Centauromachia is con- 
nected with the Theseid, as in the battle with the 
Lapithse at the nuptials of Peirithous. It is generally 
impossible to identify all the scenes ; the one most 
often repeated is the death of Ca3neus, 2 by Oreios and 
Lasbolos. 3 Sometimes the Centaurs hurl pines or rocks. 4 
Theseus is frequently distinguishable in the melee, 5 
and isolated scenes, such as the rape of women, often 
occur. 6 

Either to the same locality, or to Asiatic traditions, must 
be referred the AMAZONOMACHIA, in which, upon the oldest 
vases, Hercules, lolaos, and Telamon appear as prota- 
gonists. On the later vases, however, the Amazons are 
connected with the Theseid ; their arming is represented, 
and their great irruption into Attica. The melee with 
the Greeks, 7 and detached incidents 8 are often depicted, 

1 V. R, Ixxix. ; P., xi. xii. ; cclii. ; 7 V. G.,xxxvii. B. A. B., 1023, 1025; 
C. D., 360, 363; A. Z., 1847, 18, *; Q., 2045; Annali, iv. 258; Bull, 843, 
C. F., 97, 98. 55; A. Z., 1843, s. 138; V. L., 

2 M. G., ii. Ixxii. 1 b., Ixxxv. 1 a ; xviii. xx. xcv. ; V. I. ii. xvii. ; B. A. N., 
V. G., viii. ; M. G., ii. xxxix. 2 a. ; V. F., i. 106 ; C. C., 116-17; C. D., 25, Cf. 393- 
xci.-xcii. ; G. A., ix. ; A., 2 ; D'H., iii. 81 ; 1946 ; I. S., V. T., xl. ; A. Z., 1847, s. 
T.,i.ll, 13; B. A. N., iii. p. 118; v. 24; 97, 19*; T. ii. 1, 8, 10; B. A. B., 
B. A. B., 1023, 588. 1006-1008 ; St., xxxviii. ; V. F., cxxviii.- 

3 V. D. C., xxxv., PI. xl. ix.; D'H., ii. 65; M., ii. xxx.-xxxi. ; 
< M. G., ii. Ixxxii. 2, b; M. G., it G. A., 3, 4; C. F., 91, 94 ; T., v. (i.) 60, 

xxv. 1, 1 a.; Bottiger, L 3; V. F., cxv. 61, 64, 65, 66-7-8. 

cxvl ; B. A. B., 1629. P., clxvii. ; M. G., ii. Ixix. 1 a, c, 

* V. F., clxxii. 2 a, 3^ Ixxiv. 2 b; D. L., xliii.; C. D., 

6 P., cxcix. 349-363; B. A. B., 678, 690, 163; A. 


nor is it possible to distinguish these subjects from the 
appearance of the Amazons in the post-Homeric part of the 
Trojan war. They bear the names of Scythians and 
Cimmerians. 1 On one vase Deinomachos contends with 
Eumache. 2 In one case Nestor takes part. 3 Sometimes 
the Amazons are depicted in conjunction with Sirens, 4 or 
fighting with gryphons, 5 in detached scenes, 6 like the 
combats of the Gryphons and Arimaspi. 7 

To the Isles belong the legends of the MINOTAUR of 
Crete, the sacrifice by Minos of the Cretan bull, 8 Daedalus 
and Icarus, 9 Pandrosos and the golden dog Lselaps, 10 
Minos, Procris and Pasiphae, 11 Cephalus and Procris, 12 and 
Talos, and the Sicilian Dii Palici. 13 

From the HYPERBOREAN legends are found the subjects 
of Hera consulting Prometheus; 14 Prometheus bound to 
one of the Pillars of Hercules, or to the Caucasus ; 15 
and Epimetheus receiving Pandora. 16 

To PHRYGIA are to be referred the all-renowned inter- 
view of the philosophic Silenus and the gold-seeking 
Midas ; 17 the sacrifice of the ram 18 of Helle ; the scene with 

Z., 1852, s. 233-248 ; M. I., xci. c. 4 ; B. 1843-80 ; V. F., ccclxxi. ; M. B., 

G. A. V., cii.; A. Z., 1848, s. 220; St., xiii. Iviii. 

xi.; B. A. B., 870; M. A. U. M., xix. w C. D., 262. 

xxxviii. 11 C. M., 46. 

1 A. Z., 1847, 19*. 12 Di L. xl. 

2 C. M., 41. is C. C., p. 35, 72 ; A., p. 395 ; A., 

3 C. C., p. 92, no. 145. 1830, 1832, ccliv. p. 245. 

4 Mus. Borb., x. Ixiii. ; A. Z., 1853, u V. xxxv. 

s. 402 ; M. G., ii. xxiv. 32 a ; Mon. ii. 15 G. A. V., Ixxxvi. 

8 M., iv. xl. ; I. S., V. T., ix. xlv. ; P. i 6 D'H., iii. 77. 

cclvii. cclviii. ; D'H., ii. 56; D'H., iv. V A. Z., 1844, xxiv. 385; M., iv. x.; 

110. A., 1844, 200. D. ; Silenus nurses a 

6 V. F., clxviii. young Satyr, B. A. B., 1609. 

" P., cxviii. ; T., ii. 9, iii. 43. i" V. F., clii. ; B. A. B., 1003. 

8 M. G., ii., Ixxi. 1 a. 

VOL.1. B B 


Tantalus ;* and Marsyas instructing Olympus. 2 To Africa 
belongs the Niobids ; 3 Apollo and the Nymph Gyrene ; 
and the Hesperides. 4 

The descent of Orpheus 5 to Hades to rescue Eurydice 
is the subject of vases of the later style. The scene of 
Hades shows not only Hades and Persephone, but also 
the Danaids, 6 Sisyphus, Theseus, and Peirithous chained 
and watched, 7 Hercules dragging away Cerberus, and 
the Furies and Alcestis. 8 On other vases are represented 
Ixion, 9 Hermes, Eros, Pan, Rhadamanthus, Triptolemus, 
^Eacus and Rhadamanthus, Acheron, the Styx, 10 and 
Megsera, and the Heraclids. 11 The punishment of Sisy- 
phus is often repeated. 12 Elysium is also painted. 13 

Of rare occurrence and uncertain locality are the 
reputed scenes of water-drawing, though they are perhaps 
Athenian ; 14 the supposed Enorches and Daisa, 15 and the 
parody of the Cranes and Pigmies, 16 probably Hyper- 

The events of the Trojan war are so numerous that it 
is necessary to divide them into three main sections. 
I. The ante-Homerica, or events before the poems of 
Homer, and especially the argument of the Ilias. II. The 

1 V.F., ciii. A. Z., 1852, 234. 

2 B. A. B., 841. 8 A. Z., 1843, 191, 192 ; A. Z., 1843, 

3 A. Z., 1844, i. 228 ; B. A. N. i. tav- p. 176 ; M., ii. 1837, xlix. A. 1837, 
iii. 209-252 ; A. Z., 1844, xiv. 

4 D'H., iii. 123 ; D. M. i. iii. ; G. A. V., 9 A. Z., 1844, xiii. ; R. R., xlv. 
Ixxiv. 10 B., 1851, p. 25-38. 

5 A. Z., 1843, xi. s. 177, 178 ; A. Z., R, 1851, p. 41. 
1844, xiii. s. 225. '2 G. A. V., Ixxxvii. 

6 V. F., cxxxv.; M. Bl., ix. ; A. Z., 13 M., iv. xv. 
1844, xiiL " M. G., ii. ix. 2b. 

? R. R, xl.; V. M., ii. ; B., 1835, 41 ; 15 A., 1850, 214-23, tav. I. 
A. Z., 1844, xiii. xiv. ; B. A. B., 684 ; 16 V.F., ccclvii. ; T., ii. 7. 


Homerica, or events of the Ilias. III. The post-Homerica, 
or sequel of the story of the capture of Ilium. 

I. The ANTE-HOMERICA. So deeply are the subjects of 
the war of Troy blended with the whole of the represen- 
tations on vases, that it is difficult to decide what may not 
belong to the epos. Thus the golden vine or cantharus 
cup, which Hephaistos carries as a present to Zeus, 1 the 
seizure of Tithonus by Heos, or Aurora, 2 of Ganymedes by 
Zeus, 3 and the return of Vulcan to Olympus, 4 are all 
incidents which precede and are connected with the war. 
Much light is, however, thrown upon the subject up to 
the death of Achilles by the vase at Florence, and it 
is necessary to bear this in mind, in order to trace the 
connection of events, which, with this aid, may be stated 
as follows : the ejection of Vulcan from heaven, and his 
reception by Thetis ; the rape of Thetis by Peleus from 
amidst the Nereids, 5 at the instigation of Chiron, 6 to 
whom she is led by the successful hero ; their marriage 
in the silver 7 palace of Thetis ; Peleus making his spear ; 8 
the gods proceeding to the marriage banquet ; -the fatal 
strife instigated by Eris or Vulcan ; the banquet in the 

1 See the Frangois Vase. by a man with a lance ; D. L., xl. pro- 

2 M., ii. xxxviii. ; M., iii. xxiii. ; A., bably is the same subject ; B. A. B., 
1847, p. 231; D'H., iv. 61; D. L., 1005; A. Z., 1853, s. 400; D. L., 
xxxviii.-xxxix. xxxiv. ; P. P. IviiL; C. C., 132, 133, 

3 M. i., ix. 134, 135. 

4 See the Fra^ois Vase. Bull., 1844, p. 94 ; 1846, p. 69 ; C. 

5 T., i. 19, 20; .A. Z., 1852, s. 252, F.,100; V.F., Ixxvii-viii. ; V. F., cccxiii. 
249; T. v. (ii.) 72, 73; G. A. V., cccxiv. ; M.A.U. M., x.; C. D., 378- 
clxxviL clxxviii.-ix.-lxxx.-i.-ii. ; G. T. C., 380 ; L. D., iii. Ixx. ; A. Z., 1843,. s. 62. 
ix. ; St., xxxvi. ; M. G., ii. Ixxxiv. la; ? B., 1845, 116, 210-214 ; 1846, 38 ; 
A. Z., 1843, s. 62; V. G., iv. ; R. R., B. A. B., 842, 1639; V. L., i. xci. ; I. S. V. 
i. ii. iii. ; Mon. L, xxxvii. xxxviii. ; T., xlvi. xlvii. liv. 

F., ccclxxvii. ccclxxviii. ccclxxix. s L. D., iii. Ixxiv. 

ccclxxx. ccclxxxii. A female followed 

B B 2 


palace ; l the device of the throne with secret springs, 
and the return of Vulcan to heaven ; 2 Paris and (Enone ; 
Paris surpassing his brethren at his father's court ; his 
fatal award of the apple to Venus after the bathing of 
the three rival goddesses ; 3 Peleus cutting his spear from 
the ash-tree of Mount Pelion ; the young Achilles seethed 
in the cauldron of immortality ; 4 confided to Chiron ; 5 
consigned to the court of Lycomedes, and his discovery 
by Ulysses ; 6 the oath of Helen's suitors ; 7 the sailing of 
Paris to the court of Sparta, and seduction of Helen, 8 
who is led to Priam ; 9 Telamon bidding adieu to Ajax 
and Teucer ; 10 the sailing of the Greeks to Troy, and the 
incident of Philoctetes bitten by the serpent ; the fatal deer- 
hunt of Agamemnon, 11 and sacrifice of Iphigenia ; 12 the 
landing of the Greeks in Mysia, and wounding of 
Telephus, who pursues Auge ; 13 Ajax and Achilles 
playing at dice in the Greek camp ; 14 Achilles and 
Briseis ; 15 and the contest of Hector and Diomedes over 
body of the Scythes. 16 

To the ANTE-HOMERICA, also, belong the adventures of 

1 M. G., ii. xxiii., la; I. S. V. t. ix.; 8 Bull., 1847, 158; Italynsky, vasi, 
M. v. xlix. xii. ; B. A. N., ill, 80-92. 

2 M., liv-lv. ; L S. V. t. x. ; D. M., 9 y. G. liv. 
i. p. i. ; L. D., 22, xxiv. M R. R., Ixxi. 

3 G. A. V., Ixxi-lxxii-lxxiii. IxxvL " M. A. U. M., xxiii. ; M. I.,lxxxix. 
ccxvi.; M. G. ii. xxxiii. 1. a; GalL, 12 V.F.,ccli; C.D., 381; R. R., xxvi. 
d'Art. Dram. 8vo. Heidel., 1839; V.G. * C. D., 384. 

xlii.-xliii.; A. 1845, 132-215. " V. F., clxl; Hon., ii xxii.; M. G., 

4 G. A. V., Ixx. ii. Hi. 1 a ; G. A. V., cvi. cxiv. ccxix ; 

5 M. I. Ixxxvii. i.; R. V., 407; M. D. M., IxvL ccii. ; C. D., 320, 385, 398, 
Etr. Pr., d. c. 1500; C. C., 136 ; M. L, 403; B. A. B., 1630-31. Campanari 
Ixxxvii. Amf. Vole. Achille ed. Ajace, 4to, Rome, 

6 V.G.,lvii;Bull.l846,163;C.D.,380. 1834. 

7 C. C., p. 77, No. 129 ; C. D., 377 ; 1S G. A. V., clxxxvii. 
B.A.B., 955, 1029; A. Z., 1851, s. 387, 16 G. A. V., cxcii. 
xxx vi. 


Troilus and Polyxena. Troilus proceeds beyond the 
city walls to exercise his horses, and to obtain water 
from the fountain ; the ambush of Achilles ; the pursuit 
of the fugitive Troilus, and his immolation on the 
altar of the Thymbrean Apollo ; l the mononachia of 
Achilles and Hector over Troilus ; 2 the rescue of his 
body by Hector, ^Eneas, and Deiphobos, 3 and his sepulchral 
rites. 4 

The HOMERICA. Several of the leading incidents of 
this great poem are depicted on vases, but it was by no 
means so much resorted to by artists as other sources, 
which, though of inferior merit, were richer in pictorial 
subjects. Among the incidents represented are the 
opening scene of the Iliad ; 5 the quarrel of Agamemnon 
and Achilles ; Briseis 6 led away by the heralds ; Mars 
and Venus wounded by Diomed ; 7 the capture of Dolon, 8 
and of the horses of Rhesus ; 9 the fight at the ships ; 10 
Neptune advancing to assist the Greeks ; the restitution 
of Chryseis ; n the contest with Pisander; 12 the valour of 
Menelaus ; 13 the Gods at Olympus ; 14 Zeus listening to 
Hera and Aphrodite ; 15 and departure of Paris to 
the combat ; 16 and contest with Menelaus ; 17 Achilles 

1 A., 1850, 66-108, E. F. ; G. A. V., 8 M., ii. x. ; A., 1834, p. 295-297 ; B. 
xii. clxxxv. ccxxiii. ccxxiv. ccxxv. A. N., i. x. 

ccxxvi.; B. A. B., 682, 1642; M. G., ii. 9 A. Z., 1852, taf. xliv. s. 481 ; B. M., 

Ixiv. 2 a. 524, 533. 

2 G. A. V., ccxxiii. 10 G. A. V., cxcviii. 

3 V. G., xviii. ; Cf. G. A. V., ccix. ; C. D., 383. 
Mon. iii. Ix. 12 B. M., 832. 

4 V. G., xviii. 13 B. M., 832. 

5 Arch., xxxii. PI. 14 M. L., xxiv. 

6 G. T. C. E. F. ; B. M. 831. 15 St., xviii. ; A. Z., 1848, 218. 
? G. A. V., cxciii. ; B. A. N., 1845, 16 M. G., ii. vi. 1 b. 

iii. xlviii. tav. v. '7 Bull., 1849, 61. 


singing to the Myrmidons ; l the restoration of Briseis ; 2 
Glaucus and Diomed exchanging their armour; 3 the 
death of Sarpedon, 4 who is borne by Death and Sleep 
to Lycia ; the bed of Helen, 5 and her toilet ; 6 Paris and 
Helen ; 7 the death of Patroclus, and contest around his 
body ; the grief of Achilles at the news of his death ; 8 
the Nereids and Thetis bringing to him the arms forged by 
Vulcan ; 9 the funeral games in honour of Patroclus, 10 
and visit of Briseis to his tomb ; the arming of 
Achilles, and his departure for the field ; n the arming of 
Hector in his quadriga, 12 and his adieu to Hecuba, Priam, 13 
and Andromache ; u the rescue of ^Eneas 15 by Aphrodite 
from the combat with Achilles ; the fight of Hector and 
Achilles, respectively aided by Minerva and ApoUo ; 16 the 
death of Hector ; 17 Achilles dragging the corpse of 
Hector, attached to his chariot, round the sepulchre of 
Patroclus, whose shade hovers over it ; 18 Priam led by 
Mercury into the presence of Achilles, and entreating 19 
for the corpse of Hector, which is brought back ; 20 

1 M. B., ix. xii ; R. R., xiii B A. Z., 1852, 250, 149 ; M., ii. xxxvi. 

2 G. T. C. E. F. iii. 1 ; M. G., ii. lix. 3, Ix. 2 a, cf. Ixviii 

3 M. G., ii. Ixviii. 2 a. 2 a, 1*T*i r 2 a, Iv. la; D. L., xii. ; G. 

4 G. A. V., ccxxi. ccxxii. A. V., clxxxviii-clxxxix. 

5 R R, xlix. A. 14 M. G., ii. xii. xiii. xxiv. 2 a, Ixxiv. 

6 V. G. xii. la; G. A. V., cci-ccii.; B., 1842, 170 ; 

7 R. R., xlix. A. A. Z., 1852, 247 ; C. F., 106-108. 

8 M. G., ii. xi. ; R. R., Ixxx- u G. A. V. cxliv. ; Mon., iii 1. 

9 D'H., i. 112, iii. 60. 16 M. G., ii. xii. xii xxxv. 2 a, Ixxiv. 

10 St., xii. 1 a ; G. A. V., ccl-cciL ; B., 1842, 170. 

11 A., 1849, p. 256, 1. ; B. A. B., 620 ; V D'H., iii. 62; G. A. V., cci.-ccii.cciv. 
M. A. U. M., xx. xxi.; G. A. V., xxxviii. M. G., ii. xvi. la; G. A. V., cxviii 
cl. ; M. G., ii. xxxvi. 2 a, Iv. 1 a, lix. 1, cxcviii. cxcix. ; I. L-v.-vi. ; M., v. x.- 
Ixiii. 2 a; M. iii. xx. ; R. R. vi 1, xvi ; xi. St. xii. ; R. R, xvii. xviii. 

V. F., Ii. ccxciii. ; G. A., x. P., cc. w B. A. N., L p. 107; A. Z., 1844, B. 

Ixvi. ; D'H., iii. 118 ; B., 1846, 61 ; M. 231 ; A. Z., 1852, 245, 251 ; G. A. V., 

P., xii. ; G. E. V., xiii. cxciii. 

12 M. L, Ixxxii ; V. F., cccv. ; A. Z., =) 54. I., xciv. 
1852, 236. 


the sepulchre of that hero ; l Helen and the Trojan 
women. 2 

The POST-HOMERICA. Very numerous representations 
of events, connected with this part of the Trojan war, are 
found on vases of all periods, such as the arrival of the 
Amazons at Troy ; 3 their arming and contests with the 
Greeks ; 4 their combatting against Nestor and Anti- 
lochus ; 5 the monomachia of Achilles and Penthesilea, 6 
and her death, 7 and Ajax and the Amazons. 8 These are 
followed by many incidents out of the j^Ethiopis, as, for 
example, the arrival of Memnon and his ^Ethiopians ; 9 
the combat of Achilles and Memnon over the fallen 
Antilochus, who had replaced Patroclus as the friend of 
Achilles ; lo their mothers, Thetis and Aurora, sometimes 
mix in the strife, 11 assisting them, or interceding with 
Zeus ;/ 2 the psychostasia, or weighing of the souls of the 
heroes, by Zeus, upon Olympus ; 13 and Memnon borne 
off by his mother to Susa. 14 

These incidents are followed by the great fight outside 
the walls of Troy, and the victory of Lycaon ; Achilles 

1 M., v. xi. D. L., x. xi.-xii; M. G., ii. xxxv. 

2 B. A. B., 1019. xxxviii. xlv. 1 a, xlix. 1 a, xcL ; V. G,, 

3 G. A. V., cxcix. ; M. G., ii. vi. 1 b. xlix. ; G. E. V., xiii. ; Ronlez., Ac. Br., 

4 G. A. V., ccxxii. ; M. G., ii. Ivi. viii. H. ; V. D. C., xxv. ; M., ii, xxxviii. ; 
la. G. T. C. D. ; V. F., civ. cviii. cxiv. ; 

5 C. C., 145. St., x. ; A. Z., 1851, s. 346, 360 ; Taf. 

6 G. A. V., ccv-ccvi.-vii ; I. L xxix ; xxxi. ; A. Z., 1853, s. 401; C. F., 
T. ii. 57; G. A., v.; M., ii.-xi.-xiii ; 112. 

A. Z., 1852, s. 236. 1 D. L., ix. 

7 T., iv. (ii.) 20. 12 L S . y. T. x. ; V. F., ccclx.; G. E. 

8 C. D., 392. V., xxviii. xxix. 

9 M. G., ii. Ivi. la; G. A. V., xliii. 13 G. A. V., clvi. clxxxix; M. G., ii. 
ccvii. ; C. D., 391 ; A. Z., 1846, 1, cf. xix. 1,1 a ; B., 1831, 5 ; P., cclxii. ; 
xxix. ; B. A. B., 954. Mon. ii. x. 

10 G. A. V., c. cxvii. cxviii. cxxx. c. " M. G., ii. Ix. ; C. C., p. 33, 70, V. 
Ixviii. cciv. ccv. ccxii. ccxx. ccxxx. ; F., clviii. M. A. U. M., v. 


shot in the heel by Paris ; l the fight of Ajax and the 
Greeks over the corpse of Achilles, 2 which is rescued and 
brought back to the Greek cainp on the shoulders of 
Ajax, 3 preceded by the sorrowing Thetis, 4 who laments 
his death ; 5 the departure of his soul to Leuce, or the 
Isle of the Blest ; the contention of Ajax and Ulysses for 
his arms ; 6 the suicide of Ajax ; 7 the theft of the Pal- 
ladium ; 8 the making of the wooden horse, 9 and Sinon 
led to Troy. 10 

The terrible scene of the last night of Troy is depicted 
in all its horrors. 11 Cassandra is ravished by Ajax Oileus 
at the altar of the Pallas Athene of Ilium ; 12 the young 
Polites is seen killed at the feet of Priam, who is trans- 
fixed by Neoptolemos 13 on the altar of Zeus Herkeios, and 
the youthful Astyanax is thrown from the walls, while the 
Trojan women make all the resistance they can to the 
aggressors. ^Eneas flies, bearing the aged Anchises on his 
back, and leading Creusa and lulus. 14 Menelaus, at the 

1 G. A. V., cl. C. C., p. 94, 147 ; D. L., M. A. U. M., xxviii. ; A. Z., 1852, s. 400 ; 
xvi ; Bull., 1834, p. 35 ; M., L Ii ; G. A., 1830, p. 95. 

T. C., vi.-viL ; C. C., 300. 9 G. A. V., ccxxix.-ccxxx. ; A. Z., 

2 G. A. V., xlix. ccxxvii.; M.G, il 1849, s. 76. 
xc. C. C. p. 94, 148. 10 T., iii. 29. 

3 C. F., 110; M. G., ii. 2, IxviL 2; Bull., 1851, 35; G. A. V., ccxii. 
B., 1845, 19; R. R., Ixviii. ; Mon. ii. ccxiv. ; Bull., 1836, 71 G.; R. R., xiii.- 
xi. ; C. I)., 404, 405 ; C. C., 148 ; B. A. xiv. ; Mon., I. xxiv. ; B. A. B., 1642 ; A., 
B., 1641 ; A. Z., 1852, s. 236, 237, 1831, p. 381, A. 

238 ; T. iv. 53. l ' 2 G. A. V., ccxxviii. ; V. L., ii., xxiv.; 

4 G. A. V., xcviil ccxv. ; M. G., ii. Bull, 1838, p. 18 ; V. L., ii. iv. ; R. 
ii. 2 a ; G. A. V., ccxii. R., Ix. Ixi.; V. F., cccxlix. L; G. 

6 G. A. V,, ccx. ccxxv. ; M. G., ii. xlix. E. V., xii. xxii. ; P., ccxciv. ccxcv. ; 

2 a. D'H., iii. 57 ; C. D., 407, 408, 409, 410 ; 

6 Arch. xxix. A. Z., 1848, xiii. xiv. xv. s. 209 ; B.A.B., 

? M., ii. viii 1649; T., L 20. 

8 M. G., ii. xxxvi. ; B., 1838, p. 85 ; 13 C. C., p. 95, 149 ; V. F., cccxliv. 

M., ii. xxxvi. ; V. F., cccxxxiii. ; A. Z., G. E. V., xxi. 

1848, a. 255 ; Taf., xvii. ; B. A. B., 908 ; M G. A. V., ccxvi.-ccxviii. ccxxvi. ; M. 


instance of Aphrodite, 1 lets fall his sword as he pursues 
Helen to the statue of Athene, 2 or Apollo. 3 Acamas 4 
and Deraophon lead back their grandmother ^Ethra to 
Athens ; the shade of Achilles 5 demands the sacrifice of 
Polyxene, 6 which is performed at his tomb. 7 The return 
of the fleet ; 8 Achilles at Leuce, 9 the flight of Jneas, the 
return of Menelaus and Helen to Sparta, 10 Neoptolemus 
and Hecuba, 11 close the history of the war, and it will be 
seen that all its leading events are represented. 


Many scenes may belong either to the Ante or Post- 
Homerica, especially the former, such as Achilles 12 and 
Briseis, 13 from whom he receives a draught of wine ; u 
Achilles conversing with Phosnix ; 15 the hero rushing on 
in his quadriga ; 16 one of his single combats ; 17 scenes 
in which appear Thetis, Menelaus, Achilles, Patroclus, 
Ulysses, and Menestheus, or Ulysses, Agamemnon, and 

G., ii. Ixxxv. 2 a; R. R., Ixviii. ; G. E. 6 V. G., xxii. ; C., D., 415. 

V., xxv. ; C. D., 412, 413, 414 ; A. Z., ? V. D. C.; liii. 

1852, s. 247; M, I., Ixxxviii. 8 A. Z., 1847, s. 97; 1851, s. 287, 

1 G. A. V., clxix. ; M. B., ii. v. 2 a.; xxviii. 

V. L., II. xxxiii. ; D'H., iv. 94 ; D. L., 9 B. A. B., 1644. 
xxxv. ; A. Z., 1852, s. 238, 247. 10 M. A. U. M., xxxii. 

2 D'H., iv. 74. ; C. C., 150 ; B. A. B., A. Z., 1852, a. 251. 
1642. 12 V. L., ii. ii. 

3 D. L., xlii. ; A.. 1849, D. 13 G. A. V., clxxxvii. 

4 G. A. V., cxxiii. cxxix. clxxi. clxxii. ; 14 G. A. V., clxxxiv. ; M. G., iL Iviii. ; 
M. G., ii. xlix. 2 a; T., 1 s. 29, iv. 1 ; V. D. C., xii 

R. R., Ivii. ; Mon. ii. xxvi. ; C. D., 412- 15 G. A. V., xliv. ; MOD. i. xxxv. ; 

413; A. Z., 1853, s. 346, Taf. xxx.; D'H., ii. 62. 

A. Z., 1853, s. 401. 16 M. G., ii. lii. 1 ; G. A. V., ci. ; M. G., 

5 G. A. V., cxcviii. ; G. E. V., xvii. ; ii. xxxiii.-vii. ; I., L iv. ; B. A. B., 638. 
A. Z., 1849, s. 144. J ? G. A. V., clxxvi. cxcviii. 


Diomedes ; l the march of the Greek or Trojan army ; 2 
Skeparnos receiving a libation from Victory before 
JEneas ; 3 the chariot of Anchippus, drawn by the horses 
Simos, Pyrocome, Callicome, and Calliphthera ; 4 the 
combat of Hector and Diomedes over a Scythian ; 5 
the heroes Protomachus, Eucleides, and Calliphanes ; 6 
Priam and Polyxena, or Cassandra ; 7 Glaucus, Periphas, 
Demodocus, and the females Clyto and Hippolyte ; 8 
Ajax contending with Hector and Mneas ; 9 Hector, 
Tydeus, and Aidas ; 10 and a Phrygian "warrior leading 
a horse to an altar ; n and other scenes from the 
Troica. 12 

Probably to various incidents of the war of Troy, or of 
the expedition against Thebes, are to be referred subjects 
once familiar, but now no longer to be recognised, repre- 
senting contests of warriors on foot ; 13 warriors accom- 
panied by archers 14 and dogs ; 15 quadrigae, or chariots, 
either alone or accompanied by warriors on foot, 16 entering 

1 M. Q., ii. Ixxxvii 1 a. b., x. la. v. ; M. G., ii Ixxiv. 2 a. ; V. L., i. 

3 G. A. V., clxxxii Ixxxviii IXTKIX. ; I. S., v. ; T., xliv. pL 

3 M. G., ii. Ixiii. 2 a. 1 ; C. D., 395, 396, 397. 

4 G. A. V., cvii ; Mon., iiL xlv. 13 G. A. V., xlviii. Ixiii Ixxii. ccxix. 

5 G. A. V., cxiii cxlix. ; V. F., cclxxx. cclxxxiv. 

6 Bull, 1838, p. 37 ; Mon.,ii, xliv. 14 G. A. V., Ixxi cvi ; M. G., ii. vi 

7 D. L., xlii 1 b. ; V. L. ii. iv. ; V. L., ii. vi. x. xvi. ; 

8 C. D., 394 ; G. A. V., cxc. cxcl G. E. V., xxx. 

9 M. G., ii. 1, 2 a. 15 M. G., ii. xxxii. 2 b. 

10 A. Z., 1852, s. 235 ; Mon., ii. 16 M. G., ii xxxiv. 1 a ; St. x. xxxv.; 
xxxviii G. A. V., xvi. ccxl : G. A. V. cxxxvii. ; 

11 A. Z., 1853, s. 402. M. G., ii. xlvii. ; G. E. V., i. xxx. ; G. A. 

12 V. L., ii. xL; V. D. C., xlviii.; G. V., cvi ; M. G., ii. Ixiv. 4 a; G. A. V., 
A. V., clxvii.; M. G., ii. ix. 2 a; V. D. Ixii. ; G. A. V., cxcL; M. G., iL xxxii. 
C., PL Ii xcviii. ; V. L., ii. viii ; I., i. 1 b. ; V. F., ccxiii-xiv. ccxciv. ; P., 
xli. c. cxiii ; V. F., cccvi ; M. G., ii. clxxx. ; C. D., 677, 678, 684, 686, 687, 
xxiii 2 a ; M. G., ii Ixxxii. 2 a ; Mus. 688, 689, 690, 694 ; M. G., ii. *xxi. 
Blac. v. ; M. G., ii xxvii 2 a ; G. A. V., 1 b. ; D. L., xiv. ; D'H. ii 106 ; V. L., 
xxxi; P. clxxviii.; C. C., 140; V. G., i iii 

NOSTOI. 379 

into the strife ; l warriors and horsemen ; 2 warriors 
arming 3 in the presence of old men ; armed warriors 4 
marching, 5 intermingled with women, 6 or receiving wine 
from females, 7 or marching with children, 8 or departing 
from old men, 9 or crowned by Victory. 10 There is an 
incident as yet unexplained, of a warrior and slinger. 11 


Fewer in number are the subjects derived from the 
NOSTOI, nearly all of which are found upon vases of the 
later styles. The return and death of Agamemnon, at the 
hands of his adulterous wife, Clytemnestra, belongs rather 
to the tragic drama than to the work of Agias. The subjects 
of the attempted murder of Diomed by his wife, and the 
arrival of that hero at lapygia, 12 are perhaps represented, 
as well as the visit of Menelaus to Proteus, 13 Neoptolemus 
and Hermione at the sepulchre of Phoenix, 14 and the 
interview of Menelaus with Idothea and Proteus. 15 

1 G. A. V., xci. ; M., iii. xxiv. 6 D'H., ii. 61, 71, iii. 121 ; Mus. Borb. 

2 M. G., ii. Ixviii. 1 a, 1 b ; G. A. V., vi. xxxix. ; V. F., ccxxxiv. 

ccxix. ; V. D. C. xlvii. ; G. A. V., cxx.; 7 V. G., xxxviii. 3; M. G., ii. xviii. 

V. F., cclxxviii. ; Ing. Mon. Etr. s. vi. la; Iv. 1 a, clxxviii. ccxxviii. ; M. G., i. 

T. H.; B. A. B., 702. Ivi. 3 a; M. G., ii. xvi.i. 1 b; V. F., 

3 M. G., ii., Ixxxvi. 2 a, 2 b ; St. ccxxvii. ccx. ; V. F. cccx. ; T. iii. 42 ; 
Petersb. Acad., 1847; I., T. V. M., 6; P., i. 1. 

M. G., ii. xiii. 3 a ; M. G., ii. Ixxxi. 2 8 M. G., ii. xlvii.i 2 a. 

a, b; G. A. V., xxvL ; V. L., L xlvi. xxL 9 V. D. C., xxxvL ; T.,i. 5, 14, iii. 42 ; 

xxii.; P., cxi. ; P., cxii. ; P., i. Ixxvii. ; V.L.,i. xciv. ; V. F., cclxx. xvii. ccxxviii. 

M. P., viii ; D'H., iii. 77 ; V. F., cxiv. 10 V. G., xlviL 

cxvii. ccxcv. ; V. F., cxc. u V. F., clxix. 

4 M. G., ii. Ixix. 3 b; V. L., ii. xli. ; 12 B. A. N., 1845, xlviiL tav. v. p. 97. 
V. F., cccix. cccxii. ; G. A. V., cxlix. ; 13 Mus. Bor., xii. Iviii 

V.F., ox. cxii. " V. G., xviii 

5 D'H., iii. V. D. C., xxiii. 



The Odyssey presented many subjects for the pencil of 
the artist. The destruction of the eye of Polyphemus, 1 
the escape of the hero under the ram, 2 the Necyomanteia, 
and appearance of the shades of Elpenor and Teiresias, 3 
the encounter with Scylla 4 and Charybdis, the Sirens 5 
and their fate, 6 Ulysses and Circe ; 7 Ulysses, Mentor, and 
Circe ; 8 Charon ferrying Ulysses over the Styx, 9 Nausicaa 
playing at ball, 10 the hero discovered by Nausicaa, 11 
Ulysses leaving Alcinous, Penelope spinning the web, 12 
the hero recognised by Eumseus and his dog, 13 the en- 
counter of Iras, 14 Telemachus and Penelope, 15 the suitors, 16 
the visit of Telemachus to Nestor, 17 Telemachus with 
Pisistratus received by Helen, 18 Ulysses and Penelope, 19 
and the suitors shooting at a ring. 20 

1 Mon., i. vii. ; V. F., cccxxxiv. ; C. Mon., L vi. ; Mus. Blac., xii ; A. Z., 
D., 416; A. Z., 1853, s. 120, 122. 1852, s. 247. 

2 Bull., 1834, p. 166 ; R. R., Ixv. i. ; 12 De Witte, Ac. Brux., x. No. i. ; 
Mon., i. vii. ; V. F., cccxxxv. ; C. D., T., i. x. ; V. G. Ix. ; Bull., 1843, 261 ; 
417 ; C. C. 151 ; B. A. B., 1645 ; M. I., P., i. Ivi ; C. D., 419 ; C. C., 153 ; A. Z., 
xcix. 1852, s. 248 ; A., 1841, p. 261. 

3 R. R, Ixiv.; Mon., iv. xix. ; B. A. 13 Bull., 1851, p. 55, 1838, p. 28; R. 
K, L p. 100. Tav. v. R., Ixxvi. ; Jahn., Ber. Sacs. Ak. 1854, 

4 D'H., iii. 116 ; M. L, ciii. p. 51. Ta ii.; M., v. xlL 

8 D'H., ii. 75 ; T., iii 59 ; M. G., ii. 14 M. G., ii Ixxv. 1 b ; I. S. V. T., 

ix. 1 b ; Mon., i viii. ; C. C., 152 ; C. M., Ixvii. ; V. D. C., xxiii ; B. A. B., 884. 

57; T., i 26. B M. G., ii Ixxv. 1 a; D'H., iv. 74, 

6 M. P., xxiii ; C. D., 418. 88. 

I G. A. V., ccxxx. holding the molys ; 16 Bull., 1851, 57. 
Bull., 1838, p. 28 ; M. v. xli ; for the * C. D., 420. 
supposed Circe, M. P., viii. 18 G. A., i 

8 D'H., iii. 43. 19 M. G., ii. Ixxv. 1 b. 

9 G. A. V., ccxl. *> Mus. Borb., vii. xli ; A. Z., 1853, s. 

10 V. F., ccciv. 120, 122. 

II G. A. V., ccxviii; Bull., 1838, 12; 


From the TELEGONIA have been depicted the subjects 
of Circe giving her commands to her son, Telegonus ; l his 
arrival at Ithaca, the second marriage of Ulysses, 2 and his 
death, by the fall of the pristis or thornback. 3 

Intimately connected with the Nostoi are the subjects 
which are first developed by the tragic writers, and which 
connect the mythic legends of Greece with the historic 

Of these the ORESTEIAD is of most common recurrence, 
but only on vases of the later style. Its funeral import, 
and its allusion to the Greek doctrine of Nemesis and 
destiny, rendered it peculiarly appropriate for the deco- 
ration of vases destined to sepulchral purposes. The 
magnificent dramas of the Athenian stage had, moreover, 
earned for it great popularity among the Greeks. All the 
principal incidents are found represented : as the death 
of Agamemnon ; Electra, 4 indignant and sad, attended by 
Chrysothemis and her maids, bearing offerings to her 
father's tomb ; 5 Orestes and Pylades 6 meeting her there, 
and concerting the destruction of the adulteress, 7 who is 
seen with her paramour ; 8 Orestes receiving his father's 
sword from Electra, and bringing the brazen hydria, in 
which he feigns that his own ashes are deposited, to 

1 Bull., 1843, 82. 5 V. D. C., PI. xlv. ; V. G., xiv. xvi. ; 

3 T. v. (ii.) 85. R. R. xxxiv.; V. F., cli.-iii civ. clvi.-viii. 

3 Bull., 1833, p. 116; D'H., ii. 27; cccxL; M. P., xxv.; P., ccxcL ccxciii. ; 
V. F., clxvii. Mus. Borb. ix., liii.; B. A. K, i. p 92; 

4 D. L., xviii. ; A., 1842, pi. L. p. Ill, A. Z., 1848, s. 222, 223; St. xxxvii. 
114 ; T., i. 7 ; Raoul Roch. Peint. Ant. xliv. xlvi. 

L, s. vi. p. 104, 8 ; V. G., xxxix. sur- 6 V. G., Ivi. ; V. D. C., xxx. ; R. R., 

rounded by vases ; C. F., 4 ; V. F., xxix. xxx. xxxi. a. 

cxxxvii. -xxxix. cxl. ; D'H., iv. 86 ; Mus. 7 V. F., cxxxix. cxli. cxlii. ; D'H., ii. 

Borb., iv. xx. ; B. A. B., 959; A. Z., 100; T., v.(i.) 87; T., ii. 30. 

1844, s. 377 : T., v. 79. 8 V. G., xv. ; V. F.,cxxxviii. 


Cly temnestra ; l the two friends despatching ^Egisthus and 
Clytemnestra ; 2 the Furies pursuing Orestes, 3 who flies to 
Delphi, and is purified by Apollo, 4 or by the Pythia, 5 
with the blood of a pig; 6 the expiation at Troezene ; 7 
the expedition to the Tauric Chersonese ; 8 Pylades and 
Orestes taken and bound, 9 and led to the altar; 10 
Orestes laid on the altar; 11 the Furies rising from the 
earth ; 12 the delivery of the letter to Iphigenia ; 13 the re- 
cognition of Orestes ; the flight to Greece ; 14 the death of 
Neoptolemos, at the hands of Orestes, 15 Thanatos and 
the Pythia ; the marriage of Pylades and Electra ; 16 and 
the sepulchres of Pyrrhus 17 and of Agamemnon, 18 com- 
plete the myth. 


Few subjects are taken from the semi-mythic period, 
except those immediately connected with the Nostoi, or 
adventures of the epic cycle, as they were never very 
popular among the Greeks. . The adventures of Orpheus, 
indeed, part of the great legend of the Argonautics, occur 

1 V. F. cxliii; V. L., i. viiL 8vo. Mostau., 1850 ; L. D., iii. Ixxi. 

2 G. E. V., xxiv. ; A. Z., 1847, 24* ; 9 R. R., xlii. 

B. A. B., 1007 ; B. A. B., 1616 ; T., iiii 10 A. Z., 1848, s. 22 ; V. P., Ix. ; D'H., 

45, iv. 50. i. 41. 

3 V. D. C., xxix. ; R. R., xxxvi. Ixxvi.; u Mon., iv. Ix. ; Calpis, with the word 
T., iii. 32. Aypios ; A. Z., 1847, s. 20* ; A. Z ., 1849, 

4 R. R., xxxv. xxxvii. xxxviii. ; B. A. Ta xii. s. 121. 

B., 1003 ; D'H., ii. 36 ; B. A. N., L Tav. i* A. Z., 1848, s. 222 

vii. ; T. ii. 16. is A . Z ., 1849, Taf. xii. s. 121. 

5 V F., ccclxvii. ccclxxxvi. w Mon., ii. xliii. 

6 Kunstb., 1841, n. 84 ; Bull., 1846, R. R., xii. ; M. P., vii. 
91 ; Mon.,iv. xlviii. w c. M., 58; V. G., xxxiv. 

~> V. L., i. xiv. 17 y. G., xxxiv. 

8 V. G., liv. ; V. L., i. No. vi. p. 15 ; IS V. G., xiv. 

Bull., 1838, p. 135 ; Doppel-Palladium 


as already stated, on a few vases of a late period ; as well 
as the birth of Ericthonius, the story of Thamyris, the 
mythic poets Mus^us, 1 Thallinos, Molpos, Xanthos, 2 and 
Linos ; 3 and Sikinnos, the inventor of the lascivious 
dance. 4 In the representation of potters, Talos or Hyper- 
bios may be intended ; and in the workshop of a sculptor 
may, perhaps, be beheld the semi-mythic labours of 
DaBdalus ; 5 but, on the whole, few, very few, subjects of 
the proto-historic epoch appear. It was an age not over 
popular among the Greeks, for its recollections were inter- 
mingled with those of the dynastic tyranni the last and 
best of whom, Codrtis, once only, and in a subordinate 
character, is introduced on a vase. 6 

Still more limited is the number of vases on which 
subjects unquestionably historical have been discovered, 
although much ingenuity has been exerted to assign 
many subjects, capable of other interpretation, to events 
within the historic period. Yet a few subjects, though 
not, perhaps, those which might have been expected, have 
been chosen by some of the masters of the pencil to 
decorate a few choicer specimens of the art. Of these 
we have already mentioned some of the most remarkable, 
as the meeting of Alcseus and Sappho, 7 about B.C. 600 ; 
the burning of Croesus 8 on the funeral pyre, B.C. 545 ; the 
silphium 9 weighing of Arcesilaos, one of the Battiad line 

1 V. L., i. xi. ; B., 1845, 219; M., v. ? Steinbuchel.Dissertaz.Padov.,1824; 
xxxvii. ; V. F., ccccxx. M. A. U. M., xxxiii. ; Horner. Bilder. 

2 A. Z., 1849, 54. Griech. alterth. Zeit. 1824, 24; A. Z., 

3 B. A. B., 855. 1852, 239. 

B., 1836, 122. s M., i. liv. ; V. R, cccxix. ; C. D., 

5 G. T. C., xil-xiii. 421. 

6 Braun.Die Codrus schale, fo. Gotha, 9 M. L, xlvii. ; V. F., ccl. ; C. D. 422 ; 
1843 ; B., 1840, 127. M. I., xcvii. 


of monarchs at Gyrene, B.C. 580 460 ; the revels of 
Anacreon, 1 B.C. 539 ; and the poet Cydias. 2 

All these have inscriptions which attest the correctness 
of the interpretation of the subject ; but more uncertain, 
although accompanied with names, are the athlete Hippo- 
sthenes ; 3 the sages Solon and Chilo, 4 ; the poets Diphilos, 
Demonicos and Philippos ; 5 the entertainment of Nico- 
machus, 6 the great king, 7 probably the younger Cyrus, or 
Artaxerxes ; and Xenophon. 8 To the realms of conjecture 
must be banished such interpretations as the supposed 
Sardanapalus ; 9 the supposed founder of the city of Messene, 
or of Boia ; 10 Polycrates of Samos, 11 the rhetor Grorgias, 12 
and the philosopher Aristippus. 13 To the last period of 
the fictile art, and to the traditions of another race, 
belongs the legend of Romulus and Remus, 14 which has 
been once found on a vase. 

Many of the subjects just enumerated may have been 
really those intended by the vase painters, but the inter- 
pretation of them does not rest on a basis so assured as 
that of either of the two preceding classes. Before the 
Greeks tolerated historical portraiture, the fictile art had 
decayed, if not expired ; and the love of self and of gold 
simultaneously supplanted the admiration of heroism, and 
the simpler but more poetical subjects of the artist. 

1 B., 1841, 2; C. D., 291, 428 ; A.Z., 8 A. Z., 1846, 196. 
1845, 126. 9 C. C. 154. 

2 Muller. Gott. gelehrfc. Anz., 1840, 10 T. iv. (ii.) 60 ; V. F., cxx. 
No. 60, p. 597 ; C. M., 81. Rev. Arch., 1852, p. 61. 

3 B. M., 429. 12 C . H ., 65. 

4 B. 11, 852.* is A., 1850, p. 348 ; M. iv. xlvi. 2. 

5 A. Z., 1849, 54. 14 M. Bl., xxix., supposing this vase to 

6 A. Z., 1851, 367. be time for the list of historical sub- 

7 M. G., ii. iv. 2 a; M., iv. xliii. jects, Cf. Longperier, Kev. Arch,, 1852. 



Several of the RELIGIOUS RITES are represented upon 
vases ; such as the sacrifices of animals, 1 and the roasting 
of them with spits ; 2 conducting bulls to the altar, 3 the 
making of libations, 4 the drawing of water for lustrations, 5 
purifications, 6 and sacred baths or ablutions, especially the 
water-drawing from the Athenian fountain of Callirrhoe 
already mentioned; 7 and the lustration of individuals 
from crimes. The most remarkable and evident incidents 
represented are the offerings to Aphrodite, 8 sacrifices to 
Hermes, 9 to Dionysos Stylos, Phallen, or Perikionios, 10 
mixed up with representations of Oscophoria or the 
suspension of masks ; and also of the sacred ship of 
Dionysos. 11 In most, if not in all, instances the subjects 
are mixed up with mythical ones, from which they are 
scarcely separable, and the numerous mythical subjects 
throw considerable light incidentally on the hieratic 
ceremonies of the Greeks. 


It is not possible to give in a short compass all the illus- 
trations that the vases afford, either directly or indirectly, 

1 P. T., iv. 451 ; C. D., 628, 642 ; B. L. D., iv. xviii. xx. 
A. B , 112 ; M. I., xcvi. 4 ; M. G., ii. Ixxi. 8 B. A. B., 585. 

1 b, Ixxviii. 2 b; B., 1846, 92; A. Z., B V. L., i. lx.; C. F., 60; R A. K, 

1852, 248 ; V. L., Ixxxi. ; D'H., ii. 37; v.tav. iv. ; T., v. (i.) 35, 36; D'H., ii. 

C. C., 62 ; L. D., iii. IxxxviL 97. 

2 C. D., 643, 645 ; L. D., ii. cvi. 10 Bull, 1851, 110, B. ; L, 1, xxxvii. ; 

3 See Nike. Panofka in the Abh. d. K. Ak. Wiss. 

4 T., iii. 55, 56. Berl., 1852, L, 290, 341 ; V. F., cccxvii.; 

5 C. D., 643, 645. M. A. I., vii. ; C. F., 24. 

T., ii. 30, 36. " I. f i. xxxiii. ; Baron Giudica, xxvi. 

' V. F., xliii. xliv. cxxii. ; C. F., 138; p. 139 ; Panoffca, V. di Prem. 10, 13. 



from their treatment of subjects, of the CIYIL LIFE 
of the Greeks. To this head, however, may be referred 
several scenes the mythical explanations of which have not 
yet been discovered, representing ploughing, 1 the riding in 
a car drawn by mules, 2 scenes of water-drawing, 3 men 
gathering olives 4 or other fruits, 5 the vintage, 6 wine-press, 
and the carriage of panniers. 7 Besides the hunt of the 
Calydonian boar, are many others, 8 such as of the deer, 
and even hare. 9 The favourite Athenian amusement of 
cock-fighting 10 also occurs. Pastoral figures of men 
playing on pipes, with harps on their backs, and accom- 
panied by their faithful dogs, are seen, 11 as well as scenes 
of leisure, 12 of sleep 13 , of death, 14 and the wail for the dead. 15 
Several scenes are supposed to represent marriages. 16 
Others are of an import difficult to understand, as men 
with torches, 17 with a bull, orgies, local combats, 18 and 
captures, 19 and the natives of Messapia. 20 

The extreme difficulty of explaining certain subjects of 
the later vases representing youths and females, has in- 
duced some antiquaries to recur to the old method of 
referring them to the mysteries. In a seated female, often 

I G. T. C., i., possibly the ploughing of " D'H., iii. 78. 
Jason or Cadmus. 12 V. F., clx. 

II G. A. V., ccxvii. ; D'H., i. 94 ; M. 13 St., xxxviii 
P., viii. M P., ccxcviii. 

3 M. G., ii. Ixi. 1 ; A. Z., 1852, 231, 1S A. Z., 1847, s. 24* ; M. M. L, xxxix. ; 
232. C. C., 61; M. L, xcvii; B. A. B., 

4 M. ii. xliv. a; C. C., 76. 1621. 

6 M. L, xciii.; C. D., 877, 878. 16 B. A. B., 804, 1634; A. Z., 1852, 

D'H., iii. 77. 165 ; C. D., 646, 653. 
l M. L, xciil 3. '? D'H., iii 36. 

s P., clxxix. cc. ccxxvii. ; D'H., i 91, 18 B. A. B., 160. 

93; V. F., Ixxxix. xc. w P., cclvi.; A. Z., 1850, ta xviii. ; 

9 V. L., i. xviii. ; T. iv. 60. T., Hi. 29. 
10 B. A. B., 633. 2 A., 1852, 316, M. Q. 


represented on these vases, they recognise Telete, or 
Initiation, 1 and give to all these scenes a mystic interpre- 
tation, even in those instances in which the presence of 
the winged figure of Genius, or Eros, 2 might have rather 
led to the conclusion that love scenes were intended, 


The PALESTRA is a frequent subject. The vases of later 
style have constantly on one side, apparently not intended 
to be seen, two, three, or more figures standing and con- 
versing, sometimes enveloped in their cloaks, 3 at other 
times naked and holding strigils 4 or lances for the akon- 
tia, 5 often with older figures, representing the epoptes, 6 
the epistates or paidotribes, 7 with knotted sticks, who 
instructed the youths, and who hold a wand or branch. 
Youths are seen at various exercises in the gymnasium, 8 
or at rest, 9 or proceeding thither with strigils and lecythi, 
or crowned by Nike, or Victory ; 10 also athletes drawing 
lots. 11 

1 C. D., 429473 ; B. A. B. 1611. 714, 715, 716, 717, 718, 719, 721, 722, 

2 C. D., 474, 575. 723, 724, 747 ; Mus. Borb., iii., xiii. 

3 T., iv. 1, 13, 48 ; M. G., ii. Ix. Ixxxvi. 5 C. D. , 720, 725, 749. 

lb; Bull., 1847, p. 127; T.,ii.60. For 6 V. G., xxvii.; M. G., ii. Ixxxv. 

vases referring to the Palaestra, Welcker 1 b. 

Zeitschrift fur alte Kunst, P., Ixxi. 7 M. G., ii. Ixxxvii. 2 a, b ; C. D., 

Ixxii. Ixxiv. Ixxv. Ixxxii. ciii. civ. cxv. 731, 732, 733 ; A., 1844, c. ; T., L 25. 

cxvi. clxL clxv. clxxiv. ccliii. ; C. D., 8 V. G., x. ; M. G., ii. Ixxxi. 1 a ; 

722, 724, 726, 735, 745; V. D. C., vii., C. D., 722, 726 ; St. xii. 

xiii. ; G. A. V., oliL; B. A. B., 623, 811, G. T. C., xiii. 

813, 818, 843, 846, 878, 889. 10 M. G., ii., Ixxxvi. 1 a; V. L., i. 

* B. A. B., 595, 610, 649, 679, 700, xxxix. A full account of athletic and 

709, 797, 1607, 1649 ; A. Z., 1853, gymnastic subjects is given by Ronlez 

taf. Ii. liii. ; V. D. C., xv. ; V. L., in the " Me"m. de 1'Acade'mie de Bru- 

ii. xliii. ; M. P., v. ; P., ccii. ccvi. ccviii. xelles," torn. xvi. ; D. L., xlv. 

ccix. ccxii. ccxiii. ccxv ; ccxvi. ; C. D., n T., i. 1. 

c c 2 



Most of the exercises of the great games of Greece are 
represented, especially the PENTATHLON. 1 The highly 
interesting series of Panathenaic vases, which were given 
as prizes in the Panathenasa, exhibit on their reverses 
the principal contests of that game. 2 First is the race 
of the bigae, or two-horse chariots, 3 as of Teles and 
Chionis, 4 which was changed into that with four horses ; 5 
that of boys on colts, and wearing only a chlamys ; 6 
the victorious horse led home; 7 the foot-race, either 
the diaulos, or race round the course, or the dolicho- 
dromos, or race to a term or boundary 8 by four or five 
runners ; or the armed course, hoplites dromos, in which the 
runners carried shields ; 9 the wrestling-match, pale, in the 
presence of judges; 10 the hurling of the diskosor disc ; n 
leaping, Jialma, with the dumb-bells, halteres, 12 sometimes 
to the music of a flute ; 13 hurling the lance, akontion and 

1 G. G., i. ; A., 1831, p. 53. 

2 M. G., ii. xvii. For athletic sub- 
jects see C. C., p. 99 and foil. ; B. A. B., 
596, 607. 

3 A series of these vases will be 
seen engraved in Gerhard, " Vases 
Etrusques," fo., Berlin, A. B., to which 
the following numbers A. and B. refer; 
cf. 15, 24, and Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., 
p. 54 ; I. S., v. ccii. ; C. D., 680, 681 ; 
G. E. V., A. 2 ; M. I, xcv. 

4 Bull. 1843, 76. 

s G. A. V., xcii. cxxv. cxxxi. ; V. F., 
ccxii. cclxxvL; C. D., 676, 679, 683, 
685, 690; B. A. B., 687, 592, 1624, 
1636 ; T., ii. 28 ; A. Z., 1852, 231. 

6 A., 4; B., 26, 22; G. A. V., ciii.; 
M. G, it Ixvi. 2 a, b, 5 a; B. A. B., 582, 
624 ; C. D., 697, 698, 699, 701, 702, 
703, 704 ; V. L., i. xix., cf. i. No. viii. ; 
R. R., xxxv. ; V. F., cclxxv.; G. T. C., 
xiv.; M. M. L, xlvii. ; T., i. 52, ii. 26, 
iii. 47, v. (1) 9. 

' V. F., cclxxiv. ; D. L., xxxvL ; T., 
i. 53 ; G. A. V., xiii. 

8 A., 12 ; B., 8, 36 ; R. V., 53, No. 
453 ; M. G., ii. viii. 2 a, xlii. 2 b, xliii. 

1 a, 2 b ; C. D., 675; M. I., Ixxxviii. 4 ; 
T., v. (1) 6. 

9 G. A. V., cxxxvi. ; M. G., ii. Ixxi. 
4 b. ; P., cvii. cviii. ; C. D., 673, 674 ; 
B. A. B., 887. 

1 B. 2, 4, 22 ; M. G., ii. xvi. 2 a ; M. 
BL, ii. ; C. D., 706. 

11 A., 6 ; M. G. ii., xliii. 2 b, liii. 1 a ; 
T., iv. 44; V. F., Ixxxiv. Ixxxv. ; P., 
Ixxxvii. ; D'H., iv. 63 ; C. D., 710, 711, 
712, 713 ; A. Z., 1852, 249, n. 142 ; A., 
1846, L 

12 A., 6 ; V. F., Ixxx. Ixxxi. Ixxxiii. 
ccclxix ; D'H., ii. 38, iii. 68, 91 ; C. D., 
727, 734 ; T., iv. 43 ; M. G., ii. Ixx. 1 a, 

2 b, Ixxiii. 1 a, 1 b ; V. L., L vii. 

13 D'H., L 124. 

14 M. G., ii. Ixix. 4 c, Ixx. 2 a ; A., 
6 ; B., 6. 


boxing. 1 Besides these are represented the poetical or 
oratorical contests, 2 and the musical contests of boys 3 or 
of citharists. 4 On some few subjects the athletes' names 
are inscribed. 5 The torch-race also occurs., 6 both on foot 
and on horseback ; and victorious athletes being crowned 
by Nike. 7 Sometimes an exercise with the pickaxe is 
represented, 8 which was used to strengthen the arms, and 
practised by the wrestler Milo. 9 

Among the representations of the minor games may be 
cited that of the hoop, trochos ; 10 of the ball, sphaira ; 
of dice, pessoi ; 11 or draughts, kuboi ; several kinds of 
dances, 12 and among them the armed or Pyrrhic dance, 13 
performed by Korna and Selinikos ; 14 a game supposed to 
be that of encotyle 15 or ceganeum ; 16 shooting at a cock on 
a column ; 17 and musical contests, 18 especially the victory 
of the Tribe Acamantis of Athens ; 19 and diversions 
introduced at entertainments. 20 

On many vases, on which athletic scenes are depicted, 
the pipers, who played so remarkably in all the Grecian 
exercises, and in the gymnasia, 21 are often represented, as 

1 A., 8, 10 ; B., 10, 20, 24 ; V. F., 9 L. D., iii. xlix. 
ccxxxii. ccxxxiii. ; M. Bl., ii. ; M. P., 10 M. A. U. M., xii. 
viii. ; C. D., 707, 708, 709 ; T., i. 55, n C. D., 761, 762. 

56. B P-, ccxxviii. cexlvi. ; T. P., 60. 

2 B., 28; M. G., ii. xxii. 2, 2 a.; L.D. 13 M. G., ii. Ixxxiv. 2 b; Mus. Borb., 
ii. xv. xvi. viii. Iviii. ; T., i. 60. 

3 A. Z., 1845, 339. 14 I., s. v. t. viii. ; P.. clxxx. 

4 B. A. B., 868, 869 ; A. Z., 1852, 15 M., i. xlvii., B. 
s. 247. 16 V. F., ccxlix. 

5 G. A. V., xxii. )7 V. F., Ixix., or the suitors of Pene- 
M. G., ii. Ixxi. 3 b; C. D... 751 ; T., lope. 

ii. 25, iii. 48 ; M. P., v. 18 V. F., ccclxii. ; C. D., 755, 756, 

7 T., i., 5357 ; ii. 20. 759. 

s C. D., 257, 710; C. E., 38, 171; 19 Mus. Bl., L 

I. M. E., ii. Ixx.; Ronless, Me"in. Acad. :o D'H., i. 117. 

de Brux., ii. t. xvi. 21 C. D., 753, 754, 758. 


well as athletic dances, 1 such as female jugglers 2 standing 
on their heads amidst swords, or drawing a bow and 
arrow, 3 or wine from a crater, in that attitude, 4 dancing 
armed, or merely draped, 5 to the sound of the pipe ; 6 
and dancers and harpists with amphorae. 7 


Several interesting Dramatic Subjects occur, as that 
supposed to represent Prometheus Vinctus, with the 
Wandering Io, 8 treated in an anomalous manner ; scenes 
from two Satyric dramas, one of Hercules and perhaps 
Apollo, contending for the tripod ; the other the marriage 
of Dionysos, including players, musicians, chorus-leaders, 
and the chorus ; 9 another scene from a Satyric drama, or 
burlesque, probably by JEschylus, of (Edipus consulting 
the Sphinx ; 10 the Satyric persons of the chorus preparing 
to appear, 11 a scene of Silenus and Dionysos, 12 a scene 
from another drama, a parody upon Arion, 13 Taras, 14 Palse- 
mon, or the Nereids ; a Satyric chorus, led by a female 
flute-player ; 15 a parody on the Electra, 16 another on the 


2 M. A. I., i. ix. ; T., v. (ii.) 93. XAPINO2, AlflN, *IAINO2, KAAAIA2. 

3 B. A. N., torn. v. tav. vi. Wieseler, pi. vi. 1. 

4 T., L 60. 10 Wieseler, 1. c. 10 ; M. B., ix. xii.; M. 
8 St., xxxv. G., ii Ixxx. 2 a ; Franz. Didask, 

6 St. xxil ^Eschyl., s. c. Theo. Berlin, 1848. 

7 B. A. B., 589. " T., i 39. 

8 Millin., Peint. de Vases Ant. T., ii. 12 T. L, 41. 

pi. Iv. IvL ; Wieseler, Theater-Gebaude., I3 T., iv. 57 ; Millin. i. 116. 

taf. iv. Sab. " Muller. Dorier., ii. 349 ; T., iv. (ii.) 

9 M., iii. xxxi. In the centre AIONT- 57. 

2O2 and Ariadne, Venus and IMEPO2, 15 G. A., taf. Ixxxiii. 

one of the actors HPAKAH2, another 16 T., i. 35; iv. pi. 10. See Wieseler, 

HAN and EVA ; the chorus is called 1. c. 



Antigone, 1 or the Electra, and one of Hercules and the 
Cercopes ; 2 a portrait of the Xanthias of Aristophanes ; 3 
Jupiter and Mercury scaling with a ladder the house of 
Amphitryon, whilst Alcmena is seen at the window, 4 
probably from the comedy of Amphitryon, by Rhinthon ; 5 
Dionysos and Silenus at the window of Althaea, or 
Ariadne ; 6 the blind Chiron healed by Apollo ; 7 a parody 
of Juno bound to the golden throne, taken from the 
"Vulcan" of the comic poet Epicharmus ; 8 another of 
Theseus and Procrustes, 9 another meant apparently for 
Hercules and Auge, 10 (Edipus consulting the Sphinx, re- 
presented as a fox ; n a burlesque Syren ; 12 a parody of 
Atlas; 13 Tereus or Epopsin the Aves; two men masked as 
cocks, and preceded by a flute-player, probably from a 
comedy ; u and two warriors ; 15 a scene also from the 
Frogs of Aristophanes; 16 "the wine-flask" of Oatinus; 17 the 
slave-driver of Pherecrates ; 1S the destruction of Ilium, of 
Phormos; 19 and a burlesque of the Antigone, 20 and the 
elopement of Helen. 21 

On vases of later style also occur several myths, 
the arguments of which often formed the subjects of 
the drama. Some are connected with Dionysos, as 

1 A., taf. Ixxiii. 10 Wieseler, iii. 18 ; Monumenti, iv. 

2 Serra di Falco, Antich. d. Sicilia, ii. taf. xii. 

p. 1, vignette. u M. G., ii. Ixxx. 2 a. 

3 Panof ka, Cabinet Pourtales, ix. ; 12 Vase B. M., red figures. 
Wieseler, 1. c. 57. 13 Vase, B. M., 1638. 

4 D'H., iv. 105. " Vase, B. M., 659. 

5 Wieseler, p. 59. 1S T., ii. 57. 

6 Panofka, Cabinet Pourtales, x. 16 A. Z., 1849, s. 17. 
1 Lenormant and De Witte, 6lite, V A. Z., 1849, s. 33. 

ii. xciv. ; Wieseler, 60. 13 A. Z., 1849, s. 42. 

8 Mazocchi, Tab. Her., i. p. 138; 19 A. Z., 1849, s. 43. 
D'H., iii. 108. 20 A-f 18 4 7) p- 216j pL k 

9 V. G., xlvi. 2J Cothon, red figures, Brit. Mus. 


Pentheus 1 killed by Maenads; the insanity of Lycurgus, 
who destroys his family; 2 and Hypsipyle; 3 the capture of 
Silenus in the rose-gardens of Midas; 4 the adventures of 
Io; 5 the death of Procris; 6 the mutilated Procne; 7 the 
metamorphosed Atalanta ; 8 Atlas and a Sphinx ; 9 the death 
of Archemoros; 10 the fate of the Niobids ; 11 Tereus and 
Philomele ; 12 and Antiope and Dirce. 13 


A great number of vases represent the entertainments 
of adults; and scenes of triclinia often occur. The guests 
recline upon couches, amusing themselves by whirling 
their cups in the supposed game of kottabos singing to 
the lyre, 15 or playing on that instrument 16 or on the flute. 17 
On the later vases hetairce, especially the auletrides or 
female flute-players, and sometimes female citharists 19 and 
boys, 20 are seen. Some of these also represent the acroama 

1 M., i. vi. ; Jahn. Pentheus, 4to, Kiel, iii. 10, v. (i.) 16, 84, 90 ; M. BL v. ; D'H., 
1841 ; B. A. N., iv. p. 13. Tav. ii. 3. ii. 48, 74 ; MOD. iii. xiL ; M. G., ii. Ixv. 

2 Mon. iv. pi. xvi.; Bull., 1846, p. 2 a, 2 b, Ixxi. 1 b, Ixxxiv. 1 b, 2 a, 
88. xiL 3 a., xcii. 1 ; V. L., ii. xxxviii.; P., 

3 G., A. E., 10. cv. cl. ; I., s. v. t. xxxvi.; B. A. N., i., 

4 M. G., ii. Ixxii. 2 b ; G. A. V., p. 92 ; V. F., cxxxiL cxxxiii. ; C. D., 
ccxxxviiL ; Mon. iv. x. 805, 810 ; St., xxvL ; B. A. B., 879. 

5 V. D. C., xlvi. ; Mon. ii. lix. ; B. A. 15 V. L., i. xxiv. xxxvi. xxxviiL xlviii. ; 
N., iii. tav. iv. D'H., i. 109 ; L. D., ii. xxxviL 

6 V. F., ccv. 16 M., iiL, xiL ; M. G., iL liv. la, 2 a ; 

7 D'H., iv. 76. B. A. B., 1014. 

8 B. A. K, iv. tav. iii 1. 17 M. G., iL Ixxxiii. 1 b; Ixxxv. 2b; 

9 B. A. N., iv. tav. v. T. ii. 41, iii. 16, 17, iv. 40. 

>10 B. A. N., ii. tav. v. See subject of 18 M. G., ii. vL 1 a ; Ixxxi. 1 a ; V. D. 

Archemoros, supra. C., xx. ; V. L., i. xxxxii. ; V. F., cclxxiii- 

11 B. A. N., i. p. 111. tav. iiL ccclvi. ; P., cv. ccxxiv. ccxxxix. ccxli. 

12 B. A. N., ii. p. 12, tav. i., n. 5. ccxlii. ; D'H., ii. 113 ; T., ii. 52, 55. 

13 A. Z., 1842, s. 76, 1853, taf. Ivii. 19 V. D. C., viiL 

14 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., p. 57 ; T., 2 P., ccxliii. 


with which the symposium J concluded. One scene is the 
triclinium of Nicomachos, 2 another that of Demetrios. 3 
In many of the drinking-scenes candelabra and lamps are 
represented. 4 These often occur with the names of un- 
known persons, as Smikythos, Tlempolemos and Euthy- 
mides, and Sosias. 5 The homos, or revel, after or during the 
entertainment, is often depicted ; 6 the revellers, the leader 
of whom is called komarchos, 7 are dancing to the pipe, and 
holding amphorae. 8 Youths drawing wine from craters or 
bowls ; 9 or men playing the crotala, dance in wild con- 
fusion, 10 while the intoxicated attended by females, 11 some- 
times with torches, 12 are frequently represented. A re- 
markable scene shows Empedocles playing on the flute, while 
Nicaulos and Charidemos dance with rJiyta^ Similar to 
these are representations of youths dancing 14 with drink- 
ing-horns, 15 with lyres, 16 and crowns, 17 and men offering 
boxes to females, 18 playing with dogs and tortoises, 19 with 
the jerboa, 20 or with a hare held by a string ; 21 or offering 
this animal as a present, 22 or holding a pilos, 23 or cups ; 24 

1 Xenoph. Symp., c. 2 ; Athen., xiv. P., ccxxx.; T., v. (i.) 18, 19, 20. 
7 ; V. F., cxcviii. ; T., i. 50. u G. A. V., ccxxxviii. 

2 Vase, B. M., 1646. M Bull., 1834, p. 229 ; 1840. p. 54. 
a Politi, Slancio Artistico, 8vo. Girg- 15 M. G., ii. Ixx. 1 b. 

1826. 16 M. G., ii. Ixxvii. 1 a ; Mus. Borb., 

4 G. A. V., cxcv. cxcvi ; C. F., 140. iv. Ii. ; T., i. 50. 

5 Smikythos is known as an eromenos. 17 V. L., xliv. 
Tlempolemos and Euthymedes as a pot- 18 P., Ixviii. 

ter and artist. A. Z., 1852, s. 249. * 19 V. D. C., xliv. 

6 M. G., ii. Ixxviii. 2 a ; V. L., i Ixvi. V. F., ccclxxxvii. 

Ixviii. ; A. Z., 1847, s. 18 * ; B. A. B., 21 G. T. C., xi. xii., with the name 

708 ; T., v. (i.) 22, 80. Hippodamos; B. A. N., i. p. 92, 

7 G. A. V., clxxxviii. the supposed discovery of Boea ; L, 

8 G. A. V., cxxvi. p. 126. 

9 M. P., xxxiv.; M. G., ii. Ixxxi. la. M. M. L, xlvi. 

10 M. G., ii. liv. 2 a. 23 V. D. C., xxi. 

11 M. G., ii. Ixxxi. 1 b. M V. D. C., xlvi. 


mounting horses, riding pick-a-back, dancing, playing at 
see-saw, and other games. Young children are depicted 
playing with toys, balls, and go-carts, 1 crouching to seize 
apples, or crawling after a swan, 2 or playing at the game 
of knuckle-bones, or astragali? 

There are also many scenes of men standing and 
talking to females, 4 a man standing between two females, 5 
men conversing with youths, 6 or with one another. 7 On 
some vases are draped youths and females conversing, 8 
at work with calathi and spindles, 9 and a host of unde- 
termined actions, representing nuptial ceremonies, 10 toilets, 
and games, and youths with parasols. 11 Many vases, espe- 
cially those which from their small size seem intended for 
children, have representations of youths. 

It is probable that future discoveries may determine 
the meaning of many scenes now deemed of general im- 
port, such as youths playing on the lyre to females, holding 
cups and boxes 12 to men with branches, 13 taking a necklace 
out of a box in the presence of a female and an old man, 14 
offering hares to ladies, 15 holding cups to other youths, 16 a 

1 St. xvii. G. A. V., cxliv. ccix.; V. G., x.; 

2 C. D., 800. T., v. (ii.) 69; M. G., ii. xxii. 1, 2, xxiv. 

3 C. D., 801, 803. 2 a ; L, s. v. t. iv. ; P., xcv. xcvii. 

4 D'H., i. 30, 45, 48; ii. 77, 96, 109 ; xcviii. ccxxv. ccxlv. ccxlvii. 

iii. 47, 83, 95; iv. 38, 45, 56, 103; C. 8 V. D. C., x. xvii. xix.; P., xxxl cvi 

D., 752 ; St. xxvL ; T., ii. 59, 60 ; iii. 57, 9 St., xxxiv. 

iv. (ii.) 1 ; M. G., ii. xlvii. 1 a. ; Ixxv. 10 R. V., p. 51 ; V. L., ii. xliv. 

2 b; V. L., i. vi. ; I., s .v. t. IxviiL; u P., IxxL 

D. L., xv. ; P., Iii liii. Ixi. Ixxviii. I**T. 12 V. G., xlv. ; V. L., ii. xxviii. ; L. 

IxxxL Ixxxiii. Ixxxix. xci. xcii. xcvii. D., i. xxxv. xl. ; Inghirami, M. E. L ; L, 

clxxv. clxxvi. clxxvii. ccx. s. v. vi.. t. i. iv. 

6 G. A. V., Ixxxi. clxiii. cc. ; T., i. 13 G. A. V., ccxxix.; L, s. v. t. iv. 

18, v. (ii.) 70. w M. Q>> ^ lxxi 2 a; V. D. C., xxxi. 

6 T., i. 3 ; M. G., ii. Ixxvii. 1 b, 2 a, b, 2; G. T. C., E. F. 

Ixxxiii. 2 a, Ixxxvl 1 a ; P., Ixxiii 1S M. M. L, xlvi. 6. 

clxxi. clxxiii. 15 y j) Q 


youth in a great vase, 1 youths with females, probably 
hetairse, 2 or dancing with tambourines, 3 or standing 
at herniaa and stelae, 4 conversing in a palace, 5 or 
receiving offerings from their admirers, 6 at fountains, 7 
females conversing, 8 pursuing a bull, 9 or looking like 
Narcissus into a mirror, 10 placing wreaths on an altar, and 
carrying birds in a cage ; n in presence of Nike dancing ; 
holding skiadiska, or parasols 12 ; with crotala ; reading 
poems ; 13 in a bath ; u and Eros, 15 apparently in schools, 16 
and females over a hydria. Females alone are repre- 
sented, with calathi and crowns, 17 at the bath, 18 as lyrists 19 
crowned by Nike, 20 and with the skiadiske or parasol, 21 as 
jugglers, kybisteres, standing on their heads amidst swords 
set upright in the earth, 22 swinging, 23 sometimes seated, 24 or 
playing with a ball, 25 interviews of females, 26 love scenes. 27 

1 Perhaps Pelops, G. A. V., clxxxi. xx. xcix. c. ex. cxiii. cxiv. cxxvi. cxxxi. 

2 M. G., ii. Ixxviii. 1 a, 1 b ; V. F., cxxxiii. cxxxiv. cxxxv. cxxxvii. cxli. 
cxxx. ; G. T. C., xiv. xv. cxliv. clxxxiii. clxxxiv. clxxxvii. ; D'H., 

3 D'H., iii. 111. ii. 57, 94, iii. 71 ; iv. 36, 47; B. A. N., 

4 D'H., iv. 45; V. D. C., xxxii. ; P., i., p. 91. 

xx. xxii. Tc~x\Tf- 1. liii. ccxxv. ccxxvii. 18 M. B., xiv. xv. ; I., s. v. t. xxv. ; 

ccxxix.ccxxx.ccxxxiii.ccxxxv.ccxxxviii. D'H., ii. 25; C. D.,763, 765 ; B. A. B., 

ccxli. ccxlii. ccxliv. ccxlvii. ccxlviii. cclii. 671 ; T., iv. (ii.) 28, 29, 30; Mus. Borb. 

ccliv. cclvi. ; T., v. 1 5. xiv. xv. 

5 M. G., Ixxv. 2 a. 19 I., s. v. t. xxx. 

6 M. G., ii. Ixxviii. 2 a. * I., s. v. t. xxvii. 
^ B. A. B., 1627 ; M. G.. ii. x. 2 b. 21 I., s. v. t. xliv. 

8 M., ii. xxvi. 2 a. V. F., Ixvi. Ixxxvii. ; Christie, PI., 

9 Bull., 1844, 100, 101. i. p. 51 ; T., i. 60 ; A. Z., 1852, 164; 

10 I., s. v. t. xxi. Mus. Borb., vii. Iviii. 

11 D. L., xxxviii. ffl M. A. U. M., xxx. ; A. Z., 1853, 400. 

12 C. C., 59 ; T., i. 2. 24 V. F., cxxxiv. ; B. A. B. 673. 

13 D'H., ii. 103. 25 V. F., clxxxiii. clxxxiv. ; D'H., i. 

14 T., iv. (ii.) 30 ; P., xxxii. 59, 60 ; Mus. Borb., vii. Iviii ; A. Z., 1852. 

15 T., i. 59. * C. D., 796 ; V. F., cxci. 

16 T., iv. (ii.) 58. 2 ? V. F., cxcii.; P. vi. For vases 

17 A. Z., 1852, s. 247, 251 ; B. A. B., referring to nuptial ceremonies, see 
583, 856, 857 ; T., iv. (ii.) 31 ; v. (i.) Bottiger, Vasengemahlden, 8vo. Wei- 
37 ; I., s. v. t. xxix. ; P., xviii. xix. mar, 1797. 


Professional women are seen playing on the harp or pipe, 1 
and receiving wine ; 2 other women perform household 
work, 3 or celebrate orgies. 4 Females also appear holding 
a box or pyxis, 5 crowns, 6 or lecythi, 7 dancing, 8 and some- 
times offering incense to the gods. 9 They are often seen wash- 
ing, 10 or holding a hare, 11 at their toilet, 12 or at a stele ; 13 
discoursing over a hydria, 14 or caressing a deer. 15 Large 
female heads are often the only decoration of late vases, 16 
and large eyes ; 17 on some vases are reunions of females, 
either allegorical personages, or hetairse with names. 18 

The scenes illustrative of WAR in its principal forms, 
have been already described in enumerating the events of 
the war of Troy. There is a very great number of vases 
illustrative of this subject ; but it is not possible to describe 
all, and many of the scenes without doubt belong to events 
of a mythic nature. 19 They represent combats on foot and 
horseback, by archers, hoplites, and slingers, and even 
contests of galleys. 20 

Many representations of youths and others, either 
starting for or engaged in the chase, refer to the 
remarkable hunts of antiquity. 21 One represents the 
hunting of the hare. 22 

1 Mus. Borb., xiv. xv. 12 D'H., ii. 25 ; iii, 73. 

2 T., ii. 58. D'H., ii. 57. 

3 A., 1852, p. 85, v. " D'H., iv. 96. 

4 T., i. 48. 1S C. D., 767. 

5 C. D., 766, 769, 772, 774, 775, 777, 16 C. D., 1185, 1213. 
780 ; V. F., cxxvii. ccxv. V B. A. B., 819. 

6 B. A. N., i. p. 14. 18 B. A. N., v. p. 25. Such names as, 
' C. D., 772. Melissa, Anthippe, Lysistrate, Archesis- 

8 St., xxiii. xxiv. trate ; T., L 

9 St., xxxv. ; P., xxi. 19 C. D., 811868. 

10 P., xxx. xxxii. xxxvii. xxxviii. 2 C. D., 868. 
xxxix. 21 C. D., 869874. 

11 D'H., iii. 34. 22 L D-j xcviiL 


Some vases have scenes of an immoral tendency, yet 
they are few in comparison with the other subjects. Nor are 
they merely coarse examples, painted by poor or careless 
workmen, to gratify the popular taste ; but on the con- 
trary, the productions of the very best artists. 1 Such 
subjects, indeed, sometimes exercised the pencil of painters 
like Parrhasius, Aristides, Pausanias, and Nicophanes; 2 
and vase-painters were only humble imitators of the great 
masters. Of course these scenes cannot be detailed. 3 Some 
may be intended for the love adventures of the gods, but 
others seem derived from private life, especially those 
of youths and hetairse, 4 in which figure several persons 
whose names are identical with those of Athenian artists 
and writers, 5 and many of the names probably refer to 
the celebrated Corinthian beauties. 6 

Many of the late vases represent small temples, or the 
heroa, 7 from which the subject was taken. These are 
generally coloured white. Some of the most remarkable of 
these heroa represent Aphrodite, 8 ^Eneas crowning lulus, 9 
Zeus and Ganymedes, or Dionysos and Comos, 10 Leda and 
the swan, 11 the Dioscuri, 12 and Athene, 13 a youthful warrior 

1 Gerhard. Rapp. Vole., 59, 60 ; xxviii. xxix. Ixxxiv. Ixxxv. cxxxii. 
C. D., 60, 61; L. D., ii. xlix. ; B. cxliii. clxxxii. clxxxix. cxc. cxci. cxcii. 
A. B., 719, 729; C. M., 11, 13; A., cxciii. cxciv. cxcv. cxcvi. cxcvii. 
1832, pi. g.; M. M. I., xxv. ; T., v. (i.) cclxi. cclxiv. cclxv. cclxx. cclxxi. 
90. cclxxix. For several, see C. D., 576 

2 Athenams, xiii. ; C., 11. 627. 

3 Cf. for example, the Vases. 8 V. F., xxxiii. xlii. 

4 P., cci. ; D'H., iv. 37. 9 B., 1846, p. 75. 

5 C. C., 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. 10 V. F., cccxciii.; B. A B., 1027. 

6 C. C., 13, 14, 15, 16. " Vase, B. M., No. 1568. 

? I., s. v. t. xl. ; V. F., cccxxi. 12 V. F., cxxxix ; V. G., xix. ; D'H., iii. 

cccxxii. ccclxix. ; D'H., iii. 65 ; G. A., 52, 55. 
xii.; T.,v.(i.) 1,2,3, 4,5; B.A.B., 110; L. D., i. Ixvii. 
P., xxii. xxiii. xxiv. xxv. xxvi. xxvii. 


with shield, 1 Heroes with arms and horse, 2 youth with a 
dog, 3 two females (one holding a box), 4 females 5 with dove 
and anaphoras, 6 a warrior and a man leaning on a stick, and 
the supposed Narcissus. 7 Large heads of a goddess are 
also common on the later vases, 8 perhaps copied from 
statues 9 and often combined with arabesque floral orna- 
ments. 10 In one instance the head of lo, or a female satyr, is 
seen. 11 Heads, too, in a kelcryphalos, are not uncommon. 12 


Several vases have representations of animals, which 
are often engaged in combats ; such as boars and lions, 13 or 
rows of animals, 14 consisting of the lion, the boar, the 
panther, 15 the stag, 16 the deer, 17 the ram, the bull, 18 and the 
horse. 19 Lions are seen devouring deer and bulls. 20 Hares, 21 
and dogs 22 appear as single subjects. Among the birds 
represented are the owl, 23 the eagle, the hawk, 24 the crane, 
the swan, the goose, 25 pigeons, cocks and hens, 26 and cock- 
fights. 27 Among fishes are the dolphin, tunny, cuttle-fish, 

1 V. F., cccxxiii. ; R A. B., 1001. 14 M. Q., ii. xxvii. xxviii. xc. 

2 V. F., xix. xx. ccclxxxix. ; D'H., i. K D., 933 ; V. F., cclxxix. 
53, 54; David, i. p. 6; I., i. xii. b; T., 16 Mus. Blac., vi. 

v. (L) 3, 4, 5. 17 Mus. Blac., xvi. ; B. A. B., 629 ; 

B. A. B., 1027. D'H.,ii. 86. 

4 G. A. xvi. 18 M. G., ii. Ixiv. 4 c; M. P., xxx. 

5 I. i., *TTJ. 19 B. M., 385 ; V. L., ii. viiL 

6 Mus. Borb., vii. xxii. 20 M. G., ii. xxxi. 2. 
' B. M., 1567*. 21 C. D., 902. 

8 V. L. ii., i. iii. 22 C. D., 900, 901. 

9 See Minerva, Mon.,iv. xlvi. * V. L., xlix. 53; D'H., i. xli. 

10 V. F., Iii. ; D'H., iv. 56. * V. L., ii. xlix. 52. 

11 P., cclxxxi. 2* D'H., iv. 108. 

12 B. M., 292, 293 ; D'H., i. 101 ; B. A. ^ M. G., ii. Ixiv. 3 a; V. L., ii. xlv. 
B., 1626. * M. G., ii. v. 1 a ; V. L., ii., p. 30, n. 

13 M. G., ii. vi., 2 b, x., 1 b ; V. L., ii. viii. 
xxi. ; B. A. B., 594. 


and echinus. 1 There are also representations of snakes, 2 
tortoises, 3 and grasshoppers. 4 Among plants are the 
laurel, myrtle, poplar, ivy, pansy, hyacinths. Not the 
least remarkable subject is that of the great eyes, which 
has been a fruitful source of conjecture. 5 Among objects 
of the imaginary world are gryphons, 6 which are some- 
times attacking horses ; the hippolectryon, chimsera, sirens, 7 
harpies, hippocampi, 8 Pegasi, sphinxes, 9 and heads of 
Gorgons. 10 In many instances these animals are intro- 
duced as a kind of artistic bye-play, or parody, on the 
subject represented, just as the poet uses a metaphor. 
Thus, on a cup representing the destruction of Polyphemus, 
a fish is seen swallowing the baited hook ; u and on another, 
where the two Gorgon sisters fly after Perseus, two dogs 
are depicted chasing a hare. 12 In a monomachia of 
Achilles and Memnon, a lion is beheld attacking a boar. 
A vase with a butterfly is probably a forgery. 13 


The relation of subjects depicted on vases to the ancient 
Hellenic literature forms an interesting inquiry, since it is 
evident that the works of the rhapsodists suggested the 
ideas of them to the older vase-painters. It will be seen, 
from an inspection of the subjects, how few comparatively 

1 G. T., c. 

2 G. T., c. 

3 G. T., c. 

4 G. T., c. 

i B. A. B., 1591. 

8 P. ccxcix. 

9 V. L., ii. xlviii. 
C. D., 34, 36. 

5 M. G., i . Ixix. 3, 4 ; G. A. V., n M., i. vii. 

xlix. 12 A. Z., 1847, 17*, 18*. 

6 R. V., p. 65, 66. 13 T., iii. 60. 


are derived from Homer. Great as are the intellectual 
and moral examples which his poems exhibit, they were by 
no means well suited to the somewhat monotonous style of 
ancient art, which required plain and simple incidents. 
So deficient were the Homeric poems in arguments, even 
for the drama, that Aristotle has observed, that while the 
Iliad and Odyssey afforded materials for two dramas, the 
Cypria supplied the subjects of several, and the little Iliad 
of eight. 1 

Nor is it by any means improbable that the Homeric 
poems did not enjoy that universal reputation which they 
afterwards monopolised, and that they shared the public 
favour with other productions. For it is most remarkable 
and significant, that scarcely one of the vases which issued 
from the kilns prior to the Peloponnesian war, is decorated 
with a subject which can be satisfactorily identified with 
the incidents of the Iliad or Odyssey ; while the few vase- 
paintings, which are undoubtedly Homeric, are almost all 
of the third style, with red figures, and executed in the 
interval between the war of the Peloponnese and the land- 
ing of Pyrrhus in Italy. But the number of subjects 
derived from other poems, which formed part of the grand 
cycle of the war of Troy, is remarkable. Thus, almost all 
the leading events of the " ^ETHIOPIS " of Arctinus of 
Miletus, written about Olympiad L, the argument of which 
is repeated in the later poem of Quintus Calaber, or Smyr- 
naeus, are depicted on the vases ; such as the arrival of the 
Amazons at Troy, the death of Penthesilea, the appearance 
of Memnon and his bands, the death of Antilochus, the 

1 Aristotle, Poet., sect, xxxviii. 


often repeated subject of Memnon's death by the hand of 
Achilles, the death of that hero while pursuing the Trojans, 
and his apotheosis in Leuce, the contest of Ajax and Ulysses 
for his armour, the suicide of Ajax, the wooden horse, the 
incident of Laocoon, and the flight of ^Eneas. 1 About half 
a century later is the Iliou persis, or destruction of Troy, 
written by Lesches, or LeschsDus, of Mytilene, which 
appeared about Olympiad xxx. B.C. 657. 

The ILIAS of Homer contained only a fractional portion 
of the war of Troy, and the whole story of Ilium was not 
sung by any single bard or poet. The subjects, as already 
stated, have been classed as the ANTE-HOMERICA, consisting 
of those which precede the events of the Iliad, the argu- 
ment of which formed the Cypria ; 2 the Mikra Ilias, or 
" Little Iliad," written by Thestorides, 3 Diodorus, or Cinse- 
thon ; and the obsolete poem of the Patroclia ; the 
HOMERICA, or such incidents as intervened between the 
quarrel about Brisei's and the death of Hector ; and the 
POST-HOMERICA, or events up to the destruction of Troy, 
comprising the JEthiopis of Arctinus, part of the Cypria, 
and the Iliou persis, or " Destruction of Troy," of Lesches ; 
the NOSTOI, or Return of the Greeks to their country, which 
formed the subject of the poem of Agias, and the most 
remarkable part of which events is described in Homer's 
Odyssey. These, with the Oresteiad, and the Telegonia of 
Eugamon of Gyrene, complete the epic cycle of the Greeks. 

The arguments, as far as they are known, can only have 
partially supplied the vase-painters, since only the fate of 
Ajax, the quarrel of Agamemnon and Achilles, the last 

1 Miiller, Literature of Ancient Greece, - Miiller, Greek Liter., p. 66. 

p. 66. 3 Schol. Troades, 1. 821. 

VOL. I. D D 


night of Troy, and the death of Priam and Astyanax, are 
found depicted on vases. The death of Paris by the hand 
of Philoctetes, the deeds of Ulysses and Neoptalemus, and 
the conducting of ^Eneas by the same hero to Pharsalus, 
are not found, 1 although subsequent excavations may bring 
them to light. Nor can the celebrated Cyprian verses 
have failed to inspire many of those subjects which were 
capable of being painted ; and while the prayer of the 
Earth to Zeus, to lessen the number of men upon her 
bosom,- was clearly inadmissible, there is reason to believe 
that there may be traces of subjects representing the 
amours of Zeus and Nemesis, from whose union sprung 
Helen, subsequently confided to Leda ; of the attack by 
Achilles upon Telephus and JSneas ; 2 the death of Troi- 
lus ; 3 the sailing of Lycaon to Lemnos ; 4 and the quarrel 
of Achilles and Agamemnon, treated in a less subdued 
manner than in the Iliad. Yet certain subjects which formed 
a very essential part of this poem are wanting, such as the 
promise of Helen to Paris for his judgment in favour of 
Venus, and her elopement during the absence of Menelaus ; 
the death of the Dioscuri, slain by Aphareus and Lyncus ; 
and the sailing of the fleet from Aulis to Troy, after having 
been carried to Teuthrania. 

The incidents in the NOSTOI of Agias of Troezene the 
prevailing sentiment of which poem is the vengeance of 
Athene are repeated in the tragedies of the Attic 
school ; but though some of the vases of the latest style 
represent subjects derived from it as the quarrel of the 
Atreidse, the return and death of Agamemnon, the flight 

1 Miiller, 1. c., p. 66. 3 Iliad, xxiv. 257. 

2 Iliad, xx. 79. < Iliad, xxi. 405-8 


of Diomedes, the death of Neoptolemus, the Nekyomanteia, 
and some subjects resembling those of the Odyssey yet 
many of the most striking incidents of it such as the fate 
of Nestor, 1 Calchas, Leonteos, and Polypcetes, are either 
un distinguishable, or never engaged the attention of the 

Two of the subjects of the Nostoi, or "Return," derived 
from the Telegonia, or the adventures of Telegonus, the 
son of Ulysses and Circe, which formed the subject of the 
poem of Eugamon of Gyrene, 2 appear on vases of the later 
style. One is the well-known return of Ulysses to Ithaca, 
and his death, caused by the fall of the Pristis or Thorn- 
back, referring to the 'OSuo-o-evs ' AKavOoirXrig ; the other is 
his death at the hands of Telegonus, in the presence of 
Circe. But the burial of the suitors, and the voyage of 
Ulysses to Polyxenus, either do not occur, or cannot be 
distinguished among the mass of unknown subjects. Many 
subjects were taken from the Odyssey. 

Hesiod has supplied few subjects to the vase-painters, 
owing to the absence of plot and incident in his principal 
work ; for it is evident that a nation whose whole thoughts 
were directed at an early period to hieratic illustrations of 
art, could derive no inspiration from such a composition 
as the Erga kai Hemerai, or " Works and Days." There 
are, it is true, some vases which have agricultural subjects, 
as the remarkable one of the potter Tleson, with a scene of 
ploughing, and others which represent the gathering of 
fruit, and the vintage of wine or oil ; not to instance the 

1 Proclus, cited in Gottingen Biblio- tion, Gaisford, p. 278-472, sq. 
tek fur Literatur und Kunst. Muller, 2 Miiller, Hist. Gr. Lit., p. 97. 

" Literature," &c., p. 79. Hephaes- 


shops of the potter and the smith, the carpenter, and 
scenes of weaving and spinning. But these subjects are 
rare, and the more minutely they are investigated, the 
stronger appears the reason for assigning them to special 
mythological scenes. His other works appear to have 
suggested a few subjects, as the instruction of Achilles by 
Chiron, probably from the " Lessons of Chiron ; " the 
prominent position of Alcmene, perhaps from her 
" Praises ; " and others from the Eoece ; the amours of 
Apollo and Cyrene, from the " Catalogues of Women," 
which is found on a jug of late style in the British 
Museum. Many vases also refer to the " Epithalamium 
of Peleus and Thetis ; " and others, of Archaic style and 
treatment, represent the combat of Heracles and Cycnus, 
with the attendant circumstances, treated in a manner 
identical with the description in the " Shield of Heracles," 
and in which the demi-god appears in the same costume 
in which he is represented in works of art previous to the 
fortieth Olympiad. 1 From the " Little Iliad " of Cinaethon 
of Laceda?mon, is taken the incident of the making of the 
golden vine by Vulcan. 2 

The "Thebais," which appeared early in literature, and is 
cited in the twentieth Olympiad as Homeric, also supplied 
certain subjects, especially the departure of Amphiaraus, 
and his betrayal by Eriphyle. The destruction of the 
'heroes, with the exception of Adrastus, saved by Orion, 
is not, however, found. Some of the subjects of the 
second Theban war, or Epigoniad, are extant. 3 The very 
numerous poems of Stesichorus embraced so large a 

1 Miiller, 1. c., p. 97, 98. 3 Miiller, p. 91. 

- Schol. Venet. ad Troad., 822. 


portion of the writings of his predecessors, that it is 
difficult to discriminate what subjects were particularly 
derived from this source. Thus, he sang the Geryonis, 
or the capture of the oxen of Geryon by Hercules ; Scylla, 
already famous in the Odyssey ; Cycnus, whose contest is, 
known from the shield of Hercules ; Cerberus ; the 
Hiou persis, or Fall of Troy ; the Nostoi, or Returns ; the 
Europeia, or Rape of Europa, a subject found on some 
of the earlier vases ; the Oresteiad, the incidents of which, 
as depicted on vases, rather follow the descriptions of the 
tragic writer ; the Epi Peliai Athla, or prizes given at 
lolchos, at the funeral games of Pelias, from which one 
subject is taken by the older vase-painters, the palasstric 
contest between Peleus, the father of Achilles, and 
Atalanta, in which the huntress was victorious ; and 
Eriphyle and the Syotherce, or boar-hunters. 1 This poet, 
indeed, flourished in Olympiad XLIL, u. c. 611, long before 
most of the old vases were fabricated. Epigrams, didactic 
poems, and fables, in which animals are introduced 
speaking, were unsuited to the gravity of art. Threnai, 
or Laments, which were taken from tragical myths, may 
occasionally appear, such as the threne or lament for 
Danae, the composition of Simonides of Ceos ; but these 
cannot easily be separated from subjects taken from the 
satyric drama. Idylls and elegies may have supplied a 
few subjects, and the Rape of Europa, represented on some 
vases, may be considered as derived from Moschus ; but 
poems like those of Theocritus, describing rustic life and its 
feelings, have not supplied subjects to the vase-painters. 
To the tragic writers, the Oresteiad supplied many plots ; 

1 Miiller, p. 200. 


and upon vases of the later style the whole story is treated 
in a manner so varied, that the vase-painters must have 
evidently sometimes followed plays of JEschylus, at other 
times those of Sophocles and Euripides. Several other 
vases present subjects either derived from tragic argu- 
ments, or else from myths which formed their subjects, 
such as those of Prometheus, Perseus, Pelops, the adven- 
tures of Bellerophon, Perseus and the Baccha3, Tereus and 
Procne, Medea, Alcestis, Procris, Lycurgus, the Under- 
world, the woes of (Edipus and his family, and the Seven 
against Thebes ; and other representations derived from 
the heroic epos, such as the Oresteiad, which was par- 
ticularly adapted for vases destined for funeral purposes. 
The plots of comedy have afforded subjects for only a few 
vases. Scenes indeed occur, which may be possibly derived 
from the trilogies, and are parodies of known fables; while 
others are taken from the arguments of the known plays 
of Aristophanes, Diphilus, and others. 

Although many vases seem to have subjects derived 
from the writers of philosophical allegories, none of these 
can be identified with any well-known composition ; and 
the period of the Athenian stage is that of the last decline 
of the art. Light, of course, is reflected upon the entire 
series of vases by the whole circle of ancient literature. 
The especial subject of vases is not, indeed, treated by the 
Greeks in any separate dissertation, but extensive extracts, 
and an attempt at a systematic treatise, appears in the 
Deipnosophistce, or " Philosophers at dinner," of AtheDaeus 
of Naucratis, a writer of the Alexandrian school, who 
flourished in the third century. The " Account of Vases," 
of the celebrated Eratosthenes, and the meagre tenth book 


of the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux, written in the second 
century, in the reign of Commodus, and containing much 
valuable information about vases, had indeed preceded ; 
to which the Lexicon of Suidas, the Etymologicum 
Magnum, and the Scholiasts of Pindar, and those of the 
tragedians and Aristophanes, also contributed their share. 


We will now direct our attention to the emblems, 
attributes, and costume, which distinguish the different 
figures represented, and which are always those which 
were in use in the earliest ages of Greece. Zeus is 
generally represented amply draped and bearded, seated 
upon a magnificent throne, or standing, clad in an ample 
tunic, and holding a sceptre. Hera is adorned with the 
stephane, or diadem, resembling the mitre, or covered with 
the kalumma, or veil, and holding a sceptre. Athene, on 
the oldest vases, is quite indistinguishable from an ordinary 
female ; but on subsequent ones appears wearing a helmet 
and the aegis. The segis, however, often entirely dis- 
appears on the later vases of Apulia. She almost always 
holds a lance and Argolic buckler, and sometimes her owl. 
Poseidon, on the oldest vases, holds a trident, and some- 
times a dolphin, and is draped in a white woollen tunic, to 
indicate the foam of the sea. Hermes, on the earliest 
vases, wears a short tunic round the loins, and is winged. 
On subsequent ones, however, he wears the petasus, 
chlamys, and boots. On the latest vases he wears the 
hat, winged talaria, and chlamys. He almost always 
bears the caduceus, but sometimes this is also carried bv 


heralds. Amphitrite sometimes holds, besides a fish, a 
sceptre decorated with sea-weed. Nereus is distinguished 
by his white hair, and holds a dolphin and sceptre. 
Triton is represented as the " fishy Centaur," having a 
human bust, and terminating in a fish. Thetis, who is 
often represented as an ordinary female, on some vases is 
accompanied with snakes, lions, dogs, and sea-monsters, 
to show her metamorphosis. The other Nereids, on vases 
of the later style, are mounted on dolphins. Scylla termi- 
nates in sea-dogs. Pluto is depicted as a white-haired 
old man, holding a two-pronged sceptre, while Persephone 
is known from other female deities only by the scenes in 
which she appears. Sometimes she holds a flower. The 
Greek Charon is distinguished by his boat and oar, the 
Etruscan Charun by his hammer. The Shades are often 
winged. Ares appears as a hoplite. Apollo, on the 
oldest vases, is seen draped in a long tunic, and playing 
on the heptachord lyre, but on the later vases he has 
merely a piece of loose drapery floating over his shoulders. 
He wings his deadly shafts from the silver bow, or holds 
the laurel branch, and has at his side a swan or a bull, or 
the gryphon. 1 His sister Artemis is always draped, often 
wears upon her head a lofty tiara or mitre on the oldest 
vases. She is ever distinguished by her bow and arrows, 
and when on later vases she has her hair tied in the 
crobulus behind, and wears the short tunic and cothurni, 
she still retains her weapons. At her side is the goat, 
the- lion, and panther. Aphrodite is not easily distin- 
guished from the other goddesses. On the oldest vases 
she is draped, and sometimes holds a sceptre, or a flower, 

1 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., p. 45. 


or even an apple. On the later vases her drapery becomes 
transparent and shows her form, and she has her hair 
bound with the kekryphalos or simple tainia. At a still 
later period she appears half draped. At her side is seen 
the swan, the pigeon or dove, and the goose. She is often 
accompanied by Cupid, who is always winged, and whose 
emblems are the hare, the swan, the pigeon or dove, a 
bird supposed to be the iynx, and flowers ; and sometimes 
by Peitho, whose emblems are an alabastron and stylus. 

Dionysos is distinguished by the ivy wreath which binds 
his head ; he is draped in a long tunic, and has a garment 
thrown across his shoulders. On the early vases he has 
a long beard, but on the later Apulian ones he is seen in 
his youthful attributes, only half draped, and with rounder 
and more graceful limbs. In his hands he holds the vine, 
the cantharus, the rhyton, or the keras ; sometimes the 
thyrsus, or the torn limbs of a goat. At his side are the 
panther, the goat, the bull, and the mule ; amidst his wild 
followers his attitude is generally composed, but he is seen 
tearing the limbs of a kid or fawn, or holding a snake. Of 
his cohort, Ariadne or Libera is generally undistinguishable 
from an ordinary female ; the Sileni, or Satyrs are seen with 
their bald foreheads, pointed ears, and horses' tails, horses' 
feet on early, and human on later, vases ; and Pan is 
distinguished by his horns and goats' feet. Connected with 
Bacchus is Demeter, who is generally indicated by her 
holding spikes of corn, the ploughshare, the rod, as Thes- 
mophoria, or a sceptre, while Hecate, who appears in the 
same scenes, grasps torches. The inferior deities, such as 
Aurora, Nike, Eros, the Winds, the Gorgons, and Fear are 
winged. Heracles on the oldest vases is not distinguished 


from other mortals ; but upon those of later, although still 
ancient, style, he appears, as described by Pisander, wear- 
ing a tunic, over which is wrapped his lion's skin, and 
armed with bow and arrows and club ; while in some 
scenes he is armed like a hoplite or heavy-armed soldier. 
The type of warriors on the earliest vases resembles the 
descriptions of them in Homer and the early poems. They 
wear Corinthian helmets, often crested ; tlioraces, or breast- 
plates, under which is a tunic, and greaves. On their arms 
are either the Argolic or circular buckler, or else the 
peculiar Boeotian one not limited to Greek heroes. These 
bucklers are ornamented with armorial bearings, 1 or devices 
exhibiting great diversity, and alluding to the wearer, like 
those described by the tragedians. Thus, that of 
Achilles has a scorpion, Hector's a tripod or a snake, to 
indicate that he was protected by Apollo : offensive 
weapons are double lances, javelins, swords and falchions, 
bows and arrows, and slings. Clubs and stones are 
rarely used. 

Rather of the nature of a defence than an ornament is 
the vandyked leather object, the laiseion, suspended to 
the bottom of the shields of the Trojans and their allies, 
the Amazons, to ward off missiles from the legs. This is 
also ornamented with devices. Some shields have their 
omphalos, or boss, sculptured to represent a head of Pan, 
and others have serpents issuing from them in very salient 
relief. On the later vases a crested helmet with cheek- 
plates, called the " Carian helmet," often appears instead 
of that just described, and much of the defensive armour 
is omitted. 

1 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., p. 45. 


The Giants, the Amazons, and the threefold Geryon also 
appear as armed warriors, and although on the earlier vases 
the archers are clad in Phrygian costume, with pointed 
caps, tunics with long sleeves and trousers, anaxy rides, on 
the later ones only Asiatic personages, such as the Ama- 
zons, Pelops, Priam, the Phrygians, Medea, the great king, 
and other orientals are distinguished by a costume more 
distinctly oriental. 1 In the same manner the Amazons 
have the pelta, or lunated shield, and the Scythians, 
Egyptians, and others are clad in a costume intended to 
represent their national one. The civil costume varies 
according to the period and the action intended to be 
represented. At the earliest time, and in rapid actions, 
the personages are clad in short and close-fitting tunics, 
reaching only to the knees, but older personages, whether 
gods, or kings, or even their principal officers, and the 
paidotribce, or tutors and instructors in the Gymnasium, 
are draped in a long talaric tunic, called the chiton poderes 
or orthostadios, a garment which is also seen upon females. 
Over this is thrown a kind of shawl, which floats from 
shoulder to shoulder, and which in females droops to the 
earth ; as a female garment it must be the peplos ; when 
worn by men perhaps it is the ampeckonion. On later 
vases the drapery of females becomes more transparent 
but still retains the same form. On many vases however 
both of the old hieratic and more recent styles, the 
figures of men have only the ampechonion, especially in 
orgiastic scenes of the homos, and sometimes of the camps. 
In hunting scenes the heroes wear the chlamys. Great 

1 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., p. 56, 57. 


difference of costume is visible upon the later vases of 
Campania 1 and Apulia, and especially the richer ones of 
Ruvo or the Rubastini, in which the drapery is of a more 
embroidered and Asiatic character. It is no longer the 
plain or simply flowered vestments of the early style, but 
ornamented with many colours, rich chequers, diapers and 
mseandered borders ; and sometimes, like the tunic of 
Jason, as described in Apollonius Rhodius, ornamented with 
a series of embroidered figures round the hem. In athletic 
scenes the ephebi or athletes are naked, and so are the 
warriors in those of the camp. Children, and boys at all 
periods, have the age of youthful innocence distinguished 
by the absence of clothes. Females are always draped in 
tunics at the earlier periods of the art ; on the later vases 
they first appear undraped, except in some rare examples 
on the older vases of scenes in the bath, or in the sym- 
posium, where they exercise the juggler's craft. Their 
head-gear, 2 consisting, on the earlier vases, of a simple 
tainia or fillet, a wreath or mitra, is exchanged on the 
later ones for a tiara, the pointed cidaris, ' the radiated 
stephane, the spkendone, and opisthosphendone ; and on the 
later Apulian and Lucanian vases sandals, necklaces, 
elegant earrings, and the ophis or serpent-bracelet are first 
seen. A long chapter might be written upon the difference 
visible in the chairs, seats, couches, and other furniture ; 

on the objects held in persons' hands in the old hiera- 
tic style, consisting of a flower, or the edge of their tunic, 
a wreath or branch, which is exchanged on the later vases 
for the tainia or fillet the pyxis or toilet box the spindle 

the mirror and the calathus, or work-basket. 

1 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., p. 61. Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., p. 44. 



In the earliest vase-paintings deities are not only indis- 
tinguishable from one another, but even from kings and 
other mortal personages ; nor can the use of white to 
indicate the finer colour of females be considered otherwise 
than as a generic distinction. This defect was probably 
inevitable, owing to the rapid mode of drawing, and because 
clothing and attitude were the only means employed to 
denote exalted personages, whether mortal or immortal. 
Thus all the divinities, both male and female, are clad, 
and, except Hermes, with the long talaric tunic, the chiton 
poderes, often richly embroidered with flowers, stars, or 
chequered work. Over this is often thrown another shawl, 
the same in both male and female deities, which is probably 
the peplon. This tunic did not, on the earlier vases, 
admit of the form being seen through it. Some of the 
deities, such as Hermes, as already observed, wear the 
usual short tunic and the chlamys. The appearance of 
naked females is limited to the scenes of the bath, and of 
some rare representations of jugglers or thaumatopcei and 

The expression of the figures varies considerably 
according to the age of the vases, but never exhibits the 
diversity which the sculpture of the corresponding period 
shows. All the faces of the same vase are alike, and no 
physiognomical distinction can be drawn between gods 
and heroes, or even between male and female figures. 1 On 
the earlier vases the noses are long, with a tendency to 

1 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., p. 43. 


turn up, the chins pointed, the jaws round and deep, the 
eyes large, the limbs angular and sinewy, the buttocks 
curved and rigid. Long prolix beards appear at all times 
on some figures, to mark the virile or senile age. At the 
earliest period the distinctions between youth and old age 
are not well observed, but on the vases with red figures 
they begin to be marked ; but no moral distinctions are 
attempted, the expression of a Jove, a Vulcan, a Bacchus, 
a Mercury, or even an Apollo being identical. A part 
of the treatment regards the small adjuncts seen in the 
field of the vases, which generally have reference to the 
scenes represented. In the oldest style the field is 
generally seme with flowers, 1 but in those of a more 
advanced style these are never introduced. Thus a forest 
is represented by a tree, a palace or temple by columns 
and a pediment. As the style advanced still more, in 
vases with the red figures accessories gradually appear, 
and they are most frequent in vases found in Apulia and 
Lucania. Still the grounds are left comparatively clear, 
as the object of the artist was to isolate his figure. In 
scenes of the palaestra, the gymnasium, and of the bath, 
strigils and lecythi, 2 and the halter es 3 or leaping dumb-bells 
are seen hung up, or Hermse are introduced. 4 The camp 
is indicated by the armour, such as shields, helmets and 
greaves ; 5 or by a sword suspended by its belt. 6 In sym- 
posia vases, baskets, and boots 7 are seen about ; in musical 
scenes the flute-bag 8 or the lyres 9 appear. Interior apart- 

1 Gerhard, Rapp. Vole., p. 55-57. s D. M., ii. xxx. xxxvii. Ixxiv. 

2 V. D. C., xxxiii. ; D. M., ii. xxviii. " B. M., 848. 

ill xiv. 1L ; V. G., ii. Ixxxiv. 2 b. "V. G., ii. Ixxvii. 2 a, IxxxL 1 a. 

3 V. G., xlviii. ; M. A. U. M., xxxvi. * D. M., ii. Ixiil ; M.G., ii. Ixxxi. 1 b. 

4 V. G., xlviii. 9 y. G., ii. Ixxxi. 


ments are indicated by a window, 1 a door, 2 or a column ; 
and sashes, 3 calathi, 4 spindles, 5 balls, 6 letters, 7 mirrors, 8 and 
wreaths, 9 vases, 10 or crowns, 11 are in the back-ground. In 
a scene of the amours of Dionysus and Ariadne a bird-cage 
is introduced. 12 A flying bird indicates the open air ; 13 a 
dolphin denotes the surface of the sea, 14 -a sepia or a shell 
its depths. 15 As the arts declined the accessories became 
such prominent parts of the picture that they are scarcely 
any longer subordinate. Whole temples, 16 lavers, loutra, 
and furnished apartments are introduced, as in modern 
art, in which the mind and eye have to exert a microscopic 
power in order to interpret successively the different parts 
and the meaning of the subject, which in the older art 
was told simply and unequivocally by the symbols. 

1 V. G., xxx., xlv. ; T., v. (i.) 71. 9 T., iii. 53. v. (i.) 12. 

2 V. G., xliil, D. M., iL xix. "> P. I., H., iv. 38. 
* V. D. C., xx. ; D. M., ii. Ixxi. Ixxiv. V. D. C., xxvil 

4 T., i., 11. 12 T., v. (i.) 3. 

5 T., iv., 1. is D. M., iii. xxxviii. 

6 D. M., ii. Ixiii. M D. M., ii. Ixxx. ; V. D. C. V. 

7 T., iii. 34-53., iv. 59. 1S D. M., ii. xxix. ; T., iii. 2. 

8 D. M., iii. xli. : M. A. U. M., xxxvii. 1G D. M., ii. xlix. 



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